Activation of COX-2/PGE2 Promotes Sapovirus Replication via the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production.
ABSTRACT: Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to infection and the replicative cycles of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COX/PGE2 pathway regulates sapovirus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, infection with porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 h postinfection (hpi), with only a transient increase in COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi. The treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-1 and COX-2, significantly reduced PGE2 production, as well as PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We observed that pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 dramatically increased NO production, causing a reduction in PSaV replication that could be restored by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase via the inhibitor N-nitro-l-methyl-arginine ester. This study identified a pivotal role for the COX/PGE2 pathway in the regulation of NO production during the sapovirus life cycle, providing new insights into the life cycle of this poorly characterized family of viruses. Our findings also reveal potential new targets for treatment of sapovirus infection. IMPORTANCE:Sapoviruses are among the major etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals, but little is known about sapovirus host factor requirements. Here, using only cultivable porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, we demonstrate that PSaV induced the vitalization of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Targeting of COX-1/2 using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the COX-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin and the COX-2-specific inhibitors NS-398 and celecoxib or siRNAs targeting COXs, inhibited PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We further demonstrate that the production of PGE2 provides a protective effect against the antiviral effector mechanism of nitric oxide. Our findings uncover a new mechanism by which PSaV manipulates the host cell to provide an environment suitable for efficient viral growth, which in turn can be a new target for treatment of sapovirus infection.
Project description:Cyclooxygenases (COXs)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling pathways are known to modulate a variety of homeostatic processes and are involved in various pathophysiological conditions. COXs/PGE2 signaling pathways have also been demonstrated to have proviral or antiviral effects, which appeared different even in the same virus family. A porcine sapovirus Cowden strain, a member of genus Sapovirus within the Caliciviridae family, induces strong COX-2/PGE2 but transient COX-1/PGE2 signaling to enhance virus replication. However, whether infections of other viruses in the different genera activate COXs/PGE2 signaling, and thus affect the replication of viruses, remains unknown. In the present study, infections of cells with the feline calicivirus (FCV) F9 strain in the genus Vesivirus and murine norovirus (MNV) CW-1 strain in the genus Norovirus only activated the COX-2/PGE2 signaling in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors or transfection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-2 enzyme significantly reduced the production of PGE2 as well as FCV and MNV replications. The inhibitory effects of these pharmacological inhibitors against COX-2 enzyme on the replication of both viruses were restored by the addition of PGE2. Silencing of COX-1 via siRNAs and inhibition of COX-1 via an inhibitor also decrease the production of PGE2 and replication of both viruses, which can be attributed to the inhibition COX-1/PGE2 signaling pathway. These data indicate that the COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway has proviral effects for the replication of FCV and MNV, and pharmacological inhibitors against these enzymes serve as potential therapeutic candidates for treating FCV and MNV infections.
Project description:Sapovirus, a member of the Caliciviridae family, is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. Currently, the porcine sapovirus (PSaV) Cowden strain remains the only cultivable member of the Sapovirus genus. While some caliciviruses are known to utilize carbohydrate receptors for entry and infection, a functional receptor for sapovirus is unknown. To characterize the functional receptor of the Cowden strain of PSaV, we undertook a comprehensive series of protein-ligand biochemical assays in mock and PSaV-infected cell culture and/or piglet intestinal tissue sections. PSaV revealed neither hemagglutination activity with red blood cells from any species nor binding activity to synthetic histo-blood group antigens, indicating that PSaV does not use histo-blood group antigens as receptors. Attachment and infection of PSaV were markedly blocked by sialic acid and Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NA), suggesting a role for ?2,3-linked, ?2,6-linked or ?2,8-linked sialic acid in virus attachment. However, viral attachment and infection were only partially inhibited by treatment of cells with sialidase S (SS) or Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL), both specific for ?2,3-linked sialic acid, or Sambucus nigra lectin (SNL), specific for ?2,6-linked sialic acid. These results indicated that PSaV recognizes both ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acids for viral attachment and infection. Treatment of cells with proteases or with benzyl 4-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (benzylGalNAc), which inhibits O-linked glycosylation, also reduced virus binding and infection, whereas inhibition of glycolipd synthesis or N-linked glycosylation had no such effect on virus binding or infection. These data suggest PSaV binds to cellular receptors that consist of ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acids on glycoproteins attached via O-linked glycosylation.
Project description:Caliciviruses in the genus Sapovirus are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. However, the mechanism of their entry into cells is not well characterized. Here, we determined the entry mechanism of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden into permissive LLC-PK cells. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using chlorpromazine, siRNAs, and a dominant negative (DN) mutant blocked entry and infection of PSaV Cowden strain, confirming a role for clathrin-mediated internalization. Entry and infection were also inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-?-cyclodextrin and was restored by the addition of soluble cholesterol, indicating that cholesterol also contributes to entry and infection of this strain. Furthermore, the inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity by dynasore, siRNA depletion of dynamin II, or overexpression of a DN mutant of dynamin II reduced the entry and infection, suggesting that dynamin mediates the fission and detachment of clathrin- and cholesterol-pits for entry of this strain. In contrast, the inhibition of caveolae-mediated endocytosis using nystatin, siRNAs, or a DN mutant had no inhibitory effect on entry and infection of this strain. It was further determined that cell entry of PSaV Cowden strain required actin rearrangements for vesicle internalization, endosomal trafficking from early to late endosomes through microtubules, and late endosomal acidification for uncoating. We conclude that PSaV strain Cowden is internalized into LLC-PK cells by clathrin- and cholesterol-mediated endocytosis that requires dynamin II and actin rearrangement, and that the uncoating occurs in the acidified late endosomes after trafficking from the early endosomes through microtubules.
Project description:Sapovirus, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals, travels from the early to the late endosomes and requires late endosomal acidification for viral uncoating. However, the signaling pathways responsible for these viral entry processes remain unknown. Here we demonstrate the receptor-mediated early activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling pathways involved in sapovirus entry processes. Both signaling pathways were activated during the early stage of porcine sapovirus (PSaV) infection. However, depletion of the cell surface carbohydrate receptors by pretreatment with sodium periodate or neuraminidase reduced the PSaV-induced early activation of these signaling pathways, indicating that PSaV binding to the cell surface carbohydrate receptors triggered these cascades. Addition of bile acid, known to be essential for PSaV escape from late endosomes, was also found to exert a stiffening effect to stimulate both pathways. Inhibition of these signaling pathways by use of inhibitors specific for PI3K or MEK or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against PI3K or MEK resulted in entrapment of PSaV particles in early endosomes and prevented their trafficking to late endosomes. Moreover, phosphorylated PI3K and ERK coimmunoprecipitated subunit E of the V-ATPase proton pump that is important for endosomal acidification. Based on our data, we conclude that receptor binding of PSaV activates both PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, which in turn promote PSaV trafficking from early to late endosomes and acidification of late endosomes for PSaV uncoating. These signaling cascades may provide a target for potent therapeutics against infections by PSaV and other caliciviruses.IMPORTANCE Sapoviruses cause acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. However, the host signaling pathway(s) that facilitates host cell entry by sapoviruses remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that porcine sapovirus (PSaV) activates both PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK cascades at an early stage of infection. Removal of cell surface receptors decreased PSaV-induced early activation of both cascades. Moreover, blocking of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK cascades entrapped PSaV particles in early endosomes and prevented their trafficking to the late endosomes. PSaV-induced early activation of PI3K and ERK molecules further mediated V-ATPase-dependent late endosomal acidification for PSaV uncoating. This work unravels a new mechanism by which receptor-mediated early activation of both cascades may facilitate PSaV trafficking from early to late endosomes and late endosomal acidification for PSaV uncoating, which in turn can be a new target for treatment of sapovirus infection.
Project description:Cyclooxygenases (COXs), including COX-1 and -2, are enzymes essential for lipid mediator (LMs) syntheses from arachidonic acid (AA), such as prostaglandins (PGs). Furthermore, COXs could interplay with other enzymes such as lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) to regulate the signaling of LMs. In this study, to comprehensively analyze the function of COX-1 and -2 in regulating the signaling of bioactive LMs in skeletal muscle, mouse primary myoblasts and C2C12 cells were transfected with specific COX-1 and -2 siRNAs, followed by targeted lipidomic analysis and customized quantitative PCR gene array analysis. Knocking down COXs, particularly COX-1, significantly reduced the release of PGs from muscle cells, especially PGE2 and PGF2α, as well as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA). Moreover, COXs could interplay with LOXs to regulate the signaling of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). The changes in LMs are associated with the expression of genes, such as Itrp1 (calcium signaling) and Myh7 (myogenic differentiation), in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, both COX-1 and -2 contribute to LMs production during myogenesis in vitro, and COXs could interact with LOXs during this process. These interactions and the fine-tuning of the levels of these LMs are most likely important for skeletal muscle myogenesis, and potentially, muscle repair and regeneration.
Project description:The porcine sapovirus (SaV) (PoSaV) Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. Compared to the wild-type (WT) PoSaV Cowden strain, tissue culture-adapted (TC) PoSaV has two conserved amino acid substitutions in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and six in the capsid protein (VP1). By using the reverse-genetics system, we identified that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328), but not the substitutions in the RdRp region, were critical for the cell culture adaptation of the PoSaV Cowden strain. The other two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of VP1 showed that residue 178 was located near the dimer-dimer interface, which may affect VP1 assembly and oligomerization; residues 289, 291, 324, and 328 were located at protruding subdomain 2 (P2) of VP1, which may influence virus binding to cellular receptors; and residue 295 was located at the interface of two monomeric VP1 proteins, which may influence VP1 dimerization. Although reversion of the mutation at residue 291 or 295 from that of the TC strain to that of the WT reduced virus replication in vitro, it enhanced virus replication in vivo, and the revertants induced higher-level serum and mucosal antibody responses than those induced by the TC PoSaV Cowden strain. Our findings reveal the molecular basis for PoSaV adaptation to cell culture. These findings may provide new, critical information for the cell culture adaptation of other PoSaV strains and human SaVs or noroviruses.The tissue culture-adapted porcine sapovirus Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. We discovered that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328) were critical for its adaptation to LLC-PK cells. Two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro but enhanced virus replication and induced higher-level serum and mucosal antibody responses in gnotobiotic pigs than those induced by the tissue culture-adapted strain. Structural modeling analysis of VP1 suggested that residue 178 may affect VP1 assembly and oligomerization; residues 289, 291, 324, and 328 may influence virus binding to cellular receptors; and residue 295 may influence VP1 dimerization. Our findings will provide new information for the cell culture adaptation of other sapoviruses and possibly noroviruses.
Project description:Murine norovirus (MNV) viral protein genome-linked (VPg) manipulates the cell cycle to induce a G0/G1 arrest and gain a beneficial replication environment. All viruses of the norovirus genus encode a VPg protein; however, it is unknown if the G0/G1 arrest induced by MNV VPg is conserved in other members of the genus. RNA transcripts encoding a representative viral VPg from five norovirus genogroups were transfected into RAW-Blue murine macrophages, and the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle was determined. A G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was observed for all norovirus VPg proteins tested, and in the wider Caliciviridae family the arrest was also conserved in rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VPg and human sapovirus (HuSV) VPg. Truncation of MNV VPg shows that the first 62 amino acids are sufficient for a cell cycle arrest, and alignment of VPg sequences revealed a conserved motif in the N-terminal region of VPg. Analysis of VPg constructs with single N-terminal region point mutations, or exchange of N-terminal regions between VPg proteins, confirmed the importance of the N-terminal region for cell cycle arrest. These results provide evidence that G0/G1 cell cycle arrest is a conserved function of norovirus VPg proteins that involves the N-terminal region of these proteins.
Project description:Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is associated with diarrhea in pigs, and to date it is the only cultivable enteric calicivirus (tissue culture-adapted [TC] PEC/Cowden). Based on sequence analysis of cDNA clones and reverse transcription-PCR products, TC PEC/Cowden has an RNA genome of 7,320 bp, excluding its 3' poly(A)(+) tail. The genome is organized in two open reading frames (ORFs), similar to the organizations of the human Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs) and the lagoviruses. ORF1 encodes the polyprotein that is fused to and contiguous with the capsid protein. ORF2 at the 3' end encodes a small basic protein of 164 amino acids. Among caliciviruses, PEC has the highest amino acid sequence identities in the putative RNA polymerase (66%), 2C helicase (49.6%), 3C-like protease (43.7%), and capsid (39%) regions with the SLVs, indicating that PEC is genetically most closely related to the SLVs. The complete RNA genome of wild-type (WT) PEC/Cowden was also sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed that the WT and TC PEC/Cowden have 100% nucleotide sequence identities in the 5' terminus, 2C helicase, ORF2, and the 3' nontranslated region. TC PEC/Cowden has one silent mutation in its protease, two amino acid changes and a silent mutation in its RNA polymerase, and five nucleotide substitutions in its capsid that result in one distant and three clustered amino acid changes and a silent mutation. These substitutions may be associated with adaptation of TC PEC/Cowden to cell culture. The cultivable PEC should be a useful model for studies of the pathogenesis, replication, and possible rescue of uncultivable human enteric caliciviruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Annexin-A1 (ANXA1), a glucocorticoid-regulated protein, mediates several of the anti-inflammatory actions of the glucocorticoids. Previous studies demonstrated that ANXA1 is involved in pain modulation. The current study, using ANXA1 knockout mice (ANXA1-/-), is aimed at addressing the site and mechanism of the modulatory action of ANXA1 as well as possible involvement of ANXA1 in mediating the analgesic action of glucocorticoids. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The acetic acid-induced writhing response was performed in ANXA1-/- and wild-type (ANXA1+/+) mice with spinal and brain levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) examined in both genotypes. The effect of the ANXA1 peptomimetic Ac2-26 as well as methylprednisolone on the writhing response and on spinal cord PGE2 of ANXA1+/+ and ANXA1-/- was compared. The expression of proteins involved in PGE2 synthesis, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenases (COXs), in the spinal cord of ANXA1+/+ and ANXA1-/- was also compared. KEY RESULTS: ANXA1-/- mice exhibited a significantly greater writhing response and increased spinal cord levels of PGE2 compared with ANXA1+/+ mice. Ac2-26 produced analgesia and reduced spinal PGE2 levels in ANXA1+/+ and ANXA1-/- mice, whereas methylprednisolone reduced the writhing response and spinal PGE2 levels in ANXA1+/+, but not in ANXA1-/- mice. The expression of cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3 in spinal cord tissues was upregulated in ANXA1-/-compared with ANXA1+/+. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that ANXA1 protein modulates nociceptive processing at the spinal level, by reducing synthesis of PGE2 by modulating cPLA2 and/or COX activity. The analgesic activity of methylprednisolone is mediated by spinal ANXA1.
Project description:A porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), strain Cowden in the family Caliciviridae (genus Sapovirus), can be propagated in a continuous cell line, LLC-PK cells, but only in the presence of an intestinal content fluid filtrate from gnotobiotic pigs. This cell culture system is presently the only in vitro model among caliciviruses that cause gastrointestinal disease, including members of the genera Sapovirus and Norovirus. We report here the identification of bile acids as active factors in intestinal content fluid essential for PEC growth. Bile acids that allowed PEC growth induced an increase in cAMP concentration in LLC-PK cells that was associated with down-regulation of IFN-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation, a key element in innate immunity. In addition, cAMP/protein kinase A pathway inhibitors, suramin, MDL12330A, or H89 suppressed bile acid-mediated PEC replication. We propose a mechanism for enteric calicivirus growth dependent on bile acids, ubiquitous molecules present in the intestine at the site of the virus replication that involves the protein kinase A cell-signaling pathway and a possible down-regulation of innate immunity.