Complete response to azacitidine priming and nab-paclitaxel in non-Hodgkin lymphoma resistant to biochemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: The standard of care for first-line therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen. For patients who fail to respond, have an incomplete response or relapse, numerous effective options exists besides salvage cisplatin-based regimen and autologous stem cell therapy. Even with this approach, the outcome remains very poor for this group of patients. The present case illustrates a 55-year-old woman diagnosed with DLBCL, who experienced an early incomplete response, later progression during treatment with the R-CHOP regimen. The patient received salvage therapy with rituximab, cisplatin and gemcitabine, again with an incomplete response. The patient declined consideration for stem cell therapy. Her disease progressed and she enrolled in the present phase I trial using azacitadine priming and nanoalbumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel. After three cycles, follow-up positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed a complete response for the first time since her initial diagnosis and the patient has remained disease-free for >6 years. Azacitadine and nab-paclitaxel combination appeared to be an effective regimen for the treatment of this patient with refractory DLBCL.
Project description:De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a distinct subgroup of DLBCL with poor prognosis. However the role of rituximab-containing therapy and salvage stem cell transplantation in this patients' population remain to be defined. We retrospectively reviewed clinical features and outcomes of 102 patients with de novo CD5+ DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy at nine different institutions. By Hans' criteria, 64 patients had activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, 24 germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, and 14 were not evaluated. No patients had a myc translocation. Eighty-three patients were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), 7 with rituximab, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-EPOCH), and 6 with R-CHOP with methotrexate, 3 g/m(2) . The overall response rate to front-line therapy was 85%. The 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 40 and 65%, respectively. The 3-year PFS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 34 and 45%, respectively. The 3-year OS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 62 and 67%, respectively. The median time to second treatment failure was 3 months and 1 month for ABC- and GCB-subtypes, respectively. Twenty of 28 (71%) transplanted patients with autologous, allogeneic, or both, relapsed. This study confirms the poor prognosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL in a large multi-center cohort despite initial rituximab-containing chemotherapy and suggests that stem cell transplantation fails to salvage the majority of these patients. Approaches to prevent recurrence and/or novel therapies for relapsed disease are needed for this subgroup of DLBCL patients.
Project description:Although the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is considered standard therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), patterns of use and the impact of R-CHOP on survival in patients aged >80 years are less clear.The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was used to characterize presentation, treatment, and survival patterns in patients with DLBCL who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2009. Chi-square tests compared characteristics and initial treatments among patients with DLBCL who were aged >80 years and ?80 years. Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with treatment selection in patients aged >80 years; standard and propensity score-adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examined relationships between treatment regimen, treatment duration, and survival.Among 4635 patients with DLBCL, 1156 (25%) were aged >80 years. Patients aged >80 years were less likely to receive R-CHOP and more likely to be observed or receive the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (P<.0001 for both). Marital status, stage of disease, disease site, performance status, radiotherapy, and growth factor support were associated with initial R-CHOP in patients aged >80 years. In propensity score-matched multivariable Cox proportional hazards models examining relationships between treatment regimen and survival, R-CHOP was the only regimen found to be associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.62) and lymphoma-related survival (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.88).Although patients with DLBCL who were aged >80 years were less likely to receive R-CHOP, this regimen conferred the longest survival and should be considered for this population. Further studies are needed to characterize the impact of treatment of DLBCL on quality of life among patients in this age group.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The current standard treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) primarily consists of intensified salvage therapy and, if the disease is chemo-sensitive, high dose therapy followed with autologous stem cell transplantation. In the rituximab era however, this treatment approach has shown only limited benefit. In particular, patients relapsing after rituximab-containing primary treatment have an adverse prognosis, especially if this occurs within the first year after therapy or if the disease is primarily refractory. Therefore there is an ultimate need for improved salvage treatment approaches.The STORM study is a prospective, multicentre phase I/II study to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to the standard therapy rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. The primary objective of the phase I of the trial is to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temsirolimus in combination with rituximab and DHAP. The secondary objective is to demonstrate that stem cells can be mobilized during this regimen in patients scheduled to proceed to high dose therapy. In phase II, the previously established maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus will be used. The primary objective is to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with relapsed DLBCL. The secondary objective is to evaluate progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The study will be accompanied by an analysis of lymphoma subtypes determined by gene expression analysis (GEP).The STORM trial evaluates the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to standard therapy of rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. It also might identify predictive markers for this treatment modality.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01653067.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:There is no standard salvage chemotherapy for metastatic periampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma and the prognosis of those who fail oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU is dismal. We examined nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as salvage therapy for these two malignancies. METHODS:Patients who failed oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU and whose archival tumors stained immunohistochemical (IHC) tumor positive for CK7 or MUC1 received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine therapy with or without cisplatin. RESULTS:Three patients, 2 with metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma and 1 with duodenal adenocarcinoma with positive IHC staining for CK7 or MUC1 who failed 2 lines of chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine with or without cisplatin. All achieved excellent tumor response on CT scans with marked falls in tumor markers CA19-9 and CEA as well as ≥1 year of progression-free survival. All 3 have continued to survive 2-3 years since diagnosed with stage 4 metastatic adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine with or without cisplatin should be investigated as a standard-of-care chemotherapy regimen for patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The influence of Fc gamma receptor IIIA (FCGR3A) 158V/F polymorphisms on the response to rituximab (R) plus CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone; R-CHOP) therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain. Thus, a retrospective study and a meta-analysis were performed to examine the possible correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and the response rate of R-CHOP regimen in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. The genotypes of FCGR3A 158V/F in 164 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP were determined in this retrospective study. Additionally, a meta-analysis of current and previously published studies was conducted. Overall response rate (complete and partial response, ORR) and complete response rate (CR) were evaluated. The results of our retrospective study showed lack of correlation between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and ORR (p=0.78) or CR (p=0.76) with R-CHOP therapy. A meta-analysis of 731 cases also showed lack of significant association of ORR and CR in all genetic models with FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. In survival analysis, the homozygous F genotype correlated with a shorter progression-free survival than that of non-F/F genotype (p=0.05), this was significant for the non-GC subset of DLBCL (p=0.04), but no association was found between overall survival and FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism. Further analysis with nonsuperiority test (p<0.0001) suggested that FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism was not associated with better ORR or CR in newly diagnosed DLBCL patient treated with R-CHOP. No clear relationship was found between FCGR3A 158V/F polymorphism and response to frontline R-CHOP therapy in patients with DLBCL.
Project description:Although the clinical outcome of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been improved by the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy, almost one-third fails or relapses after first line treatment. The presence of monoclonal gammopathy (MG) is a known adverse prognostic factor for DLBCL. Because this subset of patients does not benefit from R-CHOP, new therapeutic options are required. Herein, we report the first case of extranodal DBCL of the lung with a concomitant MG who achieved a long lasting complete remission with lenalidomide.The 73-year-old male patient presented with lateral cervical lymphadenopathy, B symptoms, lactate dehydrogenase and beta2-microglobulin elevation. Computed tomography (CT) showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy and bilateral lung involvement. Biopsy of both disease locations revealed the presence of DLBCL. Successive bone marrow trephine biopsy proved the presence of concordant DLBCL involvement. At the time of diagnosis, a MG was present as well. The patient did not respond to the standard treatments, and subsequently underwent lenalidomide 25 mg/m(2) days 1-21 q28 plus dexamethasone 40 mg days 1-4, 9-12 e 17-20. This therapeutic regimen was efficacious and safe as salvage therapy in extranodal DBCL with a MG. Furthermore, we observed a close association between DLBCL response to therapy and MG levels, suggesting that the amount of M-protein might be a surrogate marker of disease response.Although DLBCL associated with MG does not respond properly to the standard treatments, it is highly sensitive to lenalidomide, which is why we endorse its role as treatment of choice in this subset of patients. In addition, MG levels appear to correlate with tumor burden, suggesting that it might be a useful marker of disease response. Prospective trials to validate these observations are warranted.
Project description:Limited data are available regarding treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), treatment costs and clinical outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Japan. This retrospective database study analyzed the Medical Data Vision database for DLBCL patients who received treatment during the identification period from October 1 2008 to December 31 2017. Among 6,965 eligible DLBCL patients, 5,541 patients (79.6%) received first-line (1L) rituximab (R)-based therapy, and then were gradually switched to chemotherapy without R in subsequent lines of therapy. In each treatment regimen, 1L treatment cost was the highest among all lines of therapy. The major cost drivers i.e. total direct medical costs until death or censoring across all regimens and lines of therapy were from the 1L regimen and inpatient costs. During the follow-up period, DLBCL patients who received a 1L R-CHOP regimen achieved the highest survival rate and longest time-to-next-treatment, with a relatively low mean treatment cost due to lower inpatient healthcare resource utilization and fewer lines of therapy compared to other 1L regimens. Our retrospective analysis of clinical practices in Japanese DLBCL patients demonstrated that 1L treatment and inpatient costs were major cost contributors and that the use of 1L R-CHOP was associated with better clinical outcomes at a relatively low mean treatment cost.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease with variable clinical outcome, accounting for at least 25-30 % of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Approximately one third of DLBCL patients are not cured by the currently used treatment regimen, R-CHOP. Hence, new treatment strategies are needed. Antagonizing the CXCR4 receptor might be promising since the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis is implicated in several aspects of tumor pathogenesis as well as in protection from chemotherapeutic response. In Burkitt lymphoma, the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor has already been shown to enhance the therapeutic effect of rituximab, the immunotherapeutic agent of R-CHOP; but this is yet to be confirmed for DLBCL. We, therefore, investigated the effect of plerixafor on DLBCL cellular response to rituximab.In this in vitro study, human DLBCL cell lines were treated with rituximab and/or plerixafor, concomitantly or in sequence. The trypan blue exclusion method and MTS-based assays were used to evaluate cellular proliferation, whereas flow cytometry was used for assessment of apoptosis status and CXCR4 surface expression level. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess statistical significance.We observed that simultaneous addition of plerixafor and rituximab resulted in a significant decrease in DLBCL cellular proliferation, compared to monotherapeutic response. The effect was dose-dependent, and concomitant administration was observed to be superior to sequential drug administration. Accordingly, the fraction of apoptotic/dead cells significantly increased following addition of plerixafor to rituximab treatment. Furthermore, exposure of DLBCL cells to plerixafor resulted in a significant decrease in CXCR4 fluorescence intensity.Based on our results, implying that the anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effect of rituximab on DLBCL cells can be synergistically enhanced by the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor, addition of plerixafor to the R-CHOP regimen can be suggested to improve treatment outcome for DLBCL patients.
Project description:TP53 Arg72Pro (SNP rs1042522) is associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of NHL. However, the relationship between this SNP and prognosis of DLBCL in Asians is unknown.Genotyping of TP53 Arg72Pro was done in 425 Chinese DLBCL patients. Two hundred and eighty-nine patients were treated with R-CHOP, and 136 patients received CHOP or CHOP-like as frontline regimen. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were assessable for the efficacy.Patients with Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro at codon 72 of TP53 had a higher complete response rate (61% vs. 44%, P?=?0.007) than those with Pro/Pro. In the subgroup treated with CHOP or CHOP-like therapy, patients with Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro showed a higher 5-year overall survival (OS) rate than those with Pro/Pro (68.8% vs. 23.2%, P?=?0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed TP53 Arg72 as a favorable prognostic factor in this group. However, the combination of rituximab with CHOP significantly increased the 5-year OS rate of patients with Pro/Pro to 63%.This study revealed TP53 Arg72 as a favorable prognostic factor for Chinese DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or CHOP-like as frontline therapy.