Nontraumatic tibial polyethylene insert cone fracture in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT: A 72-year-old male patient underwent mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. He experienced a nontraumatic polyethylene tibial insert cone fracture 27 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface of the tibial insert cone suggested progress of ductile breaking from the posterior toward the anterior of the cone due to repeated longitudinal bending stress, leading to fatigue breaking at the anterior side of the cone, followed by the tibial insert cone fracture at the anterior side of the cone, resulting in fracture at the base of the cone. This analysis shows the risk of tibial insert cone fracture due to longitudinal stress in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty in which an insert is designed to highly conform to the femoral component.
Project description:Failures unique to posterior cruciate-substituting total knee prostheses rarely include polyethylene post fractures but have been described. We report a case involving a fracture of the distal insert cone of a rotating-platform (RP) polyethylene liner in a primary total knee arthroplasty. This case highlights a 67-year-old male presenting with new-onset knee pain and recurrent effusions with osteolysis 11 years following placement of a posterior-stabilized, RP total knee arthroplasty. At the time of revision surgery, the polyethylene insert cone was found to be fractured just below the junction between cone and the body of the insert. Liner exchange, synovectomy, and osteolytic-defect curettage and cement packing were performed. One year following revision surgery, the patient is without pain and has returned to function without limitations. Clinicians must be aware of this possible failure with RP prostheses in the setting of pain with a stable knee, recurrent aseptic effusions, and osteolysis.
Project description:Uncontained tibial bone defects are a challenge in revision total knee arthroplasty. The present study reports on the results of a modified surgical technique for impaction bone grafting using metaphyseal cones and wire mesh. Three patients (2 male, 1 female; average age: 71.3 years) underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. All patients presented with uncontained medial tibial bone defects, one of the patients with an additional posterior cortical tibial split fracture. All cases were treated with a metaphyseal cone and outside mesh to create a contained defect. Between the mesh and cone, fresh frozen cancellous chips mixed with ?-tricalcium phosphate were impacted. No evidence of loosening or osteolysis was present at 3.6-year follow-up. Impaction bone grafting using an outside mesh and inside cone for defect containment provides a durable reconstruction of tibial bone defects.
Project description:One of the most common errors of total knee arthroplasty procedure is a malrotation of tibial component. The stress on tibial insert is closely related to polyethylene failure. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of malrotation of tibial component for the stress on tibial insert during high flexion using a finite element analysis. We used Stryker NRG PS for analysis. Three different initial conditions of tibial component including normal, 15° internal malrotation, and 15° external malrotation were analyzed. The tibial insert made from ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene was assumed to be elastic-plastic while femoral and tibial metal components were assumed to be rigid. Four nonlinear springs attached to tibial component represented soft tissues around the knee. Vertical load was applied to femoral component which rotated from 0° to 135° while horizontal load along the anterior posterior axis was applied to tibial component during flexion. Maximum equivalent stresses on the surface were analyzed. Internal malrotation caused the highest stress which arose up to 160% of normal position. External malrotation also caused higher stress. Implanting prosthesis in correct position is important for reducing the risk of abnormal wear and failure.
Project description:Rotating-platform total knee arthroplasty was designed to help decrease backside polyethylene wear and allow maximal conformity between the femoral and tibial components, but there have been multiple reports of dislocation and spinout of these implants. There are 4 case reports in the literature of knee dislocations with 180° rotation of the platform, 3 of which occurred during relocation attempts. This is only the second case in a posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing device. We present a case of complete 180° dislocation of a rotating platform after closed reduction in a posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty, with subsequent conversion to hinge knee arthroplasty.
Project description:Many pathologic entities can produce a painful total knee replacement (TKR) that may lead to potential prosthetic failure. Polyethylene insert dissociation from the tibial baseplate has been described most frequently after mobile-bearing and cruciate-retaining TKRs. However, only 3 tibial insert dislocations in primary fixed-bearing High-Flex posterior-stabilized TKRs have been reported. We present a new case of tibial insert dislocation in a High-Flex model that shares similarities and differences with the cases reported, facilitating the analysis of the potential causes, which still remain undefined.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both tibial plateau fractures and extensor apparatus injuries are serious injuries to the knee joint that generally do not occur in the same patient. We report a rare case of open tibial plateau fracture combined with quadriceps tendon rupture and complete displacement of the patella into the tibial plateau fracture. CASE PRESENTATION:The case involved a male who was 19?years old who had been in a motorcycle accident. The patient was admitted to our department with an open tibial plateau fracture 3?h post-injury. X-ray showed a tibial plateau fracture and complete displacement of the patella into the tibial plateau. CT showed an avulsion fracture in the patella and tibial intercondylar eminence. Concomitant quadriceps tendon injury and both anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion avulsion fractures were considered. The operative findings of emergency surgery confirmed our preoperative diagnosis. Single-stage quadriceps tendon repair and ORIF for the tibial plateau fracture were performed. Satisfactory restoration of function was acquired at the last follow up. CONCLUSION:The most difficult aspect of this case was the determination of the cause of the intra-osseous dislocation of the patella into the tibial plateau. The most likely mechanism of the injury may be that the patient experienced transient posterior dislocation of the knee during the injury. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon should be considered with posterior dislocation of the knee, and the patella was pushed into the tibial plateau fracture by force after the rupture of the quadriceps tendon.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Dislocation of the knee after primary total knee arthroplasty is rare in a posterior stabilized knee and extremely rare in a constrained total knee arthroplasty. Constrained total knee prostheses are used for severe knee deformities and to provide stable and mobile knees.<h4>Presentation of case</h4>In this case, we describe a dislocation of a primary constrained total knee arthroplasty using the Genesis II (Smith & Nephew, Memphis Tennessee, USA) prosthesis. Without any significant trauma, the constrained insert dislocated fifteen months after surgery and revision surgery with a bigger insert was needed. Surgical error may have been the cause of dislocation, but we were unable to establish a clear reason behind this dislocation.<h4>Discussion</h4>Knee dislocation after TKA is rare but easily overlooked and can lead to serious complications and permanent disability. This system should provide stable and mobile knees to correct collateral ligament laxity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Here, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of dislocation with a constrained prosthesis without any history of trauma.
Project description:Tibial post fracture in total knee arthroplasty is a rare but disabling complication. The authors report a case of a nontraumatic fracture of the polyethylene tibial post in a patient with a bi-cruciate stabilized Journey total knee arthroplasty system with subsequent episodes of knee subluxation. Early revision is required to resolve this particular problem.
Project description:Total knee arthroplasty aims to mimic the natural knee kinematics by optimizing implant geometry, but it is not clear how loading relates to tibio-femoral anterior-posterior translation or internal-external pivoting. We hypothesised that the point of pivot in the transverse plane is governed by the location of the highest axial force. Tibio-femoral loading was measured using an instrumented tibial component in six total knee arthroplasty patients (aged 65-80y, 5-7y post-op) during 5-6 squat repetitions, while knee kinematics were captured using a mobile video-fluoroscope. In the range of congruent tibio-femoral contact the medial femoral condyle remained approximately static while the lateral condyle translated posteriorly by 4.1?mm (median). Beyond the congruent range, the medial and lateral condyle motions both abruptly changed to anterior sliding by 4.6?mm, and 2.6?mm respectively. On average, both the axial loading and pivot position were more medial near extension, and transferred to the lateral side in flexion. However, no consistent relationship between pivoting and load distribution was found across all patients throughout flexion, with R2 values ranging from 0.00 to 0.65. Tibio-femoral kinematics is not related to the load distribution alone: medial loading of the knee does not necessarily imply a medial pivot location.
Project description:Objective:Sagittal alignment of the tibia following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can affect various factors, such as durability, range of motion, stability, and even kinematics. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether taking plain preoperative lateral leg X-ray images to plan the posterior tibial slope can give an insert placement with more accurate sagittal alignment. Methods:A total of 100 patients who underwent total TKA with posterior-stabilized prostheses. were divided into a group of 50 cases in which the posterior tibial slope was determined intra-operatively with only the fibular axis as the landmark, and a group of 50 cases in which determination of the posterior tibial slope was planned preoperatively with reference to preoperative lateral leg images. For the posterior slope, tibial cutting was performed with the posterior slope built into the bone cutting guide of the insert as the target. The angle of the fibular axis and the posterior slope of the tibial insert were measured on the postoperative lateral leg X-ray image, and the difference from the target angle was examined in the two groups. Results:In the group in which only the fibular axis was used for reference, the mean deviation from the target was 3.96°, while in the group in which planning was carried out preoperatively using lateral leg X-ray images, the mean deviation was 1.59° (P?<?0.05). Conclusion:Drawing up a preoperative plan using lateral leg X-ray images gives a useful landmark at low cost for accurate determination of TKA posterior tibial slope.