Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Patients Infected with CRF07_BC Using Phenotypic Assay and Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.
ABSTRACT: The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004-2005) and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008) were obtained from treatment-naïve patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral RNA was extracted directly from patient's plasma or from cultural supernatant and the pol sequences were determined using RT-PCR sequencing or UDPS. For comparison, phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using MAGIC-5 cells (in-house phenotypic assay) and Antivirogram were performed. In-house phenotypic assay showed that all the early epidemic and none of the late epidemic CRF07_BC isolates were resistant to most protease inhibitors (PIs) (4.4-47.3 fold). Neither genotypic assay nor Antivirogram detected any DR mutations. UDPS showed that early epidemic isolates contained 0.01-0.08% of PI DR major mutations. Furthermore, the combinations of major and accessory PI DR mutations significantly correlated with the phenotypic DR. The in-house phenotypic assay is superior to other conventional phenotypic assays in the detection of DR variants with a frequency as low as 0.01%.
Project description:In recent years, the men who have sex with men (MSM) population has seen the fastest growing prevalence of HIV transmission in China. In addition, coinfection through sex and intravenous drug use is a major problem in HIV prevention and control. Recent studies have also revealed that three major viral strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and subtype B) have been cocirculating among MSM in Sichuan, suggesting a high probability of generating new recombinants. This study reports a near full-length genome of a novel HIV-1 recombinant (MSM0720) between CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE. The analysis of MSM0720 shows that the genome is composed of at least 11 interlaced segments, including six CRF07_BC and five CRF01_AE segments, with CRF07_BC as the backbone; this is different from a previously identified CRF01_AE/07_BC recombinant strain in intravenous drug users from Jiangsu.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A sensitive, phenotypic reverse transcriptase (RT)-based drug susceptibility assay for the detection of etravirine (ETR) resistance in patient isolates was developed and compared with the results from direct sequencing and ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). METHODS: Samples were obtained from 15 patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and from five non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-naïve patients of whom four were infected by an NNRTI-resistant strain (transmitted drug resistance, TDR). In five patients, two consecutive samples (a and b) were taken for follow up of the virological response. HIV-1 RT was purified and drug susceptibility (IC50) to ETR was estimated. Direct sequencing was performed in all samples and UDPS in samples from nine patients. RESULTS: Increased IC50 to ETR was found in samples from 13 patients where direct sequencing predicted resistance in only four. UDPS identified additional (N?=?11) NNRTI resistance associated mutations (RAMs) in six of nine tested patients. During early failure, IC50 increases were observed in three of six patients without any ETR-RAMs detected by direct sequencing. In further two patients, who stopped NNRTI before sampling, increased IC50 values were found shortly after, despite absence of ETR-RAMs. In two patients who had stopped NNRTI for >1 year, a concordance between phenotype and genotypes was found. Two patients with TDR had increased IC50 despite no ETR-RAMs were detected by direct sequencing. UDPS revealed additional ETR-RAMs in four patients with a discrepancy between phenotype and direct sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The RT-based phenotypic assay showed decreased ETR susceptibility in patients where direct sequencing predicted ETR-sensitive virus. This increased phenotypic sensitivity was to a large extent supported by UDPS and treatment history. Our method could be valuable for further studies on the phenotypic kinetics of NNRTI resistance. The clinical relevance remains to be studied in larger patient-populations.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form (CRF) 07_BC has caused serious HIV-1 epidemics among injecting drug users (IDUs) in East Asia. Little is known about the characteristics of the virus and its impact on disease progression among the infected individuals. In this study, we compared immunological progression between 423 IDUs infected with CRF07_BC and 194 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary subtype B infection, and a representative full-length CRF07_BC molecular clone, pCRF07_BC, was constructed to characterize the virus. We found that IDUs infected with CRF07_BC had significantly slower immunological progression in the Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.69; P=0.004). The constructed recombinant CRF07_BC viruses had a reduced processing of the Gag/Gag-Pol polyproteins, a decreased incorporation of Vpr in the virus particle, tethering of virus particles on the plasma membrane and decreased virus growth kinetics. These phenotypes are related to the unique 7-amino acid deletion in the p6 of CRF07_BC, since complementation of the 7-amino acid in pCRF07_BC could improve the defective phenotypes. In summary, compared with MSM infected with HIV-1 subtype B, IDUs infected with CRF07_BC had slower immunological progression, which is likely correlated with interference of virus particle maturation by the 7-amino acid deletion in p6.
Project description:Mutations in HIV-1 drug targets lead to resistance and consequent therapeutic failure of antiretroviral drugs. Phenotypic resistance assays are time-consuming and costly, and genotypic rules-based interpretations may fail to predict the effects of multiple mutations. We have developed a computational procedure that rapidly evaluates changes in the binding energy of inhibitors to mutant HIV-1 PR variants. Models of WT complexes were produced from crystal structures. Mutant complexes were built by amino acid substitutions in the WT complexes with subsequent energy minimization of the ligand and PR binding site residues. Accuracy of the models was confirmed by comparison with available crystal structures and by prediction of known resistance-related mutations. PR variants from clinical isolates were modeled in complex with six FDA-approved PIs, and changes in the binding energy (DeltaE(bind)) of mutant versus WT complexes were correlated with the ratios of phenotypic 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values. The calculated DeltaE(bind) of five PIs showed significant correlations (R(2) = 0.7-0.8) with IC(50) ratios from the Virco Antivirogram assay, and the DeltaE(bind) of six PIs showed good correlation (R(2) = 0.76-0.85) with IC(50) ratios from the Virologic PhenoSense assay. DeltaE(bind) cutoffs corresponding to a four-fold increase in IC(50) were used to define the structure-based phenotype as susceptible, resistant, or equivocal. Blind predictions for 78 PR variants gave overall agreement of 92% (kappa = 0.756) and 86% (kappa = 0.666) with PhenoSense and Antivirogram phenotypes, respectively. The structural phenotyping predicted drug resistance of clinical HIV-1 PR variants with an accuracy approaching that of frequently used cell-based phenotypic assays.
Project description:Here, we report the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of novel HIV-1 unique recombinant forms (URF) in both HIV-infected intravenous drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou, China. We further characterized a novel URF strain isolated from an HIV-infected MSM, GD698. Near full-length genome (NFLG) phylogenic analysis showed that this novel URF was composed of CRF07_BC and CRF55_01B, with two recombinant breakpoints (nt 6,003 and 8,251 relative to the HXB2 genome) in the vpu/env and env genes, respectively. Twenty six percent of the genome is classified as CRF55_01B, spanning part of vpu and most of the env gene. The remaining 74% of the genome is classified as CRF07_BC. Both the backbone CRF07_BC sequence and CRF55_01B fragment were clustered with the HIV-1 isolates found in MSM. The emergence of the novel HIV-1 recombinant indicates the ongoing recombinants derived from the CRF07_BC and CRF55_01B isolates, and provides critical insights into our understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:China faces an increasing prevalence of two HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) 07_BC and 08_BC. Both CRFs_BC were previously demonstrated to originate in Yunnan and spread to Liaoning from Yunnan via injection drug use (IDU) in China. Supposing it is true, we are unable to answer why only CRF07_BC, rather than both CRFs_BC together, was transmitted to Xinjiang. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We investigated the phylogeography of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC using multiple HIV-1 genomic regions with bayesian phylogeography method. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed that all CRF07_BC sequences were divided into two clades, Yunnan and Xinjiang, and all strains from other regions of mainland China clustered within the Xinjiang clade. Significant geographic diffusion links of Xinjiang with other regions (including Liaoning, Beijing, Jiangsu and Guangdong) were supported by Bayes factor tests. The temporal dynamics analyses showed that CRF07_BC spread from Xinjiang to Liaoning in 1996.10, and to Jiangsu in 2000.9. The analyses of CRF08_BC not only confirmed the previous conclusion on temporal and spatial dynamics of CRF08_BC, but also indicated that the CRF08_BC strains from Guangdong and Shanghai originated from Yunnan. The analyses of HCV 3a showed that it was introduced into Xinjiang in the early 1980s, and spread from Xinjiang to Yunnan in 1990.10 and to Jiangsu in 1999.2, and further from Yunnan to Guangxi in 1995.3. The temporal and spatial dynamics of HCV 3a were similar to some extent to that of HIV-1 CRF07_BC and/or CRF08_BC, suggesting a possible association in migration patterns between HCV and HIV-1 through IDU. In addition, HCV 3a spread from Xinjiang to Pakistan, implying a drug trafficking route linking them. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Xinjiang, as the most important transfer station for drug trafficking from Golden Crescent to other regions of China, plays a very crucial role in the transmission of viruses (e.g., HIV-1 and HCV) through IDU in Asia.
Project description:A 7 amino acid deletion in Gag p6 (P6delta7) emerged in Chinese prevalent HIV-1 strain CRF07_BC from different epidemic regions. It is important to determine whether this mutation could be transmitted and spread. In this study, HIV-1 Gag sequences from 5 different epidemic regions in China were collected to trace the transmission linkage and to analyze genetic evolution of P6delta7 strains. The sequence analysis demonstrated that P6delta7 is a CRF07_BC specific deletion, different P6delta7 strains could be originated from different parental CRF07_BC recombinants in different epidemic regions, and the transmission of P6delta7 strain has occurred in IDU populations. This is for the first time to identify the transmission linkage for P6delta7 strains and serves as a wake-up call for further monitoring in the future; In addition, P6delta7 deletion may represent an evolutionary feature which might exert influence on the fitness of CRF07_BC strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We and others have shown that subtype C HIV-1 isolates from patients failing on a regimen containing stavudine (d4T) or zidovudine (AZT) exhibit thymidine-associated mutations (TAMs) and K65R which can impair the efficacy of Tenofovir (TDF) at second line. Depending on the various studies, the prevalence of K65R substitution as determined by the Sanger method ranges from 4 to 30%. Our aim was to determine whether ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) could provide more information than the Sanger method about selection of K65R in this population of patients. METHODS: 27 subtype C HIV-1 isolates from treated patients failing on a regimen with d4T or AZT plus lamivudine (3TC) plus nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV) and who had been sequenced by Sanger were investigated by UDPS at codon 65 of the reverse transcriptase (RT). 18 isolates from naïve patients and dilutions of a control K65R plasmid were analysed by Sanger plus UDPS. RESULTS: Analysis of Sanger sequences of subtype C HIV-1 isolates from naïve patients exhibited expected polymorphic substitutions compared to subtype B but no drug resistance mutations (DRMs). Quantitation of K65R variants by UDPS ranged from <0.4% to 3.08%. Sanger sequences of viral isolates from patients at failure of d4T or AZT plus 3TC plus NVP or EFV showed numerous DRMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) including M184V, thymidine-associated mutations (TAMs) plus DRMs to non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Two K65R were observed by Sanger in this series of 27 samples with UDPS percentages of 27 and 87%. Other samples without K65R by Sanger exhibited quantities of K65R variants ranging from <0.4% to 0.80%, which were below the values observed in isolates from naïve patients. CONCLUSIONS: While Sanger sequencing of subtype C isolates from treated patients at failure of d4T or AZT plus 3TC plus NVP or EFV exhibited numerous mutations including TAMs and 8% K65R, UDPS quantitation of K65R variants in the same series did not provide any more information than Sanger.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) has been used to detect minority variants within HIV-1 populations. Some aspects of the quality and reproducibility of UDPS have been previously evaluated, but comprehensive studies are still needed. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study the UDPS technology (FLX platform) was evaluated by analyzing a 120 base pair fragment of the HIV-1 pol gene from plasma samples from two patients and artificial mixtures of molecular clones. UDPS was performed using an optimized experimental protocol and an in-house data cleaning strategy. Nine samples and mixtures were analyzed and the average number of reads per sample was 19,404 (range 8,858-26,846). The two patient plasma samples were analyzed twice and quantification of viral variants was found to be highly repeatable for variants representing >0.27% of the virus population, whereas some variants representing 0.11-0.27% were detected in only one of the two UDPS runs. Bland-Altman analysis showed that a repeated measurement would have a 95% likelihood to lie approximately within ±0.5 log(10) of the initial estimate. A similar level of agreement was observed for variant frequency estimates in forward vs. reverse sequencing direction, but here the agreement was higher for common variants than for rare variants. UDPS following PCR amplification with alternative primers indicated that some variants may be incorrectly quantified due to primer-related selective amplification. Finally, the in vitro recombination rate during PCR was evaluated using artificial mixtures of clones and was found to be low. The most abundant in vitro recombinant represented 0.25% of all UDPS reads. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that this UDPS protocol results in low experimental noise and high repeatability, which is relevant for future research and clinical use of the UDPS technology. The low rate of in vitro recombination suggests that this UDPS system can be used to study genetic variants and mutational linkage.
Project description:The complex epidemic and significant diversity of HIV-1 strains in China pose serious challenges for surveillance and diagnostic assays, vaccine development and clinical management. There is a lack of HIV-1 isolates in current canonical HIV-1 subtype panels that can represent HIV-1 diversity in China; an HIV-1 subtype panel for China is urgently needed.Blood samples were collected from HIV-1 infected patients participating in the drug-resistance surveillance program in China. The samples were isolated, cultured and stored as neat culture supernatant. The HIV-1 isolates were fully characterized. The panel was used to compare 2 viral load assays and 2 p24 assays as the examples of how this panel could be used.An HIV-1 subtype panel for China composed of 30 HIV-1 primary strains of four subtypes (B [including Thai-B], CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and G) was established. The samples were isolated and cultured to a high-titer (10(6)-10(9) copies/ml)/high-volume (40 ml). The HIV-1 isolates were fully characterized by the final viral load, p24 concentration, gag-pol and envC2V3 sequencing, co-receptor prediction, determination of the four amino acids at the tip of the env V3-loop, glycosylation sites in the V3 loop and the drug-resistance mutations. The comparison of two p24 assays and two viral load assays on the isolates illustrated how this panel may be used for the evaluation of diagnostic assay performance. The Pearson value between p24 assays were 0.938. The viral load results showed excellent concordance and agreement for samples of Thai-B, but lower correlations for samples of CRF01_AE.The current panel of 30 HIV-1 isolates served as a basis for the development of a comprehensive panel of fully characterized viral isolates, which could reflect the current dynamic and complex HIV-1 epidemic in China. This panel will be available to support HIV-1 research, assay evaluation, vaccine and drug development.