Identification of the PLA2G6 c.1579G>A Missense Mutation in Papillon Dog Neuroaxonal Dystrophy Using Whole Exome Sequencing Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Whole exome sequencing (WES) has become a common tool for identifying genetic causes of human inherited disorders, and it has also recently been applied to canine genome research. We conducted WES analysis of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), a neurodegenerative disease that sporadically occurs worldwide in Papillon dogs. The disease is considered an autosomal recessive monogenic disease, which is histopathologically characterized by severe axonal swelling, known as "spheroids," throughout the nervous system. By sequencing all eleven DNA samples from one NAD-affected Papillon dog and her parents, two unrelated NAD-affected Papillon dogs, and six unaffected control Papillon dogs, we identified 10 candidate mutations. Among them, three candidates were determined to be "deleterious" by in silico pathogenesis evaluation. By subsequent massive screening by TaqMan genotyping analysis, only the PLA2G6 c.1579G>A mutation had an association with the presence or absence of the disease, suggesting that it may be a causal mutation of canine NAD. As a human homologue of this gene is a causative gene for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, this canine phenotype may serve as a good animal model for human disease. The results of this study also indicate that WES analysis is a powerful tool for exploring canine hereditary diseases, especially in rare monogenic hereditary diseases.
Project description:Clinical, pathological and genetic examination revealed an as yet uncharacterized juvenile-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) in Spanish water dogs. Affected dogs presented with various neurological deficits including gait abnormalities and behavioral deficits. Histopathology demonstrated spheroid formation accentuated in the grey matter of the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, the brain stem and in the sensory pathways of the spinal cord. Iron accumulation was absent. Ultrastructurally spheroids contained predominantly closely packed vesicles with a double-layered membrane, which were characterized as autophagosomes using immunohistochemistry. The family history of the four affected dogs suggested an autosomal recessive inheritance. SNP genotyping showed a single genomic region of extended homozygosity of 4.5 Mb in the four cases on CFA 8. Linkage analysis revealed a maximal parametric LOD score of 2.5 at this region. By whole genome re-sequencing of one affected dog, a perfectly associated, single, non-synonymous coding variant in the canine tectonin beta-propeller repeat-containing protein 2 (TECPR2) gene affecting a highly conserved region was detected (c.4009C>T or p.R1337W). This canine NAD form displays etiologic parallels to an inherited TECPR2 associated type of human hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). In contrast to the canine NAD, the spinal cord lesions in most types of human HSP involve the sensory and the motor pathways. Furthermore, the canine NAD form reveals similarities to cases of human NAD defined by widespread spheroid formation without iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Thus TECPR2 should also be considered as candidate gene for human NAD. Immunohistochemistry and the ultrastructural findings further support the assumption, that TECPR2 regulates autophagosome accumulation in the autophagic pathways. Consequently, this report provides the first genetic characterization of juvenile canine NAD, describes the histopathological features associated with the TECPR2 mutation and provides evidence to emphasize the association between failure of autophagy and neurodegeneration.
Project description:Neuroaxonal dystrophy in brainstem, spinal cord tracts, and spinal nerves accompanied by cerebellar hypoplasia was observed in a colony of laboratory dogs. Fetal akinesia was documented by ultrasonographic examination. At birth, affected puppies exhibited stereotypical positioning of limbs, scoliosis, arthrogryposis, pulmonary hypoplasia, and respiratory failure. Regional hypoplasia in the central nervous system was apparent grossly, most strikingly as underdeveloped cerebellum and spinal cord. Histopathologic abnormalities included swollen axons and spheroids in brainstem and spinal cord tracts; reduced cerebellar foliation, patchy loss of Purkinje cells, multifocal thinning of the external granular cell layer, and loss of neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei; spheroids and loss of myelinated axons in spinal roots and peripheral nerves; increased myocyte apoptosis in skeletal muscle; and fibrofatty connective tissue proliferation around joints. Breeding studies demonstrated that the canine disorder is a fully penetrant, simple autosomal recessive trait. The disorder demonstrated a type and distribution of lesions homologous to that of human infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), most commonly caused by mutations of phospholipase A2 group VI gene (PLA2G6), but alleles of informative markers flanking the canine PLA2G6 locus did not associate with the canine disorder. Thus, fetal-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy in dogs, a species with well-developed genome mapping resources, provides a unique opportunity for additional disease gene discovery and understanding of this pathology.
Project description:We recently reported autosomal recessive fetal-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (FNAD) in a large family of dogs that is not caused by mutation in the PLA2G6 locus (Fyfe et al., J Comp Neurol 518:3771-3784, 2010). Here, we report a genome-wide linkage analysis using 333 microsatellite markers to map canine FNAD to the telomeric end of chromosome 2. The interval of zero recombination was refined by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype analysis to ~200 kb, and the included genes were sequenced. We found a homozygous 3-nucleotide deletion in exon 14 of mitofusin 2 (MFN2), predicting loss of a glutamate residue at position 539 in the protein of affected dogs. RT-PCR demonstrated near normal expression of the mutant mRNA, but MFN2 expression was undetectable to very low on western blots of affected dog brainstem, cerebrum, kidney, and cultured fibroblasts and by immunohistochemistry on brainstem sections. MFN2 is a multifunctional, membrane-bound GTPase of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum most commonly associated with human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2. The canine disorder extends the range of MFN2-associated phenotypes and suggests MFN2 as a candidate gene for rare cases of human FNAD.
Project description:Genome-wide association (GWA) studies are widely used to investigate the genetic etiology of diseases in domestic animals. In the horse, GWA studies using 40-50,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sample sizes of 30-40 individuals, consisting of only 6-14 affected horses, have led to the discovery of genetic mutations for simple monogenic traits. Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy is a common inherited neurological disorder characterized by symmetric ataxia. A case-control GWA study was performed using genotypes from 42,819 SNP marker loci distributed across the genome in 99 clinically phenotyped Quarter horses (37 affected, 62 unaffected). A significant GWA was not achieved although a suggestive association was uncovered when only the most stringently phenotyped NAD-affected horses (n?=?10) were included (chromosome 8:62130605 and 62134644 [log(1/P)?=?5.56]). Candidate genes (PIK3C3, RIT2, and SYT4) within the associated region were excluded through sequencing, association testing of uncovered variants and quantitative RT-PCR. It was concluded that variants in PIK3C3, RIT2, and SYT4 are not responsible for equine neuroaxonal dystrophy. This study demonstrates the risk of false positive associations when performing GWA studies on complex traits and underlying population structure when using 40-50,000 SNP markers and small sample size.
Project description:PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration comprises a heterogeneous spectrum of age-related phenotypes, with three forms classically recognized, including infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) with onset in infancy, atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD) with onset in childhood, and dystonia-parkinsonism (PARK14) with onset in early adulthood. We describe 3 cases that challenge this view, discuss the related literature, and suggest that PLA2G6 mutations cause a phenotypic continuum rather than three discrete phenotypes, further ensuing clinical implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three distinct phenotypes: infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD), and PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. METHODS:A consanguineous index case from Turkey was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinsonism at the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. She and her unaffected brother were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS:In this report, we describe a 33-year-old index case with parental consanguinity and early-onset Parkinsonism. Whole-genome sequencing of this individual revealed that a homozygous p.R747W mutation in PLA2G6 segregates with the disease in this family. DISCUSSION:This result supports the importance of prioritizing this gene in mutational analysis of autosomal recessive Parkinsonism, and confirms the clinical heterogeneity of PLAN.
Project description:The polyneuropathy of juvenile Greyhound show dogs shows clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The pedigrees containing affected dogs suggest monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance and all affected dogs trace back to a single male. Here, we studied the neuropathology of this disease and identified a candidate causative mutation. Peripheral nerve biopsies from affected dogs were examined using semi-thin histology, nerve fibre teasing and electron microscopy. A severe chronic progressive mixed polyneuropathy was observed. Seven affected and 17 related control dogs were genotyped on the 50k canine SNP chip. This allowed us to localize the causative mutation to a 19.5 Mb interval on chromosome 13 by homozygosity mapping. The NDRG1 gene is located within this interval and NDRG1 mutations have been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom in humans (CMT4D). Therefore, we considered NDRG1 a positional and functional candidate gene and performed mutation analysis in affected and control Greyhounds. A 10 bp deletion in canine NDRG1 exon 15 (c.1080_1089delTCGCCTGGAC) was perfectly associated with the polyneuropathy phenotype of Greyhound show dogs. The deletion causes a frame shift (p.Arg361SerfsX60) which alters several amino acids before a stop codon is encountered. A reduced level of NDRG1 transcript could be detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated an absence of NDRG1 protein in peripheral nerve biopsy of an affected Greyhound. We thus have identified a candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy in Greyhounds and identified the first genetically characterized canine CMT model which offers an opportunity to gain further insights into the pathobiology and therapy of human NDRG1 associated CMT disease. Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs.
Project description:Retinal dystrophies in dogs are invaluable models of human disease. Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similar to RP, PRA is a genetically heterogenous condition. We investigated PRA in the Papillon breed of dog using homozygosity mapping and haplotype construction of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a small family group to identify potential positional candidate genes. Based on the phenotypic similarities between the PRA-affected Papillons, mouse models and human patients, CNGB1 was selected as the most promising positional candidate gene. CNGB1 was sequenced and a complex mutation consisting of the combination of a one basepair deletion and a 6 basepair insertion was identified in exon 26 (c.2387delA;2389_2390insAGCTAC) leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of pre-degenerate retinal sections from a young affected dog showed absence of labeling using a C-terminal CNGB1 antibody. Whereas an antibody directed against the N-terminus of the protein, which also recognizes the glutamic acid rich proteins arising from alternative splicing of the CNGB1 transcript (upstream of the premature stop codon), labeled rod outer segments. CNGB1 combines with CNGA1 to form the rod cyclic nucleotide gated channel and previous studies have shown the requirement of CNGB1 for normal targeting of CNGA1 to the rod outer segment. In keeping with these previous observations, IHC showed a lack of detectable CNGA1 protein in the rod outer segments of the affected dog. A population study did not identify the CNGB1 mutation in PRA-affected dogs in other breeds and documented that the CNGB1 mutation accounts for ~70% of cases of Papillon PRA in our PRA-affected canine DNA bank. CNGB1 mutations are one cause of autosomal recessive RP making the CNGB1 mutant dog a valuable large animal model of the condition.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare, metastatic, human adolescent cancer that also occurs in pet dogs. To define the genomic underpinnings of canine OS, we performed multi-platform analysis of OS tumors from 59 dogs, including whole genome sequencing (n = 24) and whole exome sequencing (WES; n = 13) of primary tumors and matched normal tissue, WES (n = 10) of matched primary/metastatic/normal samples and RNA sequencing (n = 54) of primary tumors. We found that canine OS recapitulates features of human OS including low point mutation burden (median 1.98 per Mb) with a trend towards higher burden in metastases, high structural complexity, frequent TP53 (71%), PI3K pathway (37%), and MAPK pathway mutations (17%), and low expression of immune-associated genes. We also identified novel features of canine OS including putatively inactivating somatic SETD2 (42%) and DMD (50%) aberrations. These findings set the stage for understanding OS development in dogs and humans, and establish genomic contexts for future comparative analyses.
Project description:We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV). The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1), which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs.