Infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella species producing TEM-63 or a novel TEM enzyme, TEM-131, in South Africa.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on their prevalence in Africa. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Isangi and S. enterica serotype Typhimurium strains have been noted in South Africa since 2001. A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Salmonella spp. were collected from 13 hospitals located in different cities in South Africa over a 5-month period from December 2002 to April 2003. All strains were screened for production of ESBLs by the double disk diffusion test and for AmpC production by assessing resistance to cefoxitin. bla(SHV), bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), and bla(CMY-2) were sought from all ESBL-positive and cefoxitin-resistant isolates. A total of 15.6% (25 of 160) isolates produced SHV or TEM ESBLs, and 1.9% (3 of 160) produced CMY-2. Nine S. enterica serotype Typhimurium, eight S. enterica serotype Isangi, and three S. enterica serotype Muenchen strains produced either TEM-63 or a derivative of TEM-63 designated TEM-131. Both TEM-63 and TEM-131 have an isoelectric point of 5.6, and their sequences have the following amino acid substitutions compared to the TEM-1 sequence: Leu21Phe, Glu104Lys, Arg164Ser, and Met182Thr. Additionally, TEM-131 has an Ala237Thr substitution. ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. have become a significant public health problem in South Africa with particular implications for the treatment of serious nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in children, for whom extended-spectrum cephalosporins were the preferred treatment.
Project description:Seventeen extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered from 1998 to 2000 in hospitals of five different cities in Poland were analyzed. They expressed several TEM-type ESBLs, TEM-4, TEM-29, TEM-85, TEM-86, TEM-93, and TEM-94. TEM-85 (L21F, R164S, E240K, T265M), TEM-86 (L21F, R164S, A237T, E240K, T265M), TEM-93 (M182T, G238S, E240K), and TEM-94 (L21F, E104K, M182T, G238S, T265M) were identified for the first time. Including the enzymes described earlier, TEM-47, TEM-48, TEM-49, and TEM-68, the group of known ESBLs of the TEM family produced by enterobacteria in Polish hospitals has increased to 10 variants. Comparative sequence analysis of the genes coding for all these beta-lactamases revealed a view of their possible evolution, which, apart from the gradual acquisition of various mutations, could also have involved recombination events. Two different bla(TEM-1) gene alleles were precursors of the ESBL genes: bla(TEM-1A), which was the ancestor of bla(TEM-93), and bla(TEM-1F), from which all the remaining genes originated. The evolution of the bla(TEM-1F)-related genes most probably consisted of three major separate lineages, one of which, including bla(TEM-4), bla(TEM-47), bla(TEM-48), bla(TEM-49), bla(TEM-68), and bla(TEM-94), was highly structured itself and could have been initiated by the bla(TEM-25) gene, identified exclusively in France so far. Plasmid fingerprinting analysis revealed a high degree of diversity of plasmids carrying related bla(TEM) genes, which suggested either the intense diversification or transposition of bla(TEM) genes between different plasmids or some contribution of convergent evolution. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the environment of Polish hospitals has been highly favorable for the rapid evolution of ESBLs.
Project description:Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) of the TEM, SHV, or CTX-M type confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in gram-negative bacteria. The activity of these enzymes against beta-lactam antibiotics and their resistance against inhibitors can be influenced by genetic variation at the single-nucleotide level. Here, we describe the development and validation of an oligonucleotide microarray for the rapid identification of ESBLs in gram-negative bacteria by simultaneously genotyping bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M). The array consists of 618 probes that cover mutations responsible for 156 amino acid substitutions. As this comprises unprecedented genotyping coverage, the ESBL array has a high potential for epidemiological studies and infection control. With an assay time of 5 h, the ESBL microarray also could be an attractive option for the development of rapid antimicrobial resistance tests in the future. The validity of the DNA microarray was demonstrated with 60 blinded clinical isolates, which were collected during clinical routines. Fifty-eight of them were characterized phenotypically as ESBL producers. The chip was characterized with regard to its resolution, phenotype-genotype correlation, and ability to resolve mixed genotypes. ESBL phenotypes could be correctly ascribed to ESBL variants of bla(CTX-M) (76%), bla(SHV) (22%), or both (2%), whereas no ESBL variant of bla(TEM) was found. The most prevalent ESBLs identified were CTX-M-15 (57%) and SHV-12 (18%).
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to clinically important third-generation cephalosporins, which are often used to treat invasive salmonellosis. In the United States, ESBLs are rarely found in Salmonella. However, in 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration found bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis in retail chicken meat. The isolate had a rare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. To clarify the sources and potential effects on human health, we examined isolates with this pattern obtained from human surveillance and associated metadata. Using broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing, we characterized the isolates. Of 34 isolates, 29 carried the bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub> gene with <9 additional resistance genes on 1 plasmid. Of 19 patients with travel information available, 12 (63%) reported recent travel to South America. Genetically, isolates from travelers, nontravelers, and retail chicken meat were similar. Expanded surveillance is needed to determine domestic sources and potentially prevent spread of this ESBL-containing plasmid.
Project description:Organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Ireland. A total of 925 isolates of ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae were received from six hospitals in Ireland over a 3-year period from September 1996 to September 1999. Isolates were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk diffusion (DDD) method. DDD-positive isolates that were (i) confirmed as ESBL producers by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) confirmatory testing and (ii) susceptible to cefoxitin by disk diffusion were considered ESBL producers. By these criteria, 27 (3%) of the ampicillin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae studied were categorized as ESBL producers. Molecular typing suggested that some intra- and interhospital spread of ESBL-producing isolates had occurred. DNA sequencing of amplified bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) genes resulted in the detection of a novel bla(TEM) ESBL gene, bla(TEM-102) in two isolates (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae) received from the same hospital but isolated from different patients. The study suggests dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria within the health care system in Ireland and emphasizes the need for measures to control such spread.
Project description:TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most common ESBLs found in the United States and are prevalent throughout the world. Amino acid substitutions at a number of positions in TEM-1 lead to the ESBL phenotype, although substitutions at residues 104 (E to K), 164 (R to S or H), 238 (G to S), and 240 (E to K) appear to be particularly important in modifying the spectrum of activity of the enzyme. The SHV-1-derived ESBLs are a less diverse collection of enzymes; however, the majority of amino acid substitutions resulting in an ESBL mirror those seen in the TEM-1-derived enzymes. Pyrosequencing by use of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol was applied to provide sequence data at positions critical for the ESBL phenotype spanning the bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) genes. Three novel beta-lactamases are described: the ESBLs TEM-155 (Q39K, R164S, E240K) and SHV-105 (I8F, R43S, G156D, G238S, E240K) and a non-ESBL, SHV-48 (V119I). The ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an Escherichia coli isolate expressing bla(SHV-105) were >128, 128, and >128 microg/ml, respectively. Likewise, the ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an E. coli isolate expressing bla(TEM-155) were >128, 64, and > 128 microg/ml, respectively. Pyrosequence analysis determined the true identity of the beta-lactamase on plasmid R1010 to be SHV-11 rather than SHV-1, as previously reported. Pyrosequencing is a real-time sequencing-by-synthesis approach that was applied to SNP detection for TEM- and SHV-type ESBL identification and represents a robust tool for rapid sequence determination that may have a place in the clinical setting.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in chicken products indicates the need for the development of continuous monitoring strategies in the interests of public health.
Project description:Background:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) thwarts the curative power of drugs and is a present-time global problem. We present data on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of bacteria the WHO has highlighted as being key antimicrobial resistance concerns in Africa, to strengthen knowledge of AMR patterns in the region. Methods:Blood, stool, and urine specimens of febrile patients, aged between ? 30 days and ? 15 years and hospitalized in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, and Tanzania were cultured from November 2013 to March 2017 (Patients > 15 years were included in Tanzania). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for all Enterobacterales and Staphylococcus aureus isolates using disk diffusion method. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was confirmed by double-disk diffusion test and the detection of bla CTX-M, bla TEM and bla SHV. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica and S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica were screened for plasmid-mediated resistance genes and mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. S. aureus isolates were tested for the presence of mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and further genotyped by spa typing. Results:Among 4,052 specimens from 3,012 patients, 219 cultures were positive of which 88.1% (n = 193) were Enterobacterales and 7.3% (n = 16) S. aureus. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (all CTX-M15 genotype) was 45.2% (14/31; 95% CI: 27.3, 64.0) in Burkina Faso, 25.8% (8/31; 95% CI: 11.9, 44.6) in Gabon, 15.1% (18/119; 95% CI: 9.2, 22.8) in Ghana and 0.0% (0/12; 95% CI: 0.0, 26.5) in Tanzania. ESBL positive non-typhoid Salmonella (n = 3) were detected in Burkina Faso only and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (n = 2) were detected in Ghana only. While sequence type (ST)131 predominated among ESBL E. coli (39.1%;9/23), STs among ESBL K. pneumoniae were highly heterogenous. Ciprofloxacin resistant nt Salmonella were commonest in Burkina Faso (50.0%; 6/12) and all harbored qnrB genes. PVL were found in 81.3% S. aureus. Conclusion:Our findings reveal a distinct susceptibility pattern across the various study regions in Africa, with notably high rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales and ciprofloxacin-resistant nt Salmonella in Burkina Faso. This highlights the need for local AMR surveillance and reporting of resistances to support appropriate action.
Project description:A huge variety of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been detected during the last 20 years. The majority of these have been of the TEM or SHV lineage. We have assessed ESBLs occurring among a collection of 455 bloodstream isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, collected from 12 hospitals in seven countries. Multiple beta-lactamases were produced by isolates with phenotypic evidence of ESBL production (mean of 2.7 beta-lactamases per isolate; range, 1 to 5). SHV-type ESBLs were the most common ESBL, occurring in 67.1% (49 of 73) of isolates with phenotypic evidence of ESBL production. In contrast, TEM-type ESBLs (TEM-10 type, -12 type, -26 type, and -63 type) were found in just 16.4% (12 of 73) of isolates. The finding of TEM-10 type and TEM-12 type represents the first detection of a TEM-type ESBL in South America. PER (for Pseudomonas extended resistance)-type beta-lactamases were detected in five of the nine isolates from Turkey and were found with SHV-2-type and SHV-5-type ESBLs in two of the isolates. CTX-M-type ESBLs (bla(CTX-M-2) type and bla(CTX-M-3) type) were found in 23.3% (17 of 73) of isolates and were found in all study countries except for the United States. We also detected CTX-M-type ESBLs in four countries where they have previously not been described-Australia, Belgium, Turkey, and South Africa. The widespread emergence and proliferation of CTX-M-type ESBLs is particularly noteworthy and may have important implications for clinical microbiology laboratories and for physicians treating patients with serious K. pneumoniae infections.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a major class of clinical antimicrobial drugs. We used genomic analysis to investigate whether domestic food animals, retail meat, and pets were reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection in Canada. Of 30,303 Salmonella isolates tested during 2012-2016, we detected 95 ESBL producers. ESBL serotypes and alleles were mostly different between humans (n = 54) and animals/meat (n = 41). Two exceptions were bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> and bla<sub>CTX-M-1</sub> IncI1 plasmids<sub>,</sub> which were found in both sources. A subclade of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates carrying the same IncI1-bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> plasmid differed by only 1-7 single nucleotide variants. The most common ESBL producer in humans was Salmonella Infantis carrying bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub>, which has since emerged in poultry in other countries. There were few instances of similar isolates and plasmids, suggesting that domestic animals and retail meat might have been minor reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection.
Project description:The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant <i>Salmonella enterica</i> (<i>S. enterica</i>) to humans through food of animal origin are considered a major global public health concern. Currently, little is known about the prevalence of important antimicrobial resistance genes in <i>S. enterica</i> from retail food in Africa. Therefore, the screening and characterization of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in <i>S. enterica</i> isolated from retail meats and slaughterhouses in Egypt were done by using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. Twenty-eight out of thirty-four (82.4%) non-duplicate <i>S. enterica</i> isolates showed multidrug-resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials, and fourteen (41.2%) exhibited an ESBL-resistance phenotype and harbored at least one ESBL-encoding gene. The identified β-lactamase-encoding genes included <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-1</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-3</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-13</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-14</sub>, <i>bla</i><sub>CTX-M-15</sub>, and <i>bla</i><sub>SHV-12</sub> (ESBL types); <i>bla</i><sub>CMY-2</sub> (AmpC type); and <i>bla</i><sub>TEM-1</sub> and <i>bla</i><sub>OXA-1</sub> (narrow-spectrum types). PMQR genes (included <i>qnrA</i>, <i>qnrB</i>, <i>qnrS</i>, and <i>aac(6')-Ib-cr</i>) were identified in 23 (67.6%) isolates. The presence of ESBL- and PMQR-producing <i>S. enterica</i> with a high prevalence rate in retail meats and slaughterhouses is considered a major threat to public health as these strains with resistance genes could be transmitted to humans through the food chain.