Ty1 mobilizes subtelomeric Y' elements in telomerase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae survivors.
ABSTRACT: When telomerase is inactivated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, telomeric DNA shortens with every cell division, and cells stop dividing after approximately 100 generations. Survivors that form in these senescent populations and resume growing have variably amplified arrays of subtelomeric Y' elements. We marked a chromosomal Y' element with the his3AI retrotransposition indicator gene and found that Y'HIS3 cDNA was incorporated into the genome at approximately 10- to 1,000-fold-higher frequencies in survivors compared to telomerase-positive strains. Y'HIS3 cDNA mobility was significantly reduced if assayed at 30 degrees C, a nonpermissive temperature for Ty1 retrotransposition, or in the absence of Tec1p, a transcription factor for Ty1. Microarray analysis revealed that Y' RNA is preferentially associated with Ty1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Genomic copies of Y'HIS3 cDNA typically have downstream oligo(A) tracts, followed by a complete Ty1 long terminal repeat and TYA1 or TYB1 sequences. These data are consistent with the use of Ty1 cDNA to prime reverse transcription of polyadenylated Y' RNA within Ty1 VLPs. Unmarked Y'-oligo(A)-Ty1 cDNA was also detected in survivors, reaching copy numbers of approximately 10(-2) per genome. We propose that Y'-oligo(A)-Ty1 cDNA recombines with Y' elements at eroding telomeres in survivors and may play a role in telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase.
Project description:Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have complex modes of mobility involving reverse transcription of their RNA genomes in cytoplasmic virus-like particles (VLPs) and integration of the cDNA copies into the host genome. The limited coding capacity of retrotransposons necessitates an extensive reliance on host co-factors; however, it has been challenging to identify co-factors that are required for endogenous retrotransposon mobility because retrotransposition is such a rare event.To circumvent the low frequency of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used iterative synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis to isolate host mutations that reduce retrotransposition. Query strains that harbor a chromosomal Ty1his3AI reporter element and either the rtt101? or med1? mutation, both of which confer a hypertransposition phenotype, were mated to 4,847 haploid ORF deletion strains. Retrotransposition was measured in the double mutant progeny, and a set of 275 ORF deletions that suppress the hypertransposition phenotypes of both rtt101? and med1? were identified. The corresponding set of 275 retrotransposition host factors (RHFs) includes 45 previously identified Ty1 or Ty3 co-factors. More than half of the RHF genes have statistically robust human homologs (E?<?1 x 10-10). The level of unintegrated Ty1 cDNA in 181 rhf? single mutants was altered <2-fold, suggesting that the corresponding co-factors stimulate retrotransposition at a step after cDNA synthesis. However, deletion of 43 RHF genes, including specific ribosomal protein and ribosome biogenesis genes and RNA degradation, modification and transport genes resulted in low Ty1 cDNA levels. The level of Ty1 Gag but not RNA was reduced in ribosome biogenesis mutants bud21?, hcr1?, loc1?, and puf6?.Ty1 retrotransposition is dependent on multiple co-factors acting at different steps in the replication cycle. Human orthologs of these RHFs are potential, or in a few cases, presumptive HIV-1 co-factors in human cells. RHF genes whose absence results in decreased Ty1 cDNA include characterized RNA metabolism and modification genes, consistent with their having roles in early steps in retrotransposition such as expression, nuclear export, translation, localization, or packaging of Ty1 RNA. Our results suggest that Bud21, Hcr1, Loc1, and Puf6 promote efficient synthesis or stability of Ty1 Gag.
Project description:The genomic RNA of retroviruses and retrovirus-like transposons must be sequestered from the cellular translational machinery so that it can be packaged into viral particles. Eukaryotic mRNA processing bodies (P bodies) play a central role in segregating cellular mRNAs from the translational machinery for storage or decay. In this work, we provide evidence that the RNA of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 retrotransposon is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs) in P bodies. Ty1 RNA is translationally repressed, and Ty1 Gag, the capsid and RNA binding protein, accumulates in discrete cytoplasmic foci, a subset of which localize to P bodies. Human APOBEC3G, a potent Ty1 restriction factor that is packaged into Ty1 VLPs via an interaction with Gag, also localizes to P bodies. The association of APOBEC3G with P bodies does not require Ty1 element expression, suggesting that P-body localization of APOBEC3G and Ty1 Gag precedes VLP assembly. Additionally, we report that two P-body-associated 5' to 3' mRNA decay pathways, deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay (DDD) and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), stimulate Ty1 retrotransposition. The additive contributions of DDD and NMD explain the strong requirement for general 5' to 3' mRNA degradation factors Dcp1, Dcp2, and Xrn1 in Ty1 retromobility. 5' to 3' decay factors act at a posttranslational step in retrotransposition, and Ty1 RNA packaging into VLPs is abolished in the absence of the 5' to 3' exonuclease Xrn1. Together, the results suggest that VLPs assemble in P bodies and that 5' to 3' mRNA decay is essential for the packaging of Ty1 RNA in VLPs.
Project description:Retrotransposons can facilitate repair of broken chromosomes, and therefore an important question is whether the host can activate retrotransposons in response to chromosomal lesions. Here we show that Ty1 elements, which are LTR-retrotransposons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are mobilized when DNA lesions are created by the loss of telomere function. Inactivation of telomerase in yeast results in progressive shortening of telomeric DNA, eventually triggering a DNA-damage checkpoint that arrests cells in G2/M. A fraction of cells, termed survivors, recover from arrest by forming alternative telomere structures. When telomerase is inactivated, Ty1 retrotransposition increases substantially in parallel with telomere erosion and then partially declines when survivors emerge. Retrotransposition is stimulated at the level of Ty1 cDNA synthesis, causing cDNA levels to increase 20-fold or more before survivors form. This response is elicited through a signaling pathway that includes Rad24, Rad17, and Rad9, three components of the DNA-damage checkpoint. Our findings indicate that Ty1 retrotransposons are activated as part of the cellular response to telomere dysfunction.
Project description:A novel form of copy number control (CNC) helps maintain a low number of Ty1 retrovirus-like transposons in the Saccharomyces genome. Ty1 produces an alternative transcript that encodes p22, a trans-dominant negative inhibitor of Ty1 retrotransposition whose sequence is identical to the C-terminal half of Gag. The level of p22 increases with copy number and inhibits normal Ty1 virus-like particle (VLP) assembly and maturation through interactions with full length Gag. A forward genetic screen for CNC-resistant (CNCR) mutations in Ty1 identified missense mutations in GAG that restore retrotransposition in the presence of p22. Some of these mutations map within a predicted UBN2 domain found throughout the Ty1/copia family of long terminal repeat retrotransposons, and others cluster within a central region of Gag that is referred to as the CNCR domain. We generated multiple alignments of yeast Ty1-like Gag proteins and found that some Gag proteins, including those of the related Ty2 elements, contain non-Ty1 residues at multiple CNCR sites. Interestingly, the Ty2-917 element is resistant to p22 and does not undergo a Ty1-like form of CNC. Substitutions conferring CNCR map within predicted helices in Ty1 Gag that overlap with conserved sequence in Ty1/copia, suggesting that p22 disturbs a central function of the capsid during VLP assembly. When hydrophobic residues within predicted helices in Gag are mutated, Gag level remains unaffected in most cases yet VLP assembly and maturation is abnormal. Gag CNCR mutations do not alter binding to p22 as determined by co-immunoprecipitation analyses, but instead, exclude p22 from Ty1 VLPs. These findings suggest that the CNCR alleles enhance retrotransposition in the presence of p22 by allowing productive Gag-Gag interactions during VLP assembly. Our work also expands the strategies used by retroviruses for developing resistance to Gag-like restriction factors to now include retrotransposons.
Project description:Ty1 is a long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1/copia family and is present in up to 32 full-length copies in Saccharomyces. Like retroviruses, Ty1 contains GAG and POL genes, LTRs, and replicates via an RNA intermediate within a virus-like particle (VLP). Although Ty1 retrotransposition is not infectious, uncontrolled replication can lead to detrimental effects on the host genome, including insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements. Ty1 copy number control (CNC) limits replication and is mediated through a self-encoded protein called p22. p22 is translated from a subgenomic Ty1 RNA and encodes an amino-truncated version of the Gag protein. We highlight a recent study identifying Ty1 Gag, which comprises the VLP capsid and provides nucleic acid chaperone functions, as a direct target of p22-mediated inhibition. CNC-resistant (CNCR) mutations map within predicted helical domains of Gag, including those in the Ty1/copia pfam domain Retrotran_gag_2 (formerly UBN2) and a central region we refer to as the CNCR domain. CNCR Gag forms VLPs that exclude p22, thus restoring Ty1 replication. We discuss possible mechanisms for p22 inclusion in Ty1 VLPs and compare Ty1 CNC with retroviral restriction factors targeting capsid (CA).
Project description:Transposable elements impact genome function by altering gene expression and causing chromosome rearrangements. As a result, organisms have evolved mechanisms, such as RNA-interference, to minimize the level of transposition. However, organisms without the conserved RNAi pathways, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, must use other mechanisms to prevent transposon movement. Here, we provide evidence that antisense (AS) RNAs from the retrovirus-like element Ty1 inhibit retrotransposition posttranslationally in Saccharomyces. Multiple Ty1AS transcripts overlap Ty1 sequences necessary for copy number control (CNC) and inhibit transposition in trans. Altering Ty1 copy number or deleting sequences in the CNC region that are required for reverse transcription affect Ty1AS RNA level and Ty1 movement. Ty1AS RNAs are enriched in virus-like particles, and are associated with a dramatic decrease in the level of integrase, less reverse transcriptase, and an inability to synthesize Ty1 cDNA. Thus, Ty1AS RNAs are part of an intrinsic mechanism that limits retrotransposition by reducing the level of proteins required for replication and integration.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus lack the conserved RNA interference pathway and utilize a novel form of copy number control (CNC) to inhibit Ty1 retrotransposition. Although noncoding transcripts have been implicated in CNC, here we present evidence that a truncated form of the Gag capsid protein (p22) or its processed form (p18) is necessary and sufficient for CNC and likely encoded by Ty1 internal transcripts. Coexpression of p22/p18 and Ty1 decreases mobility more than 30,000-fold. p22/p18 cofractionates with Ty1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and affects VLP yield, protein composition, and morphology. Although p22/p18 and Gag colocalize in the cytoplasm, p22/p18 disrupts sites used for VLP assembly. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity pulldowns also suggest that p18 and Gag interact. Therefore, this intrinsic Gag-like restriction factor confers CNC by interfering with VLP assembly and function and expands the strategies used to limit retroelement propagation. IMPORTANCE:Retrotransposons dominate the chromosomal landscape in many eukaryotes, can cause mutations by insertion or genome rearrangement, and are evolutionarily related to retroviruses such as HIV. Thus, understanding factors that limit transposition and retroviral replication is fundamentally important. The present work describes a retrotransposon-encoded restriction protein derived from the capsid gene of the yeast Ty1 element that disrupts virus-like particle assembly in a dose-dependent manner. This form of copy number control acts as a molecular rheostat, allowing high levels of retrotransposition when few Ty1 elements are present and inhibiting transposition as copy number increases. Thus, yeast and Ty1 have coevolved a form of copy number control that is beneficial to both "host and parasite." To our knowledge, this is the first Gag-like retrotransposon restriction factor described in the literature and expands the ways in which restriction proteins modulate retroelement replication.
Project description:The genomic RNA of the retrotransposon Ty1 is packaged as a dimer into virus-like particles. The 5' terminus of Ty1 RNA harbors cis-acting sequences required for translation initiation, packaging and initiation of reverse transcription (TIPIRT). To identify RNA motifs involved in dimerization and packaging, a structural model of the TIPIRT domain in vitro was developed from single-nucleotide resolution RNA structural data. In general agreement with previous models, the first 326 nucleotides of Ty1 RNA form a pseudoknot with a 7-bp stem (S1), a 1-nucleotide interhelical loop and an 8-bp stem (S2) that delineate two long, structured loops. Nucleotide substitutions that disrupt either pseudoknot stem greatly reduced helper-Ty1-mediated retrotransposition of a mini-Ty1, but only mutations in S2 destabilized mini-Ty1 RNA in cis and helper-Ty1 RNA in trans. Nested in different loops of the pseudoknot are two hairpins with complementary 7-nucleotide motifs at their apices. Nucleotide substitutions in either motif also reduced retrotransposition and destabilized mini- and helper-Ty1 RNA. Compensatory mutations that restore base-pairing in the S2 stem or between the hairpins rescued retrotransposition and RNA stability in cis and trans. These data inform a model whereby a Ty1 RNA kissing complex with two intermolecular kissing-loop interactions initiates dimerization and packaging.
Project description:Ty1 retrotransposon RNA has the potential to fold into a variety of distinct structures, mutation of which affects retrotransposition frequencies. We show here that one potential functional structure is located at the 5' end of the genome and can assume a pseudoknot conformation. Chemoenzymatic probing of wild-type and mutant mini-Ty1 RNAs supports the existence of such a structure, while molecular genetic analyses show that mutations disrupting pseudoknot formation interfere with retrotransposition, indicating that it provides a critical biological function. These defects are enhanced at higher temperatures. When these mutants are combined with compensatory changes, retrotransposition is restored, consistent with pseudoknot architecture. Analyses of mutants suggest a defect in Ty1 reverse transcription. Collectively, our data allow modeling of a three-dimensional structure for this novel critical cis-acting signal of the Ty1 genome.
Project description:Separase/Esp1 is a protease required at the onset of anaphase to cleave cohesin and thereby enable sister chromatid separation. Esp1 also promotes release of the Cdc14 phosphatase from the nucleolus to enable mitotic exit. To uncover other potential roles for separase, we performed two complementary genome-wide genetic interaction screens with a strain carrying the budding yeast esp1-1 separase mutation. We identified 161 genes that when mutated aggravate esp1-1 growth and 44 genes that upon increased dosage are detrimental to esp1-1 viability. In addition to the expected cell cycle and sister chromatid segregation genes that were identified, 24% of the genes identified in the esp1-1 genetic screens have a role in Ty1 element retrotransposition. Retrotransposons, like retroviruses, replicate through reverse transcription of an mRNA intermediate and the resultant cDNA product is integrated into the genome by a conserved transposon or retrovirus encoded integrase protein. We purified Esp1 from yeast and identified an interaction between Esp1 and Ty1 integrase using mass spectrometry that was subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Ty1 transposon mobility and insertion upstream of the SUF16 tRNA gene are both reduced in an esp1-1 strain but increased in cohesin mutant strains. Securin/Pds1, which is required for efficient localization of Esp1 to the nucleus, is also required for efficient Ty1 transposition. We propose that Esp1 serves two roles to mediate Ty1 transposition - one to remove cohesin and the second to target Ty1-IN to chromatin.