Baricitinib in patients with inadequate response or intolerance to conventional synthetic DMARDs: results from the RA-BUILD study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Baricitinib is an oral, reversible, selective Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor. METHODS:In this phase III, double-blind 24-week study, 684 biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response or intolerance to ?1 conventional synthetic DMARDs were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to placebo or baricitinib (2 or 4?mg) once daily, stratified by region and the presence of joint erosions. Endpoint measures included American College of Rheumatology 20% response (ACR20, primary endpoint), Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) score ?3.3. RESULTS:More patients achieved ACR20 response at week 12 with baricitinib 4?mg than with placebo (62% vs 39%, p?0.001). Compared with placebo, statistically significant improvements in DAS28, SDAI remission, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, morning joint stiffness, worst joint pain and worst tiredness were observed. In a supportive analysis, radiographic progression of structural joint damage at week 24 was reduced with baricitinib versus placebo. Rates of adverse events during the treatment period and serious adverse events (SAEs), including serious infections, were similar among groups (SAEs: 5% for baricitinib 4?mg and placebo). One patient had an adverse event of tuberculosis (baricitinib 4?mg); one patient had an adverse event of non-melanoma skin cancer (baricitinib 4?mg). Two deaths and three major adverse cardiovascular events occurred (placebo). Baricitinib was associated with a decrease in neutrophils and increases in low-density and high-density lipoprotein. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response or intolerance to conventional synthetic DMARDs, baricitinib was associated with clinical improvement and inhibition of progression of radiographic joint damage. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01721057; Results.
Project description:RA patients who have failed biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) represent an unmet medical need. We evaluated the effects of baseline characteristics, including prior bDMARD exposure, on baricitinib efficacy and safety.RA-BEACON patients (previously reported) had moderate to severe RA with insufficient response to one or more TNF inhibitor and were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily placebo or 2 or 4 mg baricitinib. Prior bDMARD use was allowed. The primary endpoint was a 20% improvement in ACR criteria (ACR20) at week 12 for 4 mg vs placebo. An exploratory, primarily post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated efficacy at weeks 12 and 24 by ACR20 and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ⩽10. An interaction P-value ⩽0.10 was considered significant, with significance at both weeks 12 and 24 given more weight.The odds ratios predominantly favored baricitinib over placebo and were generally similar to those in the overall study (3.4, 2.4 for ACR20 weeks 12 and 24, respectively). Significant quantitative interactions were observed for baricitinib 4 mg vs placebo at weeks 12 and 24: ACR20 by region (larger effect Europe) and CDAI ⩽10 by disease duration (larger effect ⩾10 years). No significant interactions were consistently observed for ACR20 by age; weight; disease duration; seropositivity; corticosteroid use; number of prior bDMARDs, TNF inhibitors or non-TNF inhibitors; or a specific prior TNF inhibitor. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates, including infections, appeared somewhat higher across groups with greater prior bDMARD use.Baricitinib demonstrated a consistent, beneficial treatment effect in bDMARD-refractory patients across subgroups based on baseline characteristics and prior bDMARD use.ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/), NCT01721044.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate upadacitinib efficacy and safety dose response in Japanese patients with active RA and an inadequate response to conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs). METHODS:This was a multicentre, phase IIb/III, dose-ranging study conducted in Japan, in which patients on previously stable csDMARDs were randomized to receive upadacitinib 7.5, 15 or 30?mg once daily or matching placebo for a 12-week double-blind period. The primary endpoint was a 20% improvement in ACR criteria (ACR20) response at week 12 using non-responder imputation. Key secondary endpoints included ACR50, ACR70 and 28-joint DAS with CRP (DAS28-CRP) remission and low disease activity. Adverse events were also assessed. RESULTS:Of 197 patients treated, 187 completed the double-blind period. At week 12, more patients receiving upadacitinib 7.5, 15 or 30?mg vs placebo met the ACR20 response (75.5%, 83.7%, 80.0% vs 42.9%; P?<?0.001), with significant differences observed as early as week 1. Stringent responses, including ACR50, ACR70 and DAS28-CRP <2.6, were achieved by significantly higher proportions of patients on upadacitinib than placebo and by numerically higher proportions on upadacitinib 15 or 30?mg vs upadacitinib 7.5?mg. Adverse events and infections (serious infections, opportunistic infections and herpes zoster) were more common with upadacitinib vs placebo and numerically highest with upadacitinib 30?mg. There were no venous thromboembolic events reported. CONCLUSION:Efficacy of upadacitinib was demonstrated in this population of Japanese patients with RA and an inadequate response to csDMARDs. Safety and tolerability were consistent with other upadacitinib RA studies. The 15?mg dose of upadacitinib showed the most favourable benefit-risk profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02720523.
Project description:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in clinical practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate responses (IR) to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or both DMARDs and tumour necrosis factor ? inhibitors (TNFis).Patients-categorised as TNFi-naive, TNFi-previous (washout) or TNFi-recent (no washout) -received open-label tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) every 4 weeks ± DMARDs for 24 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) and treatment discontinuations were monitored. Efficacy end points included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) responses, 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and European League Against Rheumatism responses.Overall, 1681 (976 TNF-naive, 298 TNFi-previous and 407 TNFi-recent) patients were treated; 5.1% discontinued treatment because of AEs. The AE rate was numerically higher in TNFi-recent (652.6/100 patient-years (PY)) and TNFi-previous (653.6/100PY) than in TNFi-naive (551.1/100PY) patients. Serious AE rates were 18.0/100PY, 28.0/100PY and 18.6/100PY; serious infection rates were 6.0/100PY, 6.8/100PY and 4.2/100PY, respectively. At week 4, 36.5% of patients achieved ACR20 response and 14.9% DAS28 remission (<2.6); at week 24, 66.9%, 46.6%, 26.4% and 56.8% achieved ACR20/ACR50/ACR70 responses and DAS28 remission, respectively. Overall, 61.6% (TNFi-naive), 48.5% (TNFi-previous) and 50.4% (TNFi-recent) patients achieved DAS28 remission.In patients with RA who were DMARD-IR/TNFi-IR, tocilizumab ± DMARDs provided rapid and sustained efficacy without unexpected safety concerns.
Project description:To investigate baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050), a novel, oral inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2 in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with methotrexate.In this phase IIb study, 301 patients were randomised 2:1:1:1:1 to receive once daily doses of placebo or 1, 2, 4 or 8?mg baricitinib for 12?weeks. Patients assigned to 2, 4 and 8 mg baricitinib continued blinded treatment for an additional 12?weeks. Patients assigned to placebo or 1 mg baricitinib were reassigned to 2 mg twice daily or 4 mg once daily baricitinib between weeks 12-24. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in the combined 4 and 8 mg groups achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response versus placebo at week 12.Significantly more patients in the combined baricitinib 4 and 8 mg groups compared with placebo achieved an ACR20 response at week 12 (76% vs 41%, p<0.001). At week 12, significant differences versus placebo were also observed in patients achieving ACR50, ACR70 and remission as measured by Disease Activity Score for 28-joint counts, Clinical Disease Activity Index and Simplified Disease Activity Index. Patients receiving 2, 4, or 8?mg baricitinib maintained or improved in all measures through 24?weeks. Similar proportions of patients experienced at least one adverse event in the placebo and baricitinib groups. Serious infections developed in three patients receiving baricitinib. No cases of tuberculosis, herpes zoster, opportunistic infections or deaths were reported. Dose-dependent decreases in haemoglobin were observed with baricitinib.Baricitinib improved the signs and symptoms of RA in methotrexate inadequate responders with active disease. Baricitinib was well tolerated with no unexpected safety findings through week 24.NCT01185353.
Project description:This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adding etanercept to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with moderately active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01313208) enrolled RA patients with Disease Activity Score using 28 joints with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) >3.2 and ≤5.1 (moderate disease) despite stable DMARD therapy. Patients were randomized to etanercept 50 mg or placebo weekly for 12 weeks; all patients then received etanercept 50 mg weekly through week 24. Primary endpoint was low disease activity (LDA) at week 12; secondary endpoints included DAS28-CRP remission at week 12; Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) LDA; American College of Rheumatology (ACR) responses; change in Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and safety. For 210 patients with moderate disease at screening, (104 placebo; 106 etanercept), only 58% still had moderate disease at baseline. At week 12, 33% on etanercept and 21% on placebo achieved LDA (P = 0.055); remission was achieved in 19% and 12%, respectively (P = 0.14). At week 12, ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses were observed in 29%, 13%, and 1% respectively, in patients on placebo, and 41%, 21%, and 6% of patients on etanercept. Mean (SD) change from baseline in HAQ-DI score was -0.20 (0.43) for placebo patients and -0.39 (0.54) for etanercept patients at week 12. No new safety signals were observed. LDA was achieved by more patients on etanercept than placebo in patients with moderate disease at screening, but the difference was not statistically significant at week 12.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate structural damage progression based on clinical response in rheumatoid arthritis patients with no or limited prior disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment receiving the Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor baricitinib 4 mg, methotrexate (MTX), or the combination. Data from the phase 3 RA-BEGIN study were analysed post hoc. Proportions of patients with structural damage progression (change from baseline greater than the smallest detectable change in modified total Sharp score) at week 52 were evaluated based on sustained Disease Activity Score for 28-joint count with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (DAS28-hsCRP) ??3.2 or Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) score ??11; no formal statistical comparisons between treatments were performed to test these proportions. Baseline factors associated with risk of structural damage progression, including Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score, were identified using multivariate analysis. Patients achieving versus not achieving sustained DAS28-hsCRP ??3.2 or SDAI score ??11 were less likely to experience structural damage progression at week 52. In patients achieving these responses, structural damage progression was less likely with baricitinib monotherapy or plus MTX than with MTX monotherapy. In patients not achieving these sustained clinical thresholds, structural damage progression was less likely with baricitinib plus MTX than with either monotherapy. Independent of treatment, baseline factors significantly associated with increased risk of structural damage progression included higher hsCRP and CDAI score, smoking, female sex, and lower body mass index. In conclusion, patients achieving versus not achieving sustained DAS28-hsCRP ??3.2 or SDAI score ??11 were less likely to show structural damage progression, irrespective of treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine if disease duration and number of prior disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) affect response to therapy in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Associations between disease duration or number of prior DMARDs and response to therapy were assessed using data from two randomised controlled trials in patients with established RA (mean duration, 11 years) receiving adalimumab+methotrexate. Response to therapy was assessed at week 24 using disease activity outcomes, including 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and proportions of patients with 20%/50%/70% improvement in American College of Rheumatology (ACR) responses. RESULTS:In the larger study (N=207), a greater number of prior DMARDs (>2?vs 0-1) was associated with smaller improvements in DAS28(CRP) (-1.8 vs -2.2), SDAI (-22.1 vs -26.9) and HAQ-DI (-0.43 vs -0.64) from baseline to week 24. RA duration of >10 years versus <1?year was associated with higher HAQ-DI scores (1.1 vs 0.7) at week 24, but results on DAS28(CRP) and SDAI were mixed. A greater number of prior DMARDs and longer RA duration were associated with lower ACR response rates at week 24. Data from the second trial (N=67) generally confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS:Number of prior DMARDs and disease duration affect responses to therapy in patients with established RA. Furthermore, number of prior DMARDs, regardless of disease duration, has a limiting effect on the potential response to adalimumab therapy.
Project description:This 28-week, phase IIIb study assessed safety and maintenance of response to certolizumab pegol (CZP) in a diverse population of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, stratified by prior anti-TNF exposure, concomitant methotrexate (MTX) use and disease duration. The ability to predict achievement of low disease activity (LDA) at week 28 from improvements in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), swollen joint count (SJC) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) up to week 12 was assessed.The 28-week study population included all patients who completed the double-blind (DB) phase and entered the open-label (OL) phase, receiving 200 mg CZP every 2 weeks (Q2W) ≥16 weeks. In the 12-week DB period, patients with active RA and an inadequate response to ≥1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) were randomized 4:1 to CZP (400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4 then 200 mg Q2W) or placebo (Q2W), stratified by prior anti-TNF use, concomitant use of MTX and disease duration (<2 years vs. ≥2 years).A total of 955 patients entered the OL phase. At week 28, similar clinical improvements were seen in those receiving CZP throughout (CZP → CZP; n = 771) and those receiving placebo during the DB phase and switching to CZP in the OL phase (placebo → CZP; n = 184) (ACR20 response rate = 59.7% vs. 53.3%; ACR50/ACR70 response rates were also similar). Effect of CZP treatment was similar regardless of prior anti-TNF use, disease duration and concomitant DMARDs, based on ACR20 response rates. The percentage of patients achieving DAS28(ESR) LDA at week 28 was calculated for DAS28(ESR), SJC or CDAI responders at earlier time points. Reductions from baseline (Δ) of DAS28(ESR) <1.2, ΔSJC <25% or ΔCDAI <10 by week 12 were associated with <9% chance of achieving LDA at week 28 regardless of prior anti-TNF exposure. Adverse event rates were similar for placebo → CZP and CZP → CZP patients, with no new safety signals identified.A diverse population of RA patients with varying disease duration showed rapid and sustained clinical improvements on CZP treatment, regardless of prior anti-TNF or concomitant DMARD use. Failure to achieve improvements in DAS28(ESR), SJC or CDAI within the first 12 weeks of CZP therapy was associated with a low chance of achieving LDA at week 28. No new safety signals were observed.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00717236 , 15 July 2008.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:To investigate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, in Korean patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refractory to conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) including methotrexate (MTX). METHODS:The main study was a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that was followed by a 48-week, open-labeled, extension phase. TCZ (8 mg/kg) or placebo was intravenously administered every 4 weeks. RESULTS:Those treated with TCZ showed more favorable outcomes in terms of 20% according to the American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR20) and ACR50 responses, individual parameters of ACR core set, disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) remission, and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response at week 24. These improvements were maintained or increased during the extension period. DAS28 remission at week 72 was associated with EULAR good response at week 12. The patients who experienced any adverse event (AE) were more frequent in the TCZ group compared to the placebo group. Most AEs were mild or moderate in intensity, although TCZ therapy had possible AEs including serious infection, abnormal liver function, and atherogenic lipid profile. CONCLUSION:TCZ infusion add-on is highly efficacious and well-tolerated in Korean patients with active RA refractory to conventional DMARDs including MTX. EULAR good response at week 12 could predict DAS28 remission at week 72.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and, possibly, lymphotoxin alpha (LTα) signaling contribute to inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Pateclizumab (anti-lymphotoxin- alpha; MLTA3698A) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks and depletes anti-LTα. This phase 2, randomized, head-to-head, active- and placebo-controlled trial examined the safety and efficacy of pateclizumab compared to adalimumab in RA patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD-IR). METHODS:Patients (n = 214) with active RA (≥ 6 swollen and tender joints, C-reactive protein ≥ 10 mg/L) on oral DMARDs were randomized (2:2:1) to receive pateclizumab 360 mg, adalimumab 40 mg, or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint, 4-variable, 28-joint disease activity score erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28(4)-ESR) response, was evaluated at 12 weeks using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model with adjustments for concomitant DMARD use and geographic region. Secondary efficacy endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses at Day 85. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity of pateclizumab were assessed. RESULTS:Pateclizumab reduced the DAS28(4)-ESR response (-1.89) at 12 weeks, however, this did not reach statistical significance compared to placebo (-1.54), while adalimumab (-2.52) differed significantly from both placebo and pateclizumab. Pateclizumab 12-week ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates (64%, 33%, and 14%) suggested clinical activity but were not statistically significant compared to placebo rates (46%, 24%, and 8%, respectively). CXCL13 serum levels decreased significantly following pateclizumab and adalimumab administration, demonstrating pharmacological target engagement by both drugs. Overall, adverse events (AEs) were comparable among all cohorts. Infections were the most common AE, occurring with comparable frequency in all groups. Serious AEs occurred in 0% of pateclizumab, 5.9% of adalimumab, and 2.3% of placebo patients, with serious infection in 2.3% of adalimumab patients and none in pateclizumab and placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS:Pateclizumab had a good safety profile in patients inadequately responsive to DMARDs, but no statistically significant improvement in RA signs and symptoms after 12 weeks of treatment. Adalimumab demonstrated efficacy and safety comparable to published results in this head-to-head comparison in DMARD-IR RA patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01225393, Registered 18 October 2010.