Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn2+ Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots.
ABSTRACT: Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn2+) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5?nm) for 12?h exhibited significant decrease (23?±?8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18?±?7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ??m were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2- at 1240?cm-1 and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060?cm-1, suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn2+ in plants.
Project description:Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm(-1) for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (? 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5-10 ppm, with concentrations ? 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles.
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are applied in various applications in catalysis, biosensing, imaging, and as antibacterial agents. Here we to prepare ZnO nanomaterials decorated by <i>?</i>-amino butyric acid (GABA), curcumin derivatives (CurBF<sub>2</sub>) and silver nanoparticles (CurBF<sub>2</sub>-AgNPs). The structures of all ZnO nanostructures were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, their antibacterial activities against Gram-negative (<i>Escherichia coli</i>) and Gram-positive (<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>) bacteria were investigated through analysis of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Among the prepared nanostructures, the ZnO NPs-GABA/CurBF<sub>2</sub>-AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. ZnO NPs fabricated here may have potential use in future anti-bacterial compositions and coatings technologies.
Project description:The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDPEs) in different products and applications leads to the likelihood of their co-occurrence in the aquatic system, making it important to study the effect of PBDPEs on the fate and transport of ZnO NPs. In this study, we determine the influence of PBDPEs (BDPE-47 and BDPE-209) on the colloidal stability and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs in different aqueous matrices. The results indicated the shift in ζ potential of ZnO NP from positive to negative in the presence of both PBDPEs in all tested waters; however, the effect on the NPs surface potential was specific to each water considered. The lower concentration of the PBDPEs (e.g., 0.5 mg/L) significantly reduced the ζ potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HDD) of ZnO NP, even in the presence of high content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in both freshwater and industrial wastewater. Moreover, both BDPE-47 and BDPE-209 impede the agglomeration of ZnO NP in simple and natural media, even in the presence of monovalent and polyvalent cations. However, the effect of BDPE-47 on the ζ potential, HDD, and agglomeration of ZnO NP was more pronounced than that of BDPE-209 in all tested waters. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirm the adsorption of PBDPEs onto ZnO NP surface via aromatic ether groups and Br elements. The findings of this study will facilitate a better understanding of the interaction behavior between the ZnO NPs and PBDPEs, which can reduce the exposure risk of aquatic organisms to both pollutants.
Project description:In this study, GNF@ZnO composites (gelatin nanofibers (GNF) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs)) as a novel antibacterial agent were obtained using a wet chemistry approach. The physicochemical characterization of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and GNF@ZnO composites, as well as the evaluation of their antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (<i>Staphyloccocus aureus</i> and <i>Bacillus pumilus</i>) and Gram-negative (<i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Pseudomonas fluorescens</i>) bacteria were performed. ZnO NPs were synthesized using a facile sol-gel approach. Gelatin nanofibers (GNF) were obtained by an electrospinning technique. GNF@ZnO composites were obtained by adding previously produced GNF into a Zn<sup>2+</sup> methanol solution during ZnO NPs synthesis. Crystal structure, phase, and elemental compositions, morphology, as well as photoluminescent properties of pristine ZnO NPs, pristine GNF, and GNF@ZnO composites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM/SEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. SEM, EDX, as well as FTIR analyses, confirmed the adsorption of ZnO NPs on the GNF surface. The pristine ZnO NPs were highly crystalline and monodispersed with a size of approximately 7 nm and had a high surface area (83 m<sup>2</sup>/g). The thickness of the pristine gelatin nanofiber was around 1 µm. The antibacterial properties of GNF@ZnO composites were investigated by a disk diffusion assay on agar plates. Results show that both pristine ZnO NPs and their GNF-based composites have the strongest antibacterial properties against <i>Pseudomonas fluorescence</i> and <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, with the zone of inhibition above 10 mm. Right behind them is <i>Escherichia coli</i> with slightly less inhibition of bacterial growth. These properties of GNF@ZnO composites suggest their suitability for a range of antimicrobial uses, such as in the food industry or in biomedical applications.
Project description:Introduction: In the recent years, green synthesis is a novel method without some disadvantages of physical and chemical methods. In this approach, bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and plants may be applied without utilizing toxic and expensive materials for metal nanoparticles (MNPs) preparation. Methods: In this study, we used Taguchi method to obtain optimum conditions in titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle (NPs) biosynthesis by Halomonas elongata IBRC-M 10214. Design and analysis of Taguchi experiments (an orthogonal assay and analysis of variance [ANOVA]) carried out by the Qualitek-4 software. Effects of TiO(OH)2, incubation temperature, and culturing time for synthesis of TiO2 NPs as well as ZnCl2 concentration, glucose concentration, and incubation temperature for the preparation of ZnO NPs were evaluated as the controllable factors with 3 levels. Characterization of TiO2 and ZnO NPs were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Also, the antimicrobial properties of these NPs were investigated based on agar diffusion assay of NPs dispersed in batch cultures using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 as multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Results: It was evaluated that TiO2 and ZnO NPs had respectively average diameter sizes of 104.63±27.75 and 18.11±8.93 nm with spherical shapes. In contrast to the TiO2 NPs without antibacterial activity, the ZnO NPs had antibacterial effects at 0.1 and 0.01 M of (ZnCl2). Conclusion: The ZnO NPs have the antibacterial effect that can be operative in the medicinal aspect for fighting against prominent MDR bacteria such as E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 43300. In total, this study presents a simple method in the biosynthesis of TiO2 and ZnO NPs with low the expense, eco-friendly, and high productivity properties.
Project description:The development of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) inhibitors is considered to have therapeutic potential in diabetic complications inhibiting the loss of the biomolecular function. In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Morus indica and were characterized by various techniques such as ultraviolet (UV)-Vis spectroscopy, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Further, the inhibition of AGEs formation after exposure to ZnO-NPs was investigated by in-vitro, in-vivo, and molecular docking studies. Biochemical and histopathological changes after exposure to ZnO-NPs were also studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. ZnO-NPs showed an absorption peak at 359 nm with a purity of 92.62% and ~6-12 nm in size, which is characteristic of nanoparticles. The images of SEM showed agglomeration of smaller ZnO-NPs and EDS authenticating that the synthesized nanoparticles were without impurities. The biosynthesized ZnO-NPs showed significant inhibition in the formation of AGEs. The particles were effective against methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by inhibiting the formation of AGEs, which was dose-dependent. Further, the presence of MGO resulted in complete damage of biconcave red blood corpuscles (RBCs) to an irregular shape, whereas the morphological changes were prevented when they were treated with ZnO-NPs leading to the prevention of complications caused due to glycation. The administration of ZnO-NPs (100 mg Kg-1) in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats reversed hyperglycemia and significantly improved hepatic enzymes level and renal functionality, also the histopathological studies revealed restoration of kidney and liver damage nearer to normal conditions. Molecular docking of BSA with ZnO-NPs confirms that masking of lysine and arginine residues is one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the potent antiglycation activity of ZnO-NPs. The findings strongly suggest scope for exploring the therapeutic potential of diabetes-related complications.
Project description:Herein, CuO/ZnO nanocomposites at different ratios were successfully synthesized through a green biosynthesis approach. This was performed by harnessing the fungal-secreted enzymes and proteins during the sol-gel process for nanocomposites seed growth. All fabricated nanoparticles/nanocomposites were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The photocatalytic degradation efficacy of the synthesized nanocomposites was evaluated using a cationic methylene blue (MB) dye as a model of reaction. Results obtained from the FT-IR and EDX analyses revealed that CuO-NPs, ZnO-NPs, CuO/ZnO50/50, CuO/ZnO80/20, and CuO/ZnO20/80 were successfully prepared by harnessing the biomass filtrate of Penicillium corylophilum As-1. Furthermore, XRD and TEM revealed the variation in the particle size of the nanocomposites (10-55 nm) with the ratio of the nanoparticles. Notably, the size of the nanocomposites was proportionally increased with an increasing ratio of ZnO-NPs. XPS analysis affirmed the presence of both Cu and Zn in the nanocomposites with varying binding energies compared with individual nanoparticles. Furthermore, a high photo-degradation efficacy was achieved by increasing the ratio of ZnO-NPs in the nanocomposite formulation, and 97% of organic MB dye was removed after 85 min of irradiation using the CuO/ZnO20/80 nanocomposite.
Project description:A novel eco-friendly procedure was developed to produce safer, stable and highly pure zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using microalgae Chlorella extract. The ZnO NPs were synthesized simply using zinc nitrate and microalgae Chlorella extract which conducted at ambient conditions. In this recipe, microalgae Chlorella extract acted as the reducing agent and a stabilizing layer on fresh ZnO NPs. UV-visible spectrum was confirmed the formation of ZnO NPs showing an absorption peak at 362?nm. XRD results demonstrated that prepared ZnO NPs has a high-crystalline hexagonal (Wurtzite) structure, with average size about 19.44?nm in diameter. FT-IR spectral analysis indicated an active contribution of algae-derived biomolecules in zinc ions bioreduction. According to SEM and TEM observations, ZnO NPs are well dispersed and has a hexagonal shape with the average size of 20?±?2.2?nm, respectively. Based on gas chromatography analyses, the optimum 0.01?g/L dosage of ZnO catalyst revealed an effective photocatalytic activity toward the degradation (97%) of Dibenzothiophene (DBT) contaminant as an organosulfur model in the neutral pH at the mild condition. Rapid separation and facile recyclability at five consecutive runs were demonstrated high efficiency and durability of green ZnO nanophotocatalyst. The possible mechanisms of green ZnO NPs formation and the photo-desulfurization of DBT were also proposed.
Project description:Owing to the peculiar broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), we envisaged their use to treat bacterial/mycobacterial/fungal infections during peritoneal dialysis (PD) of end-stage renal failure patients. However, a recent study from our lab showed that ZnO-NPs cannot be employed for the same in their naked form owing to their rapid agglomeration. Also, the naked ZnO-NPs showed strong interaction with organic acids present in the PD fluid (i.e., lactate and citrate present abundantly in almost all biological fluids) resulting in the formation of bioconjugates. Here, we propose that the surface coating of ZnO NPs may inhibit the binding interactions of NPs with the constituents of PD fluid. Therefore, in this study, we have carried out the surface coating of ZnO NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights, followed by the investigations of physicochemical properties of PEGylated ZnO NPs dispersed in PD fluid using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The interaction of PEGylated ZnO NPs has also been studied separately in glucose and lactic acid which are the main constituents of PD fluid and in citric acid. Although the X-ray diffraction and TEM results infer the colloidal stability of PEGylated ZnO NPs in PD fluid, FT-IR, UV-vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance results revealed the binding interactions of PEGylated ZnO NPs with the PD constituents. PEGylated ZnO NPs also interact strongly with the lactic acid and citric acid, leading to agglomeration, as observed previously for uncoated ZnO NPs. Further, the antibacterial activities of bare and PEG-coated ZnO NPs dispersion in PD fluid have been studied. A reduction in the bacterial inhibition effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was observed for both the bare and PEG-coated ZnO NPs dispersed in PD fluid, indicating that the complex nature of PD fluid counteract on the efficiency of these nanobiotics.