Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ample evidence has shown that early-life social conditions are associated with mortality later in life. However, little attention has been given to the strength of these effects across specific age intervals from birth to old age. In this paper, we study the effect of the family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status at birth on all-cause mortality at different age intervals in a Swedish cohort of 11?868 individuals followed across their lifespan. METHODS:Using the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, we fitted Cox regression models to estimate age-varying HRs of all-cause mortality according to mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position. RESULTS:Mother's marital status and family's socioeconomic position at birth were associated with higher mortality rates throughout life (HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.26) for unmarried mothers; 1.19 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.25) for low socioeconomic position). While the effect of family's socioeconomic position showed little variation across different age groups, the effect of marital status was stronger for infant mortality (HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76); p=0.04 for heterogeneity). The results remained robust when early life and adult mediator variables were included. CONCLUSIONS:Family's socioeconomic position and mother's marital status involve different dimensions of social stratification with independent effects on mortality throughout life. Our findings support the importance of improving early-life conditions in order to enhance healthy ageing.
Project description:A well-known demographic finding in modern society is the inverse association between socioeconomic status and mortality. The purpose of the study was to examine socioeconomic indicators, such as occupational category (white-collar vs blue -collar) and occupational position (managerial vs non-managerial) as determinants of all -cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in a Japanese working population.This is a prospective study.Data of a baseline survey were collected between 1992 and 1995, and ultimately 6929 Japanese workers aged 65 years and younger (3333 men and 3596 women) from 12 rural communities across Japan were followed until the end of 2005.The HRs of death and 95% CIs from all causes were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model.Men in blue-collar jobs showed an increased all-cause mortality risk compared with those in white-collar jobs (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.45). Stratified by occupational category, non-managerial women in blue-collar jobs showed a decreased CVD mortality risk compared with managerial women (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.81), after adjusting for confounding factors. However, non-managerial women in white-collar jobs showed an increased mortality risk compared with managerial women, although this was not significant (HR 2.34, 95% CI 0.25 to 21.87).Socioeconomic disparity according to occupational category was related to the risk of all-cause mortality among Japanese men. There is a potential interaction of occupational category and position in CVD mortality among Japanese women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple studies have suggested that various pesticides are associated with a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) and may influence the progression of the disease. However, the evidence regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on mortality among patients with PD is equivocal. This study examines whether pesticide exposure influences the risk of mortality among patients with PD in Southern Brazil. METHODS:A total of 150 patients with idiopathic PD were enrolled from 2008 to 2013 and followed until 2019. In addition to undergoing a detailed neurologic evaluation, patients completed surveys regarding socioeconomic status and environmental exposures. RESULTS:Twenty patients (13.3%) reported a history of occupational pesticide exposure with a median duration of exposure of 10?years (mean?=?13.1, SD?=?11.2). Patients with a history of occupational pesticide exposure had higher UPDRS-III scores, though there were no significant differences in regards to age, sex, disease duration, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and age at symptom onset. Patients with occupational pesticide exposure were more than twice as likely to die than their unexposed PD counterparts (HR?=?2.32, 95% CI [1.15, 4.66], p?=?0.018). Occupational pesticide exposure was also a significant predictor of death in a cox-proportional hazards model which included smoking and caffeine intake history (HR?=?2.23, 95% CI [1.09, 4.59], p?=?0.03)) and another which included several measures of socioeconomic status (HR?=?3.91, 95% CI [1.32, 11.58], p?=?0.01). CONCLUSION:In this prospective cohort study, we found an increased all-cause mortality risk in PD patients with occupational exposure to pesticides. More studies are needed to further analyze this topic with longer follow-up periods, more detailed exposure information, and more specific causes of mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Active travel is increasingly recognised as an important source of physical activity. We aimed to describe associations between commute mode and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. METHODS:We analysed data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study of England and Wales (ONS-LS), which linked data from the Census of England and Wales (henceforth referred to as the Census) for 1991, 2001, and 2011 to mortality and cancer registrations. The cohort included individuals traced in the ONS-LS who were economically active (ie, aged ?16 years, not retired from work, and not a full-time carer). Commuting by private motorised transport, public transport, walking, and cycling were compared in terms of all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and cancer incidence, using Cox proportional-hazards models with time-varying covariates. Models were adjusted for age, sex, housing tenure, marital status, ethnicity, university education, car access, population density, socioeconomic classification, Carstairs index quintile, long-term illness, and year entered the study, and were additionally stratified by socioeconomic group. FINDINGS:Between the 1991 Census and the 2011 Census, 784?677 individuals contributed data for at least one Census, of whom 394?746 were included in the ONS-LS and were considered to be economically active working-age individuals. 13?983 people died, 3172 from cardiovascular disease and 6509 from cancer, and there were 20?980 incident cancer cases. In adjusted models, compared with commuting by private motorised vehicle, bicycle commuting was associated with a 20% reduced rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0·80, 95% CI 0·73-0·89), a 24% decreased rate of cardiovascular disease mortality (0·76, 0·61-0·93), a 16% lower rate of cancer mortality (0·84, 0·73-0·98), and an 11% reduced rate of incident cancer (0·89, 0·82-0·97). Compared with commuting by private motorised vehicle, rail commuters had a 10% lower rate of all-cause mortality (HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·83-0·97) and a 21% decreased rate of cardiovascular disease mortality (0·79, 0·67-0·94), in addition to a 12% reduced rate of incident cancer (0·88, 0·83-0·94). Walk commuting was associated with 7% lower cancer incidence (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·89-0·97) Stratified analyses did not indicate differences in associations between socioeconomic groups. INTERPRETATION:Our findings augment existing evidence for the beneficial health effects of physically active commute modes, particularly cycling and train use, and suggest that all socioeconomic groups could benefit. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research.
Project description:Background:Preventing ischaemic stroke attracts significant focus in atrial fibrillation (AF) cases. Less is known on the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF. Methods:Our study population included adults (n=12 283) ?45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centres in Sweden 2001-07. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and the outcomes all-cause mortality, after adjustment for age, and comorbid cardiovascular conditions. Results:During a mean of 5.8 years (SD 2.4) of follow-up, 3954 (32.3%) patients had died; 1971 were women (35.0%) and 1983 were men (29.8%). Higher educational level was associated with a reduced mortality in fully adjusted models: HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.96) for secondary school in men, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.60-0.88) for college/university in women, and HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.94) for college/university in men, compared to primary school. Unmarried men and divorced men had an increased risk of death, compared with married men: HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.50), and HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.07-1.42), respectively. College/university education level was also associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction in men and women, and lower risk of congestive heart failure in women. Conclusion:More attention could be paid to individuals of lower levels of formal education, and unmarried men, in order to provide timely management for AF and prevent its debilitating complications.
Project description:Both low socioeconomic status (SES) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important risk factors for mortality. However, little is known about their combined effects and relative contribution to the mortality risk.From a nationwide cohort provided by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, 153,075 subjects who were over 30 years of age from 2003 to 2004 were followed-up until 2010. The SESs of the subjects in the DM and non-DM (NDM) groups were categorized into 3 groups (highest 30% as S1, middle 40% as S2, and lowest 30% as S3) based on the subjects' income levels.During the 7.9-year follow-up, 3933 deaths occurred. When the subjects were stratified into 6 groups by their socioeconomic and diabetes status, a linearly increasing pattern of the hazard ratio (HR) of mortality from the higher SES without diabetes group (NDM-S1, as a reference) to the lower SES with diabetes group (DM-S3; HR, 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.80-2.36) was observed (P for trend?<?0.001). Notably, subjects with DM in the highest SES group (DM-S1) had a significantly higher mortality risk than did non-DM subjects in the lowest SES group (NDM-S3). This pattern was maintained in cause-specific mortality but was more prominent in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and less prominent in cancer mortality. The association was not affected by gender; however, in individuals <60 years of age, the combined effects of SES and DM on mortality were more prominent (DM-S3; HR, 3.68, 95% CI, 2.95-4.60) than in those ?60 years of age.Low SES and DM were major determinants of mortality and synergistically increased the risks of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.
Project description:The social patterning of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its implication in aging suggest that the virus may partially contribute to socioeconomic disparities in mortality. We used Cox regression and inverse odds ratio weighting to quantify the proportion of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause mortality that was attributable to mediation by CMV seropositivity. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), with mortality follow-up through December 2011. SES was assessed as household income (income-to-poverty ratio ?1.30;>1.30 to?1.85;>1.85 to?3.50;>3.50) and education (<high school; high school; >high school). We found strong associations between low SES and increased mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 2.06 comparing the lowest versus highest income groups and HR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.48 comparing <high school versus >high school education. 65% of individuals were CMV seropositive, accounting for 6-15% of the SES-mortality associations. Age modified the associations between SES, CMV, and mortality, with CMV more strongly associated with mortality in older individuals. Our findings suggest that cytomegalovirus may partially contribute to persistent socioeconomic disparities in mortality, particularly among older individuals.
Project description:The association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years). Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ? 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2). The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97). In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease), subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity) had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea. This obesity paradox was prominent in not only the elderly but also individuals with chronic disease.
Project description:To assess the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular comorbidity on mortality in a multiethnic primary care population.Retrospective cohort study.Inner-city primary care trust in West Midlands, UK.Individuals aged 40 years and older, of South Asian, black or white ethnicity, registered with a general practice and with their kidney function checked within the last 12 months (n=31 254).All-cause mortality.Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher albuminuria, older age, white ethnicity (vs South Asian or black ethnicity) and increasing cardiovascular comorbidities were independent determinants of a higher mortality risk. In the multivariate model including comorbidities and kidney function, the HR for mortality for South Asians was 0.697 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.868, p=0.001) and for blacks it was 0.533 (95% CI 0.403 to 0.704, p<0.001) compared to whites.The HR for death is lower for South Asian and black individuals compared to white individuals. This is, in part, independent of age, gender, socioeconomic status, kidney function and comorbidities. Risk of death is higher in individuals with CKD and with a higher cumulative cardiovascular comorbidity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Socioeconomic inequalities have a strong impact on population health all over the world. Occupational status is a powerful determinant of health in rich societies. We aimed at investigating the association between occupation and mortality in a large metropolitan study. DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:Rome, capital of Italy. PARTICIPANTS:We used the Rome Longitudinal Study, the administrative cohort of residents in Rome at the 2001 general census, followed until 2015. We selected residents aged 15-65 years at baseline. For each subject, we had information on sex, age and occupation (occupational status and type of job) according to the Italian General Census recognition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We investigated all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular and accidental mortality, major causes of death in the working-age population. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between occupation and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. RESULTS:We selected 1?466?726 subjects (52.1% women). 42?715 men and 29?915 women died during the follow-up. In men, 47.8% of deaths were due to cancer, 26.7% to cardiovascular causes and 6.4% to accidents, whereas in women 57.8% of deaths were due to cancer, 19.3% to cardiovascular causes and 3.5% to accidents. We found an association between occupational variables and mortality, more evident in men than in women. Compared with employed, unemployed had a higher risk of mortality for all causes with an HR=1.99 (95% CI 1.92 to 2.06) in men and an HR=1.49 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.60) in women. Compared with high-qualified non-manual workers, non-specialised manual workers had a higher mortality risk (HR=1.68, 95%?CI 1.59 to 1.77 and HR=1.30, 95%?CI 1.20 to 1.40, for men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:This study shows the importance of occupational variables as social health determinants and provides evidence for policy-makers on the necessity of integrated and preventive policies aimed at improving the safety of the living and the working environment.