Clinical and genetic factors associated with warfarin maintenance dose in northern Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement.
ABSTRACT: The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n?=?183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed by incorporating patients' clinical and genetic data to create a new algorithm for warfarin dosing. From the 96 SNPs analyzed, VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP1A2 rs2069514, CYP3A4 rs28371759, and APOE rs7412 were associated with higher average warfarin maintenance doses, whereas CYP2C9 rs1057910, EPHX1 rs2260863, and CYP4F2 rs2189784 were associated with lower warfarin doses (P?
Project description:Despite the development of new oral agents over the last decade, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) remain the most widely used anticoagulants for treating and preventing thromboembolism worldwide. In Chile, the Ministry of Health indicates that acenocoumarol should be used in preference to any other coumarin. Complications of inappropriate dosing are among the most frequently reported adverse events associated with this medication. It is well known that polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic proteins related to coumarins (especially warfarin) influence response to these drugs. This work analyzed the impact of CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), GGCx (rs11676382), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), CYP4F2 (rs2108622), VKORC1 (rs9923231), VKORC1 (rs7294), CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574), and ABCB1 (rs1045642) polymorphisms on time to therapeutic range for oral anticoagulants in 304 Chilean patients. CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms were associated with time to therapeutic range for acenocoumarol in Chilean patients, and the CYP4F2 TT genotype, MDR1 A allele, CYP1A2 A allele, and CYP3A4T allele are promising variants that merit further analysis. The presence of polymorphisms explained only 4.1% of time to therapeutic range for acenocoumarol in a multivariate linear model. These results improve our understanding of the basis of ethnic variations in drug metabolism and response to oral anticoagulant therapy. We hope that these findings will contribute to developing an algorithm for VKA dose adjustment in the Chilean population in the near future, decreasing the frequency of stroke, systemic embolism, and bleeding-related adverse events.
Project description:AIM:To determine whether VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 genotypes contribute to warfarin therapy in patients during initiation and maintenance anticoagulation treatment after heart valve surgery. METHODS:287 Chinese patients with warfarin treatment more than three month after heart valve replacement operations were enrolled. Blood was collected from each subject for DNA extraction and genotyping. Analyzing the relationship between genotypes and warfarin curative effect. RESULTS:Their mean age was 48.0 ± 10.5 years old. During the initiation phase, the growth rate of INR was partial correlated with VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650, respectively. Compared with AG or GG genotypes of VKORC1 c.-1639 carriers, patients with VKORC1 c.-1639AA reached target INR therapeutic range faster (P<0.001) and has a high risk of overanticoagulation (P<0.001). Carriers of at least one CYP2C9 *3 allele reached the target INR therapeutic range and supra-therapeutic INR were faster than CYP2C9 wild-type carriers (P=0.032, P=0.032, respectively). CYP4F2 rs2108622 could significantly influence on time to the target INR therapeutic range and time to INR above 3.0 after hierarchical analysis with VKORC1, CYP2C9 and ORM1 (P=0.011, P=0.044, respectively). VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650 were significantly influence the %TTR in three months (P=0.031, P=0.008, P=0.001, respectively). During the maintenance phase, VKORC1 c.-1639AA carriers spent more time at supra-therapeutic INRs (P<0.001). CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 gene variants did not affect outcome parameters in maintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that genetic factors could significantly affected on warfarin therapy in Chinese. Meanwhile, genetic variations play a more important role in the initial phase than did in maintenance phase of warfarin therapy.
Project description:CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are two major genetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. Additionally, genes in the warfarin metabolism pathway have also been associated with dose variance. We analyzed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes to identify genetic factors that might confer warfarin sensitivity in Indonesian patients.Direct sequencing method was used to identify SNPs in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1, PROC and GGCX genes in warfarin-treated patients. Multiple linear regressions were performed to model the relationship warfarin daily dose requirement with genetic and non-genetic variables measured and used to develop a novel algorithm for warfarin dosing.From the 40 SNPs analyzed, CYP2C9 rs17847036 and VKORC1 rs9923231 showed significant association with warfarin sensitivity. In our study population, no significant correlation could be detected between CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9C-65 (rs9332127), CYP4F2 rs2108622, GGCX rs12714145, EPHX1 rs4653436 and PROC rs1799809 with warfarin sensitivity.VKORC1 rs9923231 AA and CYP2C9 rs17847036 GG genotypes were associated with low dosage requirements of most patients (2.05 ± 0.77 mg/day and 2.09 ± 0.70 mg/day, respectively). CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants as well as non-genetic factors such as age, body weight and body height account for 15.4% of variance in warfarin dose among our study population. Additional analysis of this combination could allow for personalized warfarin treatment in ethnic Indonesians.
Project description:Warfarin is the most commonly used oral anticoagulant in sub-Saharan Africa. Dosing is challenging due to a narrow therapeutic index and high interindividual variability in dose requirements. To evaluate the genetic factors affecting warfarin dosing in black-Africans, we performed a meta-analysis of 48 studies (2,336 patients). Significant predictors for CYP2C9 and stable dose included rs1799853 (CYP2C9*2), rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3), rs28371686 (CYP2C9*5), rs9332131 (CYP2C9*6), and rs28371685 (CYP2C9*11) reducing dose by 6.8, 12.5, 13.4, 8.1, and 5.3 mg/week, respectively. VKORC1 variants rs9923231 (-1639G>A), rs9934438 (1173C>T), rs2359612 (2255C>T), rs8050894 (1542G>C), and rs2884737 (497T>G) decreased dose by 18.1, 21.6, 17.3, 11.7, and 19.6 mg/week, respectively, whereas rs7294 (3730G>A) increased dose by 6.9 mg/week. Finally, rs12777823 (CYP2C gene cluster) was associated with a dose reduction of 12.7 mg/week. Few studies were conducted in Africa, and patient numbers were small, highlighting the need for further work in black-Africans to evaluate genetic factors determining warfarin response.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs1057910 (CYP2C9), rs2108622 (CYP4F2), and rs699664 (GGCX) involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.<h4>Methods</h4>220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.<h4>Results</h4>rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969). 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5). Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender), rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.
Project description:Differences in warfarin maintenance dosages based on the presence of polymorphisms in VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and ORM1 can be determined through dosage adjustment according to routine guidelines. Little is known about whether routine therapy could provide consensus anticoagulation control for patients with different genotypes. This study was carried out to compare anticoagulant control in patients with different genotypes. Six hundred seventy patients using warfarin according to Chinese guidelines were enrolled. Warfarin dosages and monitored international normalized ratios (INRs) were recorded. Genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622, CYP2C9 rs1057910, and ORM1 rs17650 polymorphisms were determined. Warfarin dosages and INR were compared between genotypes. Patients with the AGCC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism took longer than patients with the AACC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism (20 vs 5 days, P < .001) to achieve the targeted INR range. The INR values of patients with AACC*F*F*1*3 were unstable and did not enter the stable state control phase until after 35 days. The peak INR of patients with the AACC*F*F*1*3 polymorphism was exceedingly high, with some values exceeding the control range limit of 3.0. Patients with the AACC*F*S*1*1 or AACT*F*F*1*1 polymorphisms exhibited similar INR values as the patients with the AACC*F*F*1*1 polymorphism. This study found that routine medication with warfarin provides significantly different levels of anticoagulant control between patients with wild-type genotypes and patients with heterozygous polymorphism genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231 or CYP2C9 rs1057910. Patients with heterozygous polymorphism genotypes of VKORC1 or CYP2C9 require genotype-directed therapy with warfarin to increase efficacy and safety in anticoagulant treatment.
Project description:The main aim of this study was to screen various genetic and nongenetic factors that are known to alter warfarin response and to generate a model to predict stable warfarin maintenance dose for Indian patients. The study comprised of 300 warfarin-treated patients. Followed by extensive literature review, 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A (rs9923231), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), FVII R353Q (rs6046), GGCX 12970 C>G (rs11676382), CALU c.*4A>G (rs1043550), EPHX1 c.337T>C (rs1051740), GGCX: c.214+597G>A (rs12714145), GGCX: 8016G>A (rs699664), and CYP4F2 V433M (rs2108622), and 5 nongenetic factors, that is, age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, and diet, were selected to find their association with warfarin response. The univariate analysis was carried out for 15 variables (10 genetic and 5 nongenetic). Five variables, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, age, and diet, were found to be significantly associated with warfarin response in univariate analysis. These 5 variables were entered in stepwise and multiple regression analysis to generate a prediction model for stable warfarin maintenance dose. The generated model scored R2 of .67, which indicates that this model can explain 67% of warfarin dose variability. The generated model will help in prescribing more accurate warfarin maintenance dosing in Indian patients and will also help in minimizing warfarin-induced adverse drug reactions and a better quality of life in these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The anticoagulation of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation during the perioperative stage does matter and should be treated with discretion. We aimed to assess impact of three important genes participating in vitamin K cycle (i.e. VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566) on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement in Sichuan Han Chinese patients with catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS:A total of 222 atrial fibrillation patients taking stable warfarin therapy after catheter ablation operation were enrolled in this study. The study population included had high (?2) risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc risk score. Genotypes of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566 were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to depict the impact of VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and NQO1 rs1800566 on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement. RESULTS:Carriers of VKORC1 rs9923231 AG/GG genotypes required significantly higher warfarin dose (3.03?±?0.28 mg/day, 7.19 mg/day, respectively) than AA carriers (2.52?±?0.07 mg/day; P <?0.001). Carriers of CYP4F2 rs2108622 CT/TT genotypes required significantly higher warfarin dose (3.38?±?0.22 mg/day, 2.79?±?0.19 mg/day, respectively) than CC carriers (2.41?±?0.08 mg/day; P?<?0.001). However, the warfarin dose for carriers of NQO1 rs1800566 CT/TT genotypes (2.46?±?0.24 mg/day, 3.01?±?0.27 mg/day, respectively) was not significantly higher than that for the CC carriers (2.33?±?0.1 mg/day). The multiple linear regression model including genotypes and demographic characteristics, could explain 20.1% of individual variations in the daily stable warfarin dose in Sichuan Han Chinese. VKORC1 rs9923231 contributed most (15%) to the individual variations in daily stable warfarin dose, while CYP4F2 rs2108622 contributed least (3%). CONCLUSION:NQO1 rs1800566 is not a significant genetic factor of warfarin dose for Han Chinese, whereas VKORC1 rs9923231 and CYP4F2 rs2108622 are significant genetic factors, which could explain 15% and approximately 3% of individual variations in the daily stable warfarin dose respectively.
Project description:AIMS:CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the individual and combined frequencies of important CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 variants in several racial/ethnic groups. MATERIALS & METHODS:Healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) blood donors were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11 and *13), VKORC1 (g.-1639G>A) and CYP4F2 (*3 [p.V433M] and rs2189784). RESULTS:The combined frequencies of variant CYP2C9 alleles were 0.133, 0.078, 0.212, 0.178 and 0.212 among African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, respectively. CYP4F2*3 frequencies were prevalent (0.233-0.342) among Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, while significantly less frequent among African-Americans (0.117; p < 0.0001). In addition, CYP4F2*3 was in linkage disequilibrium with rs2189784, an allele recently associated with time-to-therapeutic international normalized ratio, among all studied populations. Importantly, 87-95% of Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals had a variant CYP2C9, VKORC1 and/or CYP4F2*3 allele, compared with only 53% of African-Americans (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with other racial/ethnic populations studied, only approximately one in 80 African-Americans were CYP4F2*3 homozygous, indicating that this population would benefit less from dosing algorithms that include this variant. In addition, the unique allele frequency profiles identified among the different populations partly explain why genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms perform less well for African-Americans and suggest that other unidentified genetic and/or nongenetic factors that influence warfarin dosage may exist in this population.
Project description:This document is an update to the 2011 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Evidence from the published literature is presented for CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 genotype-guided warfarin dosing to achieve a target international normalized ratio of 2-3 when clinical genotype results are available. In addition, this updated guideline incorporates recommendations for adult and pediatric patients that are specific to continental ancestry.