A compact fiber-optic probe-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection system.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel compact fiberoptic based singlet oxygen near-infrared luminescence probe coupled to an InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector. Patterned time gating of the single-photon detector is used to limit unwanted dark counts and eliminate the strong photosensitizer luminescence background. Singlet oxygen luminescence detection at 1270 nm is confirmed through spectral filtering and lifetime fitting for Rose Bengal in water, and Photofrin in methanol as model photosensitizers. The overall performance, measured by the signal-to-noise ratio, improves by a factor of 50 over a previous system that used a fiberoptic-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector. The effect of adding light scattering to the photosensitizer is also examined as a first step towards applications in tissue in vivo.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is generally based on the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) through interactions of photosensitizer, light, and oxygen ((3)O(2)). These three components are highly interdependent and dynamic, resulting in variable temporal and spatial (1)O(2) dose deposition. Robust dosimetry that accounts for this complexity could improve treatment outcomes. Although the 1270 nm luminescence emission from (1)O(2) provides a direct and predictive PDT dose metric, it may not be clinically practical. We used (1)O(2) luminescence (or singlet oxygen luminescence (SOL)) as a gold-standard metric to evaluate potentially more clinically feasible dosimetry based on photosensitizer bleaching. We performed in vitro dose-response studies with simultaneous SOL and photosensitizer fluorescence measurements under various conditions, including variable (3)O(2), using the photosensitizer meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The results show that SOL was always predictive of cytotoxicity and immune to PDT's complex dynamics, whereas photobleaching-based dosimetry failed under hypoxic conditions. However, we identified a previously unreported 613 nm emission from mTHPC that indicates critically low (3)O(2) levels and can be used to salvage photobleaching-based dosimetry. These studies improve our understanding of PDT processes, demonstrate that SOL is a valuable gold-standard dose metric, and show that when used judiciously, photobleaching can serve as a surrogate for (1)O(2) dose.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy is a promising cancer treatment that involves activation of photosensitizer by visible light to create singlet oxygen. This highly reactive oxygen species is believed to induce cell death and tissue destruction in PDT. Our approach used a near-infrared area CCD with high quantum efficiency to detect singlet oxygen by its 1270-nm luminescence. Two-dimensional singlet oxygen images with its near-infrared luminescence during photosensitization could be obtained with a CCD integration time of 1 s, without scanning. Thus this system can produce singlet oxygen luminescence images faster and achieve more accurate measurements in comparison to raster-scanning methods. The experimental data show a linear relationship between the singlet oxygen luminescence intensity and sample concentration. This method provides a detection sensitivity of 0.0181 μg∕ml (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A dissolved in ethanol) and a spatial resolution better than 50 μm. A pilot study was conducted on a total of six female Kunming mice. The results from this study demonstrate the system's potential for in vivo measurements. Further experiments were carried out on two tumor-bearing nude mice. Singlet oxygen luminescence images were acquired from the tumor-bearing nude mouse with intravenous injection of BPD-MA, and the experimental results showed real-time singlet oxygen signal depletion as a function of the light exposure.
Project description:We report the routing of quantum light emitted by self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) into the optical modes of a GaAs ridge waveguide and its efficient detection on-chip via evanescent coupling to NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). The waveguide coupled SSPDs primarily detect QD luminescence, with scattered photons from the excitation laser onto the proximal detector being negligible by comparison. The SSPD detection efficiency from the evanescently coupled waveguide modes is shown to be two orders of magnitude larger when compared with operation under normal incidence illumination, due to the much longer optical interaction length. Furthermore, in-situ time resolved measurements performed using the integrated detector show an average QD spontaneous emission lifetime of 0.95 ns, measured with a timing jitter of only 72 ps. The performance metrics of the SSPD integrated directly onto GaAs nano-photonic hardware confirms the strong potential for on-chip few-photon quantum optics using such semiconductor-superconductor hybrid systems.
Project description:Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) proves to be an additional method to kill pathogenic bacteria. PIB requires photosensitizer molecules that effectively generate reactive oxygen species like singlet oxygen when exposed to visible light. To allow a broad application in medicine, photosensitizers should be safe when applied in humans. Substances like vitamin B2, which are most likely safe, are known to produce singlet oxygen upon irradiation. In the present study, we added positive charges to flavin derivatives to enable attachment of these molecules to the negatively charged surface of bacteria. Two of the synthesized flavin derivatives showed a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen of approximately 75%. Multidrug resistant bacteria like MRSA (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus), EHEC (enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii were incubated with these flavin derivatives in vitro and were subsequently irradiated with visible light for seconds only. Singlet oxygen production in bacteria was proved by detecting its luminescence at 1270 nm. After irradiation, the number of viable bacteria decreased up to 6 log10 steps depending on the concentration of the flavin derivatives and the light dosimetry. The bactericidal effect of PIB was independent of the bacterial type and the corresponding antibiotic resistance pattern. In contrast, the photosensitizer concentration and light parameters used for bacteria killing did not affect cell viability of human keratinocytes (therapeutic window). Multiresistant bacteria can be safely and effectively killed by a combination of modified vitamin B2 molecules, oxygen and visible light, whereas normal skin cells survive. Further work will include these new photosensitizers for topical application to decolonize bacteria from skin and mucosa.
Project description:As an effective and noninvasive treatment of various diseases, photodynamic therapy (PTD) relies on the combination of light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that can damage malignant tissue. Much attention has been paid to covalent modifications of the photosensitizers to improve their photophysical properties and to optimize the pathway of the photosensitizers interacting with cells within the target tissue. Herein we report the design and synthesis of a supramolecular heterometallic Ru-Pt metallacycle via coordination-driven self-assembly. While inheriting the excellent photostability and two-photon absorption characteristics of the Ru(II) polypyridyl precursor, the metallacycle also exhibits red-shifted luminescence to the near-infrared region, a larger two-photon absorption cross-section, and higher singlet oxygen generation efficiency, making it an excellent candidate as a photosensitizer for PTD. Cellular studies reveal that the metallacycle selectively accumulates in mitochondria and nuclei upon internalization. As a result, singlet oxygen generated by photoexcitation of the metallacycle can efficiently trigger cell death via the simultaneous damage to mitochondrial function and intranuclear DNA. In vivo studies on tumor-bearing mice show that the metallacycle can efficiently inhibit tumor growth under a low light dose with minimal side effects. The supramolecular approach presented in this work provides a paradigm for the development of PDT agents with high efficacy.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an innovative treatment of malignant or diseased tissues. The effectiveness of PDT depends on light dosimetry, oxygen availability, and properties of the photosensitizer (PS). Depending on the medium, photophysical properties of the PS can change leading to increase or decrease in fluorescence emission and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially singlet oxygen (<sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>). In this study, the influence of solvent polarity, viscosity, concentration, temperature, and pH medium on the photophysical properties of protoporphyrin IX, pyropheophorbide-a, and Photofrin<sup>®</sup> were investigated by UV-visible absorption, fluorescence emission, singlet oxygen emission, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies.
Project description:Most of the works about single-photon detectors rely on Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) designed with dedicated technological processes in order to achieve single-photon sensitivity and excellent timing resolution. Instead, this paper focuses on the implementation of high-performance SPADs detectors manufactured in a standard 0.35-micron opto-CMOS technology provided by AMS. We propose a series of low-noise SPADs designed with a variable pitch from 20 µm down to 5 µm. This opens the further way to the integration of large arrays of optimized SPAD pixels with pitch of a few micrometers in order to provide high-resolution single-photon imagers. We experimentally demonstrate that a 20-micron SPAD appears as the most relevant detector in terms of Signal-to-Noise ratio, enabling emergence of large arrays of SPAD.
Project description:Single-photon detection has emerged as a method of choice for ultra-sensitive measurements of picosecond optical transients. In the short-wave infrared, semiconductor-based single-photon detectors typically exhibit relatively poor performance compared with all-silicon devices operating at shorter wavelengths. Here we show a new generation of planar germanium-on-silicon (Ge-on-Si) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors for short-wave infrared operation. This planar geometry has enabled a significant step-change in performance, demonstrating single-photon detection efficiency of 38% at 125 K at a wavelength of 1310 nm, and a fifty-fold improvement in noise equivalent power compared with optimised mesa geometry SPADs. In comparison with InGaAs/InP devices, Ge-on-Si SPADs exhibit considerably reduced afterpulsing effects. These results, utilising the inexpensive Ge-on-Si platform, provide a route towards large arrays of efficient, high data rate Ge-on-Si SPADs for use in eye-safe automotive LIDAR and future quantum technology applications.
Project description:We report energy-transferring organically modified silica nanoparticles for two-photon photodynamic therapy. These nanoparticles co-encapsulate two-photon fluorescent dye nanoaggregates as an energy up-converting donor and a photosensitizing PDT drug as an acceptor. They combine two features: (i) aggregation-enhanced two-photon absorption and emission properties of a novel two-photon dye and (ii) nanoscopic fluorescence resonance energy transfer between this nanoaggregate and a photosensitizer, 2-devinyl-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide. Stable aqueous dispersions of the co-encapsulating nanoparticles (diameter < or = 30 nm) have been prepared in the nonpolar interior of micelles by coprecipitating an organically modified silica sol with the photosensitizer and an excess amount of the two-photon dye which forms fluorescent aggregates by phase separation from the particle matrix. Using a multidisciplinary nanophotonic approach, we show: (i) indirect excitation of the photosensitizer through efficient two-photon excited intraparticle energy transfer from the dye aggregates in the intracellular environment of tumor cells and (ii) generation of singlet oxygen and in vitro cytotoxic effect in tumor cells by photosensitization under two-photon irradiation.
Project description:Photosensitizer fluorescence excited by photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment light can be used to monitor the in vivo concentration of the photosensitizer and its photobleaching. The temporal integral of the product of in vivo photosensitizer concentration and light fluence is called PDT dose, which is an important dosimetry quantity for PDT. However, the detected photosensitizer fluorescence may be distorted by variations in the absorption and scattering of both excitation and fluorescence light in tissue. Therefore, correction of the measured fluorescence for distortion due to variable optical properties is required for absolute quantification of photosensitizer concentration. In this study, we have developed a four-channel PDT dose dosimetry system to simultaneously acquire light dosimetry and photosensitizer fluorescence data. We measured PDT dose at four sites in the pleural cavity during pleural PDT. We have determined an empirical optical property correction function using Monte Carlo simulations of fluorescence for a range of physiologically relevant tissue optical properties. Parameters of the optical property correction function for Photofrin fluorescence were determined experimentally using tissue-simulating phantoms. In vivo measurements of photosensitizer fluorescence showed negligible photobleaching of Photofrin during the PDT treatment, but large intra- and inter-patient heterogeneities of in vivo Photofrin concentration are observed. PDT doses delivered to 22 sites in the pleural cavity of 8 patients were different by 2.9 times intra-patient and 8.3 times inter-patient.