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The Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGF?1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGF?1 and activation of PPAR-?. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625.
Project description:The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby proposing Pdcd4 as a potential intervening target for regulating ADSC function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:White adipose tissue includes subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT and VAT) with different metabolic features. SAT protects from metabolic disorders, while VAT promotes them. The proliferative and adipogenic potentials of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are critical for maintaining adipose tissue homeostasis through driving adipocyte hyperplasia and inhibiting pathological hypertrophy. However, it remains to be elucidated the critical molecules that regulate different potentials of subcutaneous and visceral ADSCs (S-ADSCs, V-ADSCs) and mediate distinct metabolic properties of SAT and VAT. CD90 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein on various cells, which is also expressed on ADSCs. However, its expression patterns and differential regulation on S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs remain unclear. METHODS:S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs were detected for CD90 expression. Proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, mitotic clonal expansion, and adipogenic differentiation were assayed in S-ADSCs, V-ADSCs, or CD90-silenced S-ADSCs. Glucose tolerance test and adipocyte hypertrophy were examined in mice after silencing of CD90 in SAT. CD90 expression and its association with CyclinD1 and Leptin were analyzed in adipose tissue from mice and humans. Regulation of AKT by CD90 was detected using a co-transfection system. RESULTS:Compared with V-ADSCs, S-ADSCs expressed high level of CD90 and showed increases in proliferation, mitotic clonal expansion, and adipogenic differentiation, together with AKT activation and G1-S phase transition. CD90 silencing inhibited AKT activation and S phase entry, thereby curbing proliferation and mitotic clonal expansion of S-ADSCs. In vivo CD90 silencing in SAT inhibited S-ADSC proliferation, which caused adipocyte hypertrophy and glucose intolerance in mice. Furthermore, CD90 was highly expressed in SAT rather than in VAT in human and mouse, which had positive correlation with CyclinD1 but negative correlation with Leptin. CD90 promoted AKT activation through recruiting its pleckstrin homology domain to plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS:CD90 is differentially expressed on S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs, and plays critical roles in ADSC proliferation, mitotic clonal expansion, and hemostasis of adipose tissue and metabolism. These findings identify CD90 as a crucial modulator of S-ADSCs and V-ADSCs to mediate distinct metabolic features of SAT and VAT, thus proposing CD90 as a valuable biomarker or target for evaluating ADSC potentials, monitoring or treating obesity-associated metabolic disorders.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. The role of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in cancers is significantly relevant. They seem to be involved in the promotion of tumour development and progression and relapse processes. For this reason, investigating the effects of breast cancer microenvironment on ADSCs is of high importance in order to understand the relationship between tumour cells and the surrounding stromal cells. With the current study, we aimed to investigate the specific characteristics of human ADSCs isolated from the adipose tissue of breast tumour patients. We compared ADSCs obtained from periumbilical fat (PF) of controls with ADSCs obtained from adipose tissue of breast cancer- (BC-) bearing patients. We analysed the surface antigens and the adipogenic differentiation ability of both ADSC populations. C/EBP? expression was increased in PF and BC ADSCs induced to differentiate compared to the control while PPAR? and FABP4 expressions were enhanced only in PF ADSCs. Conversely, adiponectin expression was reduced in PF-differentiated ADSCs while it was slightly increased in differentiated BC ADSCs. By means of Oil Red O staining, we further observed an impaired differentiation capability of BC ADSCs. To investigate this aspect more in depth, we evaluated the effect of selective PPAR? activation and nutritional supplementation on the differentiation efficiency of BC ADSCs, noting that it was only with a strong differentiation stimuli that the process took place. Furthermore, we observed no response in BC ADSCs to the PPAR? inhibitor T0070907, showing an impaired activation of this receptor in adipose cells surrounding the breast cancer microenvironment. In conclusion, our study shows an impaired adipogenic differentiation capability in BC ADSCs. This suggests that the tumour microenvironment plays a key role in the modulation of the adipose microenvironment located in the surrounding tissue.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most escalating global metabolic diseases, which is highly associated with insulin resistance (IR) and risk of combination with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies suggest that soluble klotho (sKL) could serve as a circulating hormone to mediate energy metabolism, but the detailed mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we generated T2D models of wild-type (WT), sKL heterozygous (KL +/-), and sKL transgenic (TgKL) mice continuously fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and constructed L02 cell lines that stably overexpress sKL to investigate the effect of sKL on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Surprisingly, we discovered that sKL deficiency resulted in exacerbated diabetic phenotypes and hepatic glucolipid metabolism disorders in HFD-fed KL +/- diabetic mice (KL +/- DM), whereas TgKL diabetic mice (TgKL DM) exhibited ameliorated diabetic phenotypes and decreased IR. Mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that sKL could inhibit the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signaling to upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression by directly interacting with type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) in HFD-fed T2D mice. Thus, sKL could improve hepatic glucolipid homeostasis to ameliorate diabetic phenotypes and lipid accumulation and may function as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of T2D and reduce the risk of NAFLD.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence stem cell functions, including mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation. miR-150 is abundantly expressed in monocytes. Knockdown of miR-150 promotes bone marrow stem cell migration. The role of miR-150 in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is unclear. In this study, the effects of miR-150 on adipogenic differentiation and proliferation of ADSCs were investigated. ADSCs were isolated from the inguinal adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) and miR-150 knockout (KO) mice and were induced for adipogenic differentiation. The miR-150 level was detected by real-time PCR. ADSCs were transfected by miR-150 or small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of Notch3. MTT assay and colony formation assay were performed in miR-150 knockdown and control ADSCs. Real-time PCR showed that miR-150 was expressed in ADSCs. miR-150 knockdown significantly decreased the capacity of adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, as compared with their counterparts from WT mice. It is intriguing that the overexpression of miR-150 significantly increased C/EBP? and PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs with adipogenic induction. Overexpression of miR-150 significantly decreased Notch3 expression in ADSCs compared with the control groups. Furthermore, Notch3 inhibition promoted the adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs. miR-150 also suppressed proliferation potential and the expression of Nanog in ADSCs. In summary, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that miR-150 promotes adipogenic differentiation and inhibits proliferation of ADSCs. miR-150 regulates adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, likely mediated by the downregulation of Notch3.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:Although DNA modification is adaptive to extrinsic demands, little is known about epigenetic alterations associated with adipose differentiation and reprogramming. We systematically characterized the global trends of our methylome and transcriptome data with reported PPAR(γ) cistrome data. Our analysis revealed that DNA methylation was altered between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). Surprisingly, DNA methylation was not obviously changed in differentiation from ADSCs to mature fat cells (FatCs). This indicates that epigenetic predetermination of the adipogenic fate is almost established prior to substantial expression of the lineage. Furthermore, the majority of the PPAR(γ) cistrome corresponded to the pre-set methylation profile between ADSCs and FatCs. In contrast to the pre-set model, we found that a subset of PPAR(γ)-binding sites for late-expressing genes such as Adiponectin and Adiponectin receptor2 were differentially methylated independently of the early program. Thus, these analyses identify two types of epigenetic mechanisms that distinguish the pre-set cell fate and later stages of adipose differentiation.
Project description:Adipogenesis occurs through a specific gene program in undifferentiated fat progenitors. We hypothesized that the properties of the fat progenitors are regulated by hox genes, the developmental genes essential in different tissue stem cells. Their biased expression in white and brown fat implies roles in distinguishing the two fat types. Among 39 Hox genes, Hoxc8 is highly enriched in undifferentiated adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) and down-regulated in differentiated adipocytes. Forced expression of Hoxc8 suppressed adipocyte differentiation of ADSCs. Using microarrays, we investigated the effect of Hoxc8 overexpression on global transcripts in ADSCs. We compared among four groups: untreated ADSCs, adipogenic induction media (MDI)-treated ADSCs, MDI-treated ADSC-vector and MDI-treated ADSC-Hoxc8. A number of, but not all, adipogenesis-related genes are suppressed by Hoxc8. This dataset illustrates the global effect of Hoxc8, a developmental transcription factor, on the expression of adipogenesis-related genes. Overall design: Gene expression was compared among untreated ADSCs (control), adipogenic induction media-treated ADSCs, adipogenic induction media-treated ADSC-vector (ADSCs transduced with control vector), and adipogenic induction media-treated ADSC-Hoxc8 (ADSCs transduced with human Hoxc8). Total RNA was isolated from ADSCs using the Qiagen RNeasy kit (Qiagen). At NimbleGen, quality and yield were verified before cDNA synthesis and Cy3-end labeling. The labeled cDNA samples were hybridized to Homo sapiens 4-Plex arrays (Roche NimbleGen, A4487001-00-01) that represent 24,000 human genes. Raw data files for each sample were normalized and background-corrected using a Robust Multi-Array Analysis as implemented by NimbleScan software. Students’ two-tail t-tests were conducted among the samples for each transcript and fold-change was determined. Transcripts whose abundance was significantly altered (P < 0.05) and an absolute fold change greater than 2 were defined as differentially regulated.
Project description:A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue-derived stromal cell (ADSC) differentiation could provide new insight into some adipose-tissue-related disease. The differentiation of ADSCs into adipocytes is a complex physiological process that includes clonal expansion, growth arrest, and terminal differentiation. Here the role of microRNA-143 (miR-143) during ADSC adipogenic differentiation was systematically investigated. We found that miR-143 expression was transiently decreased after adipogenic induction while increased from day 3 and peaked on day 7 after induction. We show for the first time that the role of miR-143 is not consistent in the differentiation process. The regulatory role depends on the differentiation stage that miR-143 acts on. When miR-143 is overexpressed during the clonal expansion stage, the adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs is inhibited, whereas the overexpression of miR-143 during the growth arrest stage or terminal differentiation stage promotes differentiation. Further we firstly demonstrate that miR-143 plays the modulational role by directly repressing MAP2K5, a key member of the MAPKK family in the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings suggest that miR-143 plays an important role in adipose tissue formation, with special implications for some metabolic disease in which the amount and/or function of adipose tissue is altered.
Project description:Leydig cells (LCs) are the primary source of testosterone in the testis, and testosterone deficiency caused by LC functional degeneration can lead to male reproductive dysfunction. LC replacement transplantation is a very promising approach for this disease therapy. Here, we report that human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated into Leydig-like cells using a novel differentiation method based on molecular compounds. The isolated human ADSCs expressed positive CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105, negative CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR using flow cytometry, and had the capacity of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs derived Leydig-like cells (ADSC-LCs) acquired testosterone synthesis capabilities, and positively expressed LC lineage-specific markers LHCGR, STAR, SCARB1, SF-1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 as well as negatively expressed ADSC specific markers CD29, CD44, CD59 and CD105. When ADSC-LCs labelled with lipophilic red dye (PKH26) were injected into rat testes which were selectively eliminated endogenous LCs using ethylene dimethanesulfonate (EDS, 75 mg/kg), the transplanted ADSC-LCs could survive and function in the interstitium of testes, and accelerate the recovery of blood testosterone levels and testis weights. These results demonstrated that ADSCs could be differentiated into Leydig-like cells by few defined molecular compounds, which might lay the foundation for further clinical application of ADSC-LC transplantation therapy.