Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer May Be Better Preserved in MOG-IgG versus AQP4-IgG Optic Neuritis: A Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: Optic neuritis (ON) in patients with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG antibodies has been associated with a better clinical outcome than anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4)- IgG ON. Average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) correlates with visual outcome after ON.The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-MOG-IgG ON is associated with better average RNFL compared to anti-AQP4-IgG ON, and whether this corresponds with a better visual outcome.A retrospective study was done in a consecutive cohort of patients following anti-AQP4-IgG and anti-MOG-IgG ON. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) models analysis was used to compare average RNFL outcomes in ON eyes of patients with MOG-IgG to AQP4-IgG-positive patients, after adjusting for the number of ON events. The final mean visual field defect and visual acuity were compared between ON eyes of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG-positive patients. A correlation between average RNFL and visual function was performed in all study eyes.Sixteen patients were analyzed; ten AQP4-IgG-positive and six MOG-IgG-positive. The six patients with MOG-IgG had ten ON events with disc edema, five of which were bilateral. In the AQP4-IgG-positive ON events, 1/10 patients had disc edema. Final average RNFL was significantly better in eyes following MOG-IgG-ON (75.33μm), compared to 63.63μm in AQP4-IgG-ON, after adjusting for the number of ON attacks (GEE, p = 0.023). Mean visual field defects were significantly smaller (GEE, p = 0.046) among MOG-IgG positive ON eyes compared to AQP-IgG positive ON eyes, but last visual acuity did not differ between the groups (GEE, p = 0.153). Among all eyes, average RNFL positively correlated with mean visual field defect (GEE, p = 0.00015) and negatively correlated with final visual acuity (GEE, p = 0.00005).Following ON, RNFL is better preserved in eyes of patients with MOG-IgG antibodies compared to those with AQP4-IgG antibodies, correlating with better visual outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:An autoantibody against aquaporin-4 (AQP4 Ab) is highly specific for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and plays a pathogenic role in this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AQP4 Ab on inner retinal structure, function, and the structure-function relationships in eyes with optic neuritis. METHODS:Thirty five eyes from 25 cases who had received visual function tests and RTVue optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement at least six months after the latest episode of optic neuritis were enrolled. Patients with multiple sclerosis were excluded. AQP4 Ab was measured using a cell-based assay. Visual acuity, mean deviation (MD) of the Humphrey visual field SITA standard 30-2 tests, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses, and other clinical variables were compared between the AQP4 Ab-positive and -negative groups. Parameters associated with visual functions were evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. RESULTS:The AQP4 Ab-positive group (20 eyes from 12 cases) had a higher proportion of bilateral involvement and longer duration of follow-up than the AQP4 Ab-negative group (15 eyes from 13 cases). Linear mixed effect models revealed worse MD and visual acuity in AQP4 Ab-positive eyes than those in AQP4 Ab-negative eyes after adjusting for within-patient inter-eye dependence, whereas there were no differences in RNFL and GCC thickness between the two groups. In seropositive eyes, GEE regression analyses revealed that depending on age and the number of recurrences of ON episodes, OCT parameters correlated strongly with MD and more weakly with visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS:Reductions in RNFL and GCC thickness were proportional to the visual field defect in eyes with AQP4 Ab but not in eyes without AQP4 Ab. The presence of AQP4 Ab probably plays a critical role in retinal ganglion cell loss in optic neuritis.
Project description:Background: Optic neuritis (ON) is a cardinal manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG-associated disease. However, the prevalence of AQP4-IgG seropositivity and MOG-IgG seropositivity in isolated ON is unclear, and studies comparing visual outcomes and optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived structural retinal measures between MS-ON, AQP4-ON, and MOG-ON eyes are limited by small sample sizes. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of AQP4-IgG and MOG-IgG seropositivity among patients presenting with isolated ON; (2) to compare visual outcomes and OCT measures between AQP4-ON, MOG-ON, and MS-ON eyes. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a total of 65 eligible studies were identified by PubMed search. Statistical analyses were performed with random effects models. Results: In adults with isolated ON, AQP4-IgG seroprevalence was 4% in non-Asian and 27% in Asian populations, whereas MOG-IgG seroprevalence was 8 and 20%, respectively. In children, AQP4-IgG seroprevalence was 0.4% in non-Asian and 15% in Asian populations, whereas MOG-IgG seroprevalence was 47 and 31%, respectively. AQP4-ON eyes had lower peri-papillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL; -11.7 ?m, 95% CI: -15.2 to -8.3 ?m) and macular ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL; -9.0 ?m, 95% CI: -12.5 to -5.4 ?m) thicknesses compared with MS-ON eyes. Similarly, pRNFL (-11.2 ?m, 95% CI: -21.5 to -0.9 ?m) and GCIPL (-6.1 ?m, 95% CI: -10.8 to -1.3 ?m) thicknesses were lower in MOG-ON compared to MS-ON eyes, but did not differ between AQP4-ON and MOG-ON eyes (pRNFL: -1.9 ?m, 95% CI: -9.1 to 5.4 ?m; GCIPL: -2.6 ?m, 95% CI: -8.9 to 3.8 ?m). Visual outcomes were worse in AQP4-ON compared to both MOG-ON (mean logMAR difference: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.81) and MS-ON eyes (mean logMAR difference: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.96) but were similar in MOG-ON and MS-ON eyes (mean logMAR difference: 0.04, 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions: AQP4-IgG- and MOG-IgG-associated disease are important diagnostic considerations in adults presenting with isolated ON, especially in Asian populations. Furthermore, MOG-IgG seroprevalence is especially high in pediatric isolated ON, in both non-Asian and Asian populations. Despite a similar severity of GCIPL and pRNFL thinning in AQP4-ON and MOG-ON, AQP4-ON is associated with markedly worse visual outcomes.
Project description:To optimize sensitivity and disease specificity of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody assay.Consecutive sera (n = 1,109) sent for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing were screened for MOG antibodies (Abs) by cell-based assays using either full-length human MOG (FL-MOG) or the short-length form (SL-MOG). The Abs were initially detected by Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) and subsequently by Alexa Fluor mouse antibodies to human IgG1.When tested at 1:20 dilution, 40/1,109 sera were positive for AQP4-Abs, 21 for SL-MOG, and 180 for FL-MOG. Only one of the 40 AQP4-Ab-positive sera was positive for SL-MOG-Abs, but 10 (25%) were positive for FL-MOG-Abs (p = 0.0069). Of equal concern, 48% (42/88) of sera from controls (patients with epilepsy) were positive by FL-MOG assay. However, using an IgG1-specific secondary antibody, only 65/1,109 (5.8%) sera were positive on FL-MOG, and AQP4-Ab- positive and control sera were negative. IgM reactivity accounted for the remaining anti-human IgG (H + L) positivity toward FL-MOG. The clinical diagnoses were obtained in 33 FL-MOG-positive patients, blinded to the antibody data. IgG1-Abs to FL-MOG were associated with optic neuritis (n = 11), AQP4-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 4), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). All 7 patients with probable multiple sclerosis (MS) were MOG-IgG1 negative.The limited disease specificity of FL-MOG-Abs identified using Alexa Fluor goat anti-human IgG (H + L) is due in part to detection of IgM-Abs. Use of the FL-MOG and restricting to IgG1-Abs substantially improves specificity for non-MS demyelinating diseases.This study provides Class II evidence that the presence of serum IgG1- MOG-Abs in AQP4-Ab-negative patients distinguishes non-MS CNS demyelinating disorders from MS (sensitivity 24%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-45%; specificity 100%, 95% CI 88%-100%).
Project description:Pain is a frequent symptom in aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin-G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD). Data on pain in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-immunoglobulin-G autoimmunity with a clinical NMOSD phenotype (MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD) are scarce.The objective of this paper is to investigate pain in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD, AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD and NMOSD without AQP4/MOG-IgG detection (AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD).Forty-nine MOG-IgG-pos. (n?=?14), AQP4-IgG-pos. (n?=?29) and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. (n?=?6) NMOSD patients were included in this cross-sectional baseline analysis from an ongoing observational study. We identified spinal cord lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, assessed pain by the painDETECT and McGill Pain questionnaires, quality of life by Short Form Health Survey, and depression by Beck Depression Inventory.Twelve MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (86%), 24 AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients (83%), and all AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients (100%) suffered from pain. MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain and headache; AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD patients had mostly neuropathic pain. A history of myelitis was less frequent in MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD than in AQP4-IgG-pos. NMOSD patients. Pain influenced quality of life in all patients. Thirty-six percent of patients with pain received pain medication; none of them were free of pain.Pain is a frequent symptom of patients with MOG-IgG-pos. NMOSD and is as important as in AQP4-IgG-pos. and AQP4/MOG-IgG-neg. NMOSD. Despite its impact on quality of life, pain is insufficiently alleviated by medication.
Project description:Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) recently emerged as a potential biomarker in patients with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. We here compare the clinical and laboratory findings observed in a cohort of MOG-Ab seropositive and seronegative cases and describe IgG subclass analysis results. Consecutive serum samples referred to Verona University Neuropathology Laboratory for aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-Ab and/or MOG-Ab testing were analysed between March 2014 and May 2017. The presence of AQP4-Ab was determined using a cell-based assay. A live cell immunofluorescence assay was used for the detection of MOG-IgG and IgG subclass analysis. Among 454 analysed samples, 29 were excluded due to AQP4-Ab positivity or to the final demonstration of a disorder not compatible with MOG-Ab. We obtained clinical data in 154 out of 425 cases. Of these, 22 subjects resulted MOG-Ab positive. MOG-Ab positive patients were mainly characterised by the involvement of the optic nerve and/or spinal cord. Half of the cases presented relapses and the recovery was usually partial. Brain MRI was heterogeneous while short lesions were the prevalent observation on spinal cord MRI. MOG-Ab titre usually decreased in non-relapsing cases. In all MOG-IgG positive cases, we observed IgG1 antibodies, which were predominant in most subjects. IgG2 (5/22), IgG3 (9/22) and IgG4 (3/22) antibodies were also detectable. We confirm that MOG-Ab-related syndromes have distinct features in the spectrum of demyelinating conditions, and we describe the possible role of the different IgG subclasses in this condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Serum autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are important diagnostic biomarkers and pathogenic factors for neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, AQP4-IgG are absent in 5-40% of all NMO patients and the target of the autoimmune response in these patients is unknown. Since recent studies indicate that autoimmune responses to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) can induce an NMO-like disease in experimental animal models, we speculate that MOG might be an autoantigen in AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO. Although high-titer autoantibodies to human native MOG were mainly detected in a subgroup of pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their role in NMO and High-risk NMO (HR-NMO; recurrent optic neuritis-rON or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis-LETM) remains unresolved. RESULTS: We analyzed patients with definite NMO (n = 45), HR-NMO (n = 53), ADEM (n = 33), clinically isolated syndromes presenting with myelitis or optic neuritis (CIS, n = 32), MS (n = 71) and controls (n = 101; 24 other neurological diseases-OND, 27 systemic lupus erythematosus-SLE and 50 healthy subjects) for serum IgG to MOG and AQP4. Furthermore, we investigated whether these antibodies can mediate complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). AQP4-IgG was found in patients with NMO (n = 43, 96%), HR-NMO (n = 32, 60%) and in one CIS patient (3%), but was absent in ADEM, MS and controls. High-titer MOG-IgG was found in patients with ADEM (n = 14, 42%), NMO (n = 3, 7%), HR-NMO (n = 7, 13%, 5 rON and 2 LETM), CIS (n = 2, 6%), MS (n = 2, 3%) and controls (n = 3, 3%, two SLE and one OND). Two of the three MOG-IgG positive NMO patients and all seven MOG-IgG positive HR-NMO patients were negative for AQP4-IgG. Thus, MOG-IgG were found in both AQP4-IgG seronegative NMO patients and seven of 21 (33%) AQP4-IgG negative HR-NMO patients. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 were predominantly of the IgG1 subtype, and were able to mediate CDC at high-titer levels. CONCLUSIONS: We could show for the first time that a subset of AQP4-IgG seronegative patients with NMO and HR-NMO exhibit a MOG-IgG mediated immune response, whereas MOG is not a target antigen in cases with an AQP4-directed humoral immune response.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To verify the utility of brain lesion distribution criteria in distinguishing multiple sclerosis (MS) from aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive/-negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM) in the Chinese population. METHODS:A total of 253 patients with MS (80), NMOSD (129 AQP4-IgG positive, 34 AQP4-IgG negative), and MOG-EM (10) were enrolled. Anonymized magnetic resonance imaging results were scored on the previous reported criteria of "at least one lesion adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle and in the inferior temporal lobe; or the presence of a subcortical U-fiber lesion; or a Dawson's finger-type lesion." Chi-squared test (or Fisher's exact test) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS:The distribution criteria were able to distinguish MS with a same sensitivity of 93.8% from all type of NMOSD and MOG-EM, with a specificity of 89.7% from the whole NMOSD cohort, 89.1% from AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD 91.2% from AQP4-IgG-negative NMOSD, and 70.0% from MOG-EM. Dawson's finger-type lesion was the most sensitive and specific feature, whereas the U-fiber lesion was the least. CONCLUSION:The brain lesion distribution criteria were helpful in distinguishing MS from NMOSD and MOG-EM in the Chinese population. Dawson's finger-type lesion was highly suggestive of MS.
Project description:To compare prospectively detection of progressive retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) atrophy identified using time-domain optical coherence tomography with visual field progression using standard automated perimetry in glaucoma suspect and preperimetric glaucoma patients or perimetric glaucoma patients.Prospective, longitudinal clinical trial.Eligible eyes with 2 years or more of follow-up underwent time-domain optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry every 6 months. The occurrence of visual field progression was defined as the first follow-up visit reaching a significant (P < .05) negative visual field index slope over time. RNFL progression or improvement was defined as a significant negative or positive slope over time, respectively. Specificity was defined as the number of eyes with neither progression nor improvement, divided by the number of eyes without progression. Cox proportional hazard ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate models with RNFL loss as a time-dependent covariate.Three hundred ten glaucoma suspect and preperimetric glaucoma eyes and 177 perimetric glaucoma eyes were included. Eighty-nine eyes showed visual field progression and 101 eyes showed RNFL progression. The average time to detect visual field progression in those 89 eyes was 35 ± 13 months, and the average time to detect RNFL progression in those 101 eyes was 36 ± 13 months. In multivariate Cox models, average and superior RNFL losses were associated with subsequent visual field index loss in the entire cohort (every 10-μm loss; hazard ratio, 1.38; P = .03; hazard ratio, 1.20; P = .01; respectively). Among the entire cohort of 487 eyes, 42 had significant visual field index improvement and 55 had significant RNFL improvement (specificity, 91.4% and 88.7%, respectively).Structural progression is associated with functional progression in glaucoma suspect and glaucomatous eyes. Average and superior RNFL thickness may predict subsequent standard automated perimetry loss.
Project description:The detection of IgG aquaporin-4 antibodies in the serum of patients with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has dramatically improved the diagnosis of this disease and its distinction from multiple sclerosis. Recently, a group of patients have been described who have an NMO spectrum disorder (NMOsd) and who are seronegative for AQP4 antibodies but positive for IgG aquaporin-1 (AQP1) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AQP1 and MOG could be considered new biomarkers of this disease; and if point mutations in the gDNA of AQP4, AQP1 and MOG genes could be associated with the etiology of NMOsd. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of ELISA and cell-based assays (CBA), and analyzed their reliability, specificity, and sensitivity in detecting antibodies against these three proteins. The results showed that both assays can recognize these antigen proteins under appropriate conditions, but only anti-AQP4 antibodies, and not AQP1 or MOG, appears to be a clear biomarker for NMOsd. CBA is the best method for detecting these antibodies; and serum levels of AQP4 antibodies do not correlate with the progression of this disease. So far, the sequencing analysis has not revealed a genetic basis for the etiology of NMOsd, but a more extensive analysis is required before definitive conclusions can be drawn.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). METHODS: We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus-transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum was tested in 23 AQP4 antibody-negative NMO/NMOSD patients with bilateral and/or recurrent optic neuritis (BON, n = 11), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM, n = 10), and sequential BON and LETM (n = 2), as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, n = 76) and controls (n = 52). RESULTS: MOG antibodies were detected in 9/23 AQP4 antibody-negative patients with NMO/NMOSD, compared to 1/76 patients with MS and 0/52 controls (p < 0.001). MOG antibodies were detected in 8/11 patients with BON, 0/10 patients with LETM, and 1/2 patients with sequential BON and LETM. Six of 9 MOG antibody-positive patients had a relapsing course. MOG antibody-positive patients had prominent optic disc swelling and were more likely to have a rapid response to steroid therapy and relapse on steroid cessation than MOG antibody-negative patients (p = 0.034 and p = 0.029, respectively). While 8/9 MOG antibody-positive patients had good follow-up visual acuity, one experienced sustained visual impairment, 3 had retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and one had residual spinal disability. CONCLUSIONS: MOG antibodies have a strong association with BON and may be a useful clinical biomarker. MOG antibody-associated BON is a relapsing disorder that is frequently steroid responsive and often steroid dependent. Failure to recognize the disorder early and institute immunotherapy promptly may be associated with sustained impairment. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that MOG antibodies are associated with AQP4 antibody-negative BON (sensitivity 69%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42%-87%; specificity 99%, 95% CI 93.7%-99.8%).