Mononuclear Phagocytes Are Dispensable for Cardiac Remodeling in Established Pressure-Overload Heart Failure.
ABSTRACT: Although cardiac and splenic mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), i.e., monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are key contributors to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, their role in pressure-overload remodeling is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these immune cells are required for the progression of remodeling in pressure-overload heart failure (HF), and that MP depletion would ameliorate remodeling.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation, and assessed for alterations in MPs. As compared with sham, TAC mice exhibited expansion of circulating LyC6hi monocytes and pro-inflammatory CD206- cardiac macrophages early (1 w) after pressure-overload, prior to significant hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, with subsequent resolution during chronic HF. In contrast, classical DCs were expanded in the heart in a biphasic manner, with peaks both early, analogous to macrophages, and late (8 w), during established HF. There was no significant expansion of circulating DCs, or Ly6C+ monocytes and DCs in the spleen. Periodic systemic MP depletion from 2 to 16 w after TAC in macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice did not alter cardiac remodeling progression, nor did splenectomy in mice with established HF after TAC. Lastly, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from TAC HF mice into naïve recipients did not induce immediate or long-term cardiac dysfunction in recipient mice.Mononuclear phagocytes populations expand in a phasic manner in the heart during pressure-overload. However, they are dispensable for the progression of remodeling and failure once significant hypertrophy is evident and blood monocytosis has normalized.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in the US. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a critical regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have established that the cytoskeletal protein ?IV-spectrin coordinates local CaMKII signaling. Here, we sought to determine the role of a spectrin-CaMKII complex in maladaptive remodeling in HF. Chronic pressure overload (6 weeks of transaortic constriction [TAC]) induced a decrease in cardiac function in WT mice but not in animals expressing truncated ?IV-spectrin lacking spectrin-CaMKII interaction (qv3J mice). Underlying the observed differences in function was an unexpected differential regulation of STAT3-related genes in qv3J TAC hearts. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ?IV-spectrin serves as a target for CaMKII phosphorylation, which regulates its stability. Cardiac-specific ?IV-spectrin-KO (?IV-cKO) mice showed STAT3 dysregulation, fibrosis, and decreased cardiac function at baseline, similar to what was observed with TAC in WT mice. STAT3 inhibition restored normal cardiac structure and function in ?IV-cKO and WT TAC hearts. Our studies identify a spectrin-based complex essential for regulation of the cardiac response to chronic pressure overload. We anticipate that strategies targeting the new spectrin-based "statosome" will be effective at suppressing maladaptive remodeling in response to chronic stress.
Project description:Although postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important prognostic factor for patients with heart failure (HF), its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. To elucidate the different roles of Rho-kinase isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, in cardiomyocytes in response to chronic pressure overload, we performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in cardiac-specific ROCK1-deficient (cROCK1-/-) and ROCK2-deficient (cROCK2-/-) mice. Cardiomyocyte-specific ROCK1 deficiency promoted pressure-overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and postcapillary PH, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific ROCK2 deficiency showed opposite results. Histological analysis showed that pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were enhanced in cROCK1-/- mice compared with controls, whereas cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated in cROCK2-/- mice after TAC. Consistently, the levels of oxidative stress were up-regulated in cROCK1-/- hearts and down-regulated in cROCK2-/- hearts compared with controls after TAC. Furthermore, cyclophilin A (CyPA) and basigin (Bsg), both of which augment oxidative stress, enhanced cardiac dysfunction and postcapillary PH in cROCK1-/- mice, whereas their expressions were significantly lower in cROCK2-/- mice. In clinical studies, plasma levels of CyPA were significantly increased in HF patients and were higher in patients with postcapillary PH compared with those without it. Finally, high-throughput screening demonstrated that celastrol, an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent, reduced the expressions of CyPA and Bsg in the heart and the lung, ameliorating cardiac dysfunction and postcapillary PH induced by TAC. Thus, by differentially affecting CyPA and Bsg expressions, ROCK1 protects and ROCK2 jeopardizes the heart from pressure-overload HF with postcapillary PH, for which celastrol may be a promising agent.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) is defined as an inability of the heart to pump blood sufficiently to meet the metabolic demands of the body. HF with reduced systolic function is characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular fibrosis and remodeling, and decreased cardiac contractility, leading to cardiac functional impairment and death. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) is a well-established model for inducing hypertrophy and HF in rodents. Mice globally deficient in sirtuin 5 (SIRT5), a NAD+-dependent deacylase, are hypersensitive to cardiac stress and display increased mortality after TAC. Prior studies assessing SIRT5 functions in the heart have all employed loss-of-function approaches. In this study, we generated SIRT5 overexpressing (SIRT5OE) mice, and evaluated their response to chronic pressure overload using TAC. Compared to littermate controls, SIRT5OE mice were protected against adverse functional consequences of TAC, left ventricular dilation, and impaired ejection fraction. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT5 suppresses key HF sequelae, including the metabolic switch from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis, immune activation, and fibrotic signaling pathways. We conclude that SIRT5 is a limiting factor in the preservation of cardiac function in response to experimental pressure overload. Overall design: RNA-seq was performed on mouse whole heart tissue from either control or TAC mice on an Illumina HiSeq4000. The transcriptome was analyzed using Kallisto, counted using Tximport, and differential expression was determined using DESeq2.
Project description:Pressure overload induces stress-induced signaling pathways and a coordinated transcriptional response that begets concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Although concentric hypertrophy initially attenuates wall stress and maintains cardiac function, continued stress can result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling is orchestrated by transcription factors that act within the context of an epigenetic landscape. Since the epigenetic landscape serves as a molecular link between environmental factors (stress) and cellular phenotype (disease), defining the role of the epigenome in the development and progression of cardiac remodeling could lead to new therapeutic approaches. In this study, we hypothesized that the epigenetic landscape is important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the progression to maladaptive remodeling. To demonstrate the importance of the epigenome in HF, we targeted the PTIP-associated histone methyltransferase complex in adult cardiac myocytes. This complex imparts histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation marks at actively expressed genes. We subjected PTIP null (PTIP-) mice to 2 weeks of transverse aortic constriction, a stress that induces concentric hypertrophy in control mice (PTIP+). PTIP- mice have a maladaptive response to 2wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pressure overload characterized by cardiac dilatation, decreased LV function, cardiac fibrosis, and increased cell death. PTIP deletion resulted in altered stress-induced gene expression profiles including blunted expression of ADRA1A, ADRA1B, JUN, ATP2A2, ATP1A2, SCN4B, and CACNA1G. These results suggest that H3K4 methylation patterns and the complexes that regulate them, specifically the PTIP-associated HMT, are necessary for the adaptive response to TAC.
Project description:Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling attenuates cardiac remodeling, but it is unclear which cGMP effectors mediate these effects and thus might serve as novel therapeutic targets. Therefore, we tested whether the cGMP downstream effector, cGMP-dependent protein kinase G I? (PKGI?), attenuates pressure overload-induced remodeling in vivo.The effect of transaortic constriction (TAC)-induced left ventricular (LV) pressure overload was examined in mice with selective mutations in the PKGI? leucine zipper interaction domain. Compared with wild-type littermate controls, in response to TAC, these Leucine Zipper Mutant (LZM) mice developed significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction by 48 hours (n=6 WT sham, 6 WT TAC, 5 LZM sham, 9 LZM TAC). In response to 7-day TAC, the LZM mice developed increased pathologic hypertrophy compared with controls (n=5 WT sham, 4 LZM sham, 8 WT TAC, 11 LZM TAC). In WT mice, but not in LZM mice, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition with sildenafil (Sil) significantly inhibited TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and LV systolic dysfunction in WT mice, but this was abolished in the LZM mice (n=3 WT sham, 4 LZM sham, 3 WT TAC vehicle, 6 LZM TAC vehicle, 4 WT TAC Sil, 6 LZM TAC Sil). And in response to prolonged, 21-day TAC (n=8 WT sham, 7 LZM sham, 21 WT TAC, 15 LZM TAC), the LZM mice developed markedly accelerated mortality and congestive heart failure. TAC induced activation of JNK, which inhibits cardiac remodeling in vivo, in WT, but not in LZM, hearts, identifying a novel signaling pathway activated by PKGI? in the heart in response to LV pressure overload.These findings reveal direct roles for PKGI? in attenuating pressure overload-induced remodeling in vivo and as a required effector for the cardioprotective effects of sildenafil.
Project description:A causal role of hypercholesterolemia in non-ischemic heart failure has never been demonstrated. Adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8)-low-density lipoprotein receptor (AAV8-LDLr) gene transfer was performed in LDLr-deficient mice without and with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AAV8-LDLr gene therapy resulted in an 82.8% (p < 0.0001) reduction of plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Mortality rate was lower (p < 0.05) in AAV8-LDLr TAC mice compared with control TAC mice (hazard ratio for mortality 0.457, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.237-0.882) during 8 weeks of follow-up. AAV8-LDLr gene therapy attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and decreased lung congestion in TAC mice. Cardiac function, quantified by invasive hemodynamic measurements and magnetic resonance imaging, was significantly improved 8 weeks after sham operation or after TAC in AAV8-LDLr mice compared with respective control groups. Myocardial protein levels of mammalian target of rapamycin and of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase were strikingly decreased following cholesterol lowering in mice without and with pressure overload. AAV8-LDLr therapy potently reduced cardiac glucose uptake and counteracted metabolic remodeling following pressure overload. Furthermore, oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis were decreased following AAV8-LDLr therapy in mice with pressure overload. In conclusion, cholesterol-lowering gene therapy potently counteracts structural and metabolic remodeling, and enhances cardiac function.
Project description:Although chronic inflammation is a central feature of heart failure (HF), the immune cell profiles differ with different underlying causes. This suggests that for immunomodulatory therapy in HF to be successful, it needs to be tailored to the specific etiology. Here, the authors demonstrate that monocyte-derived C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)<sup>+</sup> macrophages infiltrate the heart early during pressure overload in mice, and that blocking this response either pharmacologically or with antibody-mediated CCR2<sup>+</sup> monocyte depletion alleviates late pathological left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, T-cell expansion, and cardiac fibrosis. Hence, suppression of CCR2<sup>+</sup> monocytes/macrophages may be an important immunomodulatory therapeutic target to ameliorate pressure-overload HF.
Project description:Factors secreted by the heart, referred to as "cardiokines," have diverse actions in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis and remodeling. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in the adult heart and is induced in response to injurious conditions that promote myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cardiac Fstl1 in the remodeling response to pressure overload. Cardiac myocyte-specific Fstl1-KO mice were constructed and subjected to pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although Fstl1-KO mice displayed no detectable baseline phenotype, TAC led to enhanced cardiac hypertrophic growth and a pronounced loss in ventricular performance by 4 wk compared with control mice. Conversely, mice that acutely or chronically overexpressed Fstl1 were resistant to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and cardiac failure. Fstl1-deficient mice displayed a reduction in TAC-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in heart, whereas Fstl1 overexpression led to increased myocardial AMPK activation under these conditions. In cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, administration of Fstl1 promoted AMPK activation and antagonized phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated the antihypertrophic effect of Fstl1 treatment. These results document that cardiac Fstl1 functions as an autocrine/paracrine regulatory factor that antagonizes myocyte hypertrophic growth and the loss of ventricular performance in response to pressure overload, possibly through a mechanism involving the activation of the AMPK signaling axis.
Project description:The role of mononuclear phagocytes in chronic heart failure (HF) is unknown.Our aim was to delineate monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell trafficking in HF and define the contribution of the spleen to cardiac remodeling.We evaluated C57Bl/6 mice with chronic HF 8 weeks after coronary ligation. As compared with sham-operated controls, HF mice exhibited: (1) increased proinflammatory CD11b+ F4/80+ CD206- macrophages and CD11b+ F4/80+ Gr-1(hi) monocytes in the heart and peripheral blood, respectively, and reduced CD11b+ F4/80+ Gr-1(hi) monocytes in the spleen; (2) significantly increased CD11c+ B220- classical dendritic cells and CD11c+ low)B220+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both the heart and spleen, and increased classic dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow, respectively; (3) increased CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells in the spleen; and (4) profound splenic remodeling with abundant white pulp follicles, markedly increased size of the marginal zone and germinal centers, and increased expression of alarmins. Splenectomy in mice with established HF reversed pathological cardiac remodeling and inflammation. Splenocytes adoptively transferred from mice with HF, but not from sham-operated mice, homed to the heart and induced long-term left ventricular dilatation, dysfunction, and fibrosis in naive recipients. Recipient mice also exhibited monocyte activation and splenic remodeling similar to HF mice.Activation of mononuclear phagocytes is central to the progression of cardiac remodeling in HF, and heightened antigen processing in the spleen plays a critical role in this process. Splenocytes (presumably splenic monocytes and dendritic cells) promote immune-mediated injurious responses in the failing heart and retain this memory on adoptive transfer.
Project description:Plasma heart failure (HF) biomarkers, like natriuretic peptides, are important in diagnosis, prognosis and HF treatment. Several novel HF biomarkers have been identified, including Gal-3, GDF-15 and TIMP-1, but their clinical potential remains vague. Here we investigated plasma biomarker levels in relation to tissue expression and structural and functional cardiac changes. Methods: Cardiac remodeling, cardiac function, and plasma and tissue biomarker levels were investigated in mice after myocardial infarction induced by temporal and permanent LAD ligation (tLAD and pLAD). In addition, a pressure overload model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and an obese/hypertensive HFpEF-like mouse model were investigated. Results: Plasma levels of ANP and its cardiac expression were strictly associated with cardiac remodeling and function. Gal-3, GDF-15 and TIMP-1 cardiac expressions were also related to cardiac remodeling and function, but not their plasma levels. Only directly after myocardial infarction could elevated plasma levels of Gal-3 and TIMP-1 be detected. Eight weeks after infarction, plasma levels were not elevated despite enhanced cardiac expression and low EF (18.3±3.3%, pLAD). Plasma levels of TIMP-1 and GDF-15 were elevated after TAC, but this also correlated with increased lung expression and congestion. In obese-hypertensive mice, elevated plasma levels of Gal-3, GDF-15 and TIMP1 were associated with increased adipose tissue expression and not with cardiac function. Conclusions: The Gal-3, GDF-15 and TIMP-1 plasma pool levels are hardly influenced by dynamic changes in cardiac expression. These biomarkers are not specific for indices of cardiac remodeling, but predominantly reflect stress in other affected tissues and hence provide health information beyond the heart.