Bioconjugatable, PEGylated Hydroporphyrins for Photochemistry and Photomedicine. Narrow-Band, Near-Infrared-Emitting Bacteriochlorins.
ABSTRACT: Synthetic bacteriochlorins absorb in the near-infrared (NIR) region and are versatile analogues of natural bacteriochlorophylls. The utilization of these chromophores in energy sciences and photomedicine requires the ability to tailor their physicochemical properties, including the incorporation of units to impart water solubility. Herein, we report the synthesis, from two common bacteriochlorin building blocks, of five wavelength-tunable, bioconjugatable and water-soluble bacteriochlorins along with two non-bioconjugatable benchmarks. Each bacteriochlorin bears short polyethylene glycol (PEG) units as the water-solubilizing motif. The PEG groups are located at the 3,5-positions of aryl groups at the pyrrolic ?-positions to suppress aggregation in aqueous media. A handle containing a single carboxylic acid is incorporated to allow bioconjugation. The seven water-soluble bacteriochlorins in water display Qy absorption into the NIR range (679-819 nm), sharp emission (21-36 nm full-width-at-half-maximum) and modest fluorescence quantum yield (0.017-0.13). Each bacteriochlorin is neutral (non-ionic) yet soluble in organic (e.g., CH2Cl2, DMF) and aqueous solutions. Water solubility was assessed using absorption spectroscopy by changing the concentration ?1000-fold (190-690 µM to 0.19-0.69 µM) with a reciprocal change in pathlength (0.1-10 cm). All bacteriochlorins showed excellent solubility in water, except for a bacteriochlorin-imide that gave slight aggregation at higher concentrations. One bacteriochlorin was conjugated to a mouse polyclonal IgG antibody for use in flow cytometry with compensation beads for proof-of-principle. The antibody conjugate of B2-NHS displayed a sharp signal upon ultraviolet laser excitation (355 nm) with NIR emission measured with a 730/45 nm bandpass filter. Overall, the study gives access to a set of water-soluble bacteriochlorins with desirable photophysical properties for use in multiple fields.
Project description:Chromophores that absorb and emit in the red spectral region (600-700 nm), are water soluble, and bear a bioconjugatable tether are relatively rare yet would fulfill many applications in photochemistry and photomedicine. Here, three molecular designs have been developed wherein stable synthetic chlorins - analogues of chlorophylls - have been tailored with PEG groups for use in aqueous solution. The designs differ with regard to order of the installation (pre/post-formation of the chlorin macrocycle) and position of the PEG groups. Six PEGylated synthetic chlorins (three free bases, three zinc chelates) have been prepared, of which four are equipped with a bioconjugatable (carboxylic acid) tether. The most effective design for aqueous solubilization entails facial encumbrance where PEG groups project above and below the plane of the hydrophobic disk-like chlorin macrocycle. The chlorins possess strong absorption at ~400 nm (B band) and in the red region (Qy band); regardless of wavelength of excitation, emission occurs in the red region. Excitation in the ~400 nm region thus provides an effective Stokes shift of >200 nm. The four bioconjugatable water-soluble chlorins exhibit Qy absorption/emission in water at 613/614, 636/638, 698/700 and 706/710 nm. The spectral properties are essentially unchanged in DMF and water for the facially encumbered chlorins, which also exhibit narrow Qy absorption and emission bands (full-width-at-half maximum of each <25 nm). The water-solubility was assessed by absorption spectroscopy over the concentration range ~0.4 ?M - 0.4 mM. One chlorin was conjugated to a mouse polyclonal IgG antibody for use in flow cytometry with compensation beads for proof-of-principle. The conjugate displayed a sharp signal when excited by a violet laser (405 nm) with emission in the 620-660 nm range. Taken together, the designs described herein augur well for development of a set of spectrally distinct chlorins with relatively sharp bands in the red region.
Project description:Rapid and reproducible access to a series of unique porphyrin and bacteriochlorin glycoconjugates, including meso-glycosylated porphyrins and bacteriochlorins, and beta-glycosylated porphyrins, via copper catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) is reported for the first time. The work presented highlights the system-dependent reaction conditions required for glycosylation to porphyrins and bacteriochlorins based on the unique electronic properties of each ring system. Attenuated reaction conditions were used to synthesize fifteen new glycosylated porphyrin and bacteriochlorin analogs in 74 - 99% yield, and were extended to solid support to produce the first oligo(amidoamine)-based porphyrin glycoconjugate. These compounds hold significant potential as next generation water soluble catalysts and photodynamic therapy/photodynamic inactivation (PDT/PDI) agents.
Project description:Fluorophores that absorb and emit in the red spectral region (600-700 nm) are of great interest in photochemistry and photomedicine. Eight new target chlorins (and 19 new chlorins altogether)-analogues of chlorophyll-of different polarities have been designed and synthesized for various applications; seven of the chlorins are equipped with a bioconjugatable tether. Hydrophobic or amphiphilic chlorins in a non-polar organic solvent (toluene), polar organic solvent (DMF), and aqueous or aqueous micellar media show a sharp emission band in the red region and modest fluorescence quantum yield (?f = 0.2-0.3). A Poisson analysis implies most micelles are empty and few contain >1 chlorin. Water-soluble chlorins each bearing three PEG (oligoethyleneglycol) groups exhibit narrow emission bands (full-width-at-half maximum <25 nm). The lifetime of the lowest singlet excited state and the corresponding yields and rate constants for depopulation pathways (fluorescence, intersystem crossing, internal conversion) are generally little affected by the PEG groups or dissolution in aqueous or organic media. A set of chlorin-avidin conjugates revealed a 2-fold increase in ?f with increased average chlorin/avidin ratio (2.3-12). In summary, the chlorins of various polarities described herein are well suited as red-emitting fluorophores for applications in aqueous or organic media.
Project description:A broad range of applications requires access to water-soluble, bioconjugatable porphyrins. Branched alkyl groups attached at the branching site to the porphyrin meso position are known to impart high organic solubility. Such "swallowtail" motifs bearing a polar group (hydroxy, dihydroxyphosphoryl, dihydroxyphosphoryloxy) at the terminus of each branch have now been incorporated at a meso site in trans-AB-porphyrins. The incorporation of the swallowtail motif relies on rational synthetic methods whereby a 1,9-bis(N-propylimino)dipyrromethane (bearing a bioconjugatable tether at the 5-position) is condensed with a dipyrromethane (bearing a protected 1,5-dihydroxypent-3-yl unit at the 5-position). The two hydroxy groups in the swallowtail motif of each of the resulting zinc porphyrins can be transformed to the corresponding diphosphate or diphosphonate product. A 4-(carboxymethyloxy)phenyl group provides the bioconjugatable tether. The six such porphyrins reported here are highly water-soluble (> or =20 mM at room temperature in water at pH 7) as determined by visual inspection, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, or 1H NMR spectroscopy. Covalent attachment was carried out in aqueous solution with the unprotected porphyrin diphosphonate and a monoclonal antibody against the T-cell receptor CD3epsilon. The resulting conjugate performed comparably to a commercially available fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody with Jurkat cells in flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Taken together, this work enables preparation of useful quantities of water-soluble, bioconjugatable porphyrins in a compact architecture for applications in the life sciences.
Project description:Cutaneous malignant melanoma remains a therapeutic challenge, and patients with advanced disease have limited survival. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been successfully used to treat many malignancies, and it may show promise as an antimelanoma modality. However, high melanin levels in melanomas can adversely affect PDT effectiveness. Herein the extent of melanin contribution to melanoma resistance to PDT was investigated in a set of melanoma cell lines that markedly differ in the levels of pigmentation; 3 new bacteriochlorins successfully overcame the resistance. Cell killing studies determined that bacteriochlorins are superior at (LD(50) approximately 0.1 microM) when compared with controls such as the FDA-approved Photofrin (LD(50) approximately 10 microM) and clinically tested LuTex (LD(50) approximately 1 microM). The melanin content affects PDT effectiveness, but the degree of reduction is significantly lower for bacteriochlorins than for Photofrin. Microscopy reveals that the least effective bacteriochlorin localizes predominantly in lysosomes, while the most effective one preferentially accumulates in mitochondria. Interestingly all bacteriochlorins accumulate in melanosomes, and subsequent illumination leads to melanosomal damage shown by electron microscopy. Fluorescent probes show that the most effective bacteriochlorin produces significantly higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, and this is consistent with the redox properties suggested by molecular-orbital calculations. The best in vitro performing bacteriochlorin was tested in vivo in a mouse melanoma model using spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging and provided significant survival advantage with 20% of cures (P<0.01).
Project description:5-Methoxy-8,8,18,18-tetramethyl-2,12-di-p-tolylbacteriochlorin (MeO-BC) undergoes regioselective electrophilic bromination with NBS to give the 15-bromo analogue (MeO-BC-Br15) in 85% yield. By contrast, the bacteriochlorin lacking the 5-methoxy group (8,8,18,18-tetramethyl-2,12-di-p-tolylbacteriochlorin, H-BC) gives a mixture of two monobromo- and two dibromobacteriochlorins. Deuterium exchange of both bacteriochlorins (H-BC and MeO-BC) in acidic media (TFA-d) occurs preferentially at the beta-pyrrole positions (3, 13) > unhindered meso-positions (5, 15 for H-BC; 15 for MeO-BC) > hindered meso-positions (10, 20). The 15-bromo-5-methoxybacteriochlorin MeO-BC-Br15 was subjected to three types of Pd-mediated coupling reactions (Suzuki, Sonogashira, Hartwig-Buchwald) to give six bacteriochlorins bearing functional groups at the 15-position (49% to 85% yield). The groups include 4-(tert-butoxycarbonylmethoxy)phenyl, 4-pyridyl, 3,5-diformylphenyl, phenylethynyl, TIPS-ethynyl, and N-benzamido. The presence of the 15-ethynyl moiety shifts the position of the long-wavelength Qy band from 732 nm to approximately 753 nm. The ability to introduce a range of groups at a specific site enables synthetic bacteriochlorins to be tailored for a variety of applications.
Project description:The synthesis and photophysical properties of a tetra-PEG-modified and freely water-soluble quinoline-annulated porphyrin are described. We previously demonstrated the ability of quinoline-annulated porphyrins to act as an in vitro NIR photoacoustic imaging (PAI) contrast agent. The solubility of the quinoline-annulated porphyrin derivative in serum now allowed the assessment of the efficacy of the PEGylated derivative as an in vivo NIR contrast agent for the PAI of an implanted tumor in a mouse model. A multi-fold contrast enhancement when compared to the benchmark dye ICG could be shown, a finding that could be traced to its photophysical properties (short triplet lifetimes, low fluorescence and singlet oxygen sensitization quantum yields). A NIR excitation wavelength of 790 nm could be used, fully taking advantage of the optical window of tissue. Rapid renal clearance of the dye was observed. Its straight-forward synthesis, optical properties with the possibility for further optical fine-tuning, nontoxicity, favorable elimination rates, and contrast enhancement make this a promising PAI contrast agent. The ability to conjugate the PAI chromophore with a fluorescent tag using a facile and general conjugation strategy was also demonstrated.
Project description:Near infrared (NIR) dyes are useful for in vivo optical imaging. Liposomes have been used extensively for delivery of diverse cargos, including hydrophilic cargos which are passively loaded in the aqueous core. However, most currently available NIR dyes are only slightly soluble in water, making passive entrapment in liposomes challenging for achieving high optical contrast. Methods: We modified a commercially-available NIR dye (IR-820) via one-step Suzuki coupling with dicarboxyphenylboronic acid, generating a disulfonated heptamethine; dicarboxyphenyl cyanine (DCP-Cy). DCP-Cy was loaded in liposomes and used for optical imaging. Results: Owing to increased charge in mildly basic aqueous solution, DCP-Cy had substantially higher water solubility than indocyanine green (by an order of magnitude), resulting in higher NIR absorption. Unexpectedly, DCP-Cy tended to form J-aggregates with pronounced spectral red-shifting to 934 nm (from 789 nm in monomeric form). J-aggregate formation was dependent on salt and DCP-Cy concentration. Dissolved at 20 mg/mL, DCP-Cy J-aggregates could be entrapped in liposomes. Full width at half maximum absorption of the liposome-entrapped dye was just 25 nm. The entrapped DCP-Cy was readily detectable by fluorescence and photoacoustic NIR imaging. Upon intravenous administration to mice, liposomal DCP-Cy circulated substantially longer than the free dye. Accumulation was largely in the spleen, which was visualized with fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Conclusions: DCP-Cy is simple to synthesize and exhibits high aqueous solubility and red-shifted absorption from J-aggregate formation. Liposomal dye entrapment is possible, which facilitates in vivo photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging around 930 nm.
Project description:Excitonically coupled bacteriochlorin (BC) dimers constitute a primary electron donor (special pair) in bacterial photosynthesis and absorbing units in light-harvesting antenna. However, the exact nature of the excited state of these dyads is still not fully understood. Here, we report a detailed spectroscopic and computational investigation of a series of symmetrical bacteriochlorin dimers, where the bacteriochlorins are connected either directly or by a phenylene bridge of variable length. The excited state of these dyads is quenched in high-dielectric solvents, which we attribute to photoinduced charge transfer. The mixing of charge transfer with the excitonic state causes accelerated (within 41 ps) decay of the excited state for the directly linked dyad, which is reduced by orders of magnitude with each additional phenyl ring separating the bacteriochlorins. These results highlight the origins of the excited-state dynamics in symmetric BC dyads and provide a new model for studying the primary processes in photosynthesis and for the development of artificial, biomimetic systems for solar energy conversion.
Project description:Synthetic bacteriochlorins-analogues of bacteriochlorophylls, Nature's near-infrared absorbers-are attractive for diverse photochemical studies. <i>meso</i>-Arylbacteriochlorins have been prepared by the self-condensation of a dihydrodipyrrin-carbinol or dihydrodipyrrin-acetal following an Eastern-Western (E-W) or Northern-Southern (N-S) joining process. The bacteriochlorins bear a gem-dimethyl group in each pyrroline ring to ensure stability toward oxidation. The two routes differ in the location of the gem-dimethyl group at the respective 3- or 2-position in the dihydrodipyrrin, and the method of synthesis of the dihydrodipyrrin. Treatment of a known 3,3-dimethyldihydrodipyrrin-1-carboxaldehyde with an aryl Grignard reagent afforded the dihydrodipyrrin-1-(aryl)carbinol, and upon subsequent acetylation, the corresponding dihydrodipyrrin-1-methyl acetate (dihydrodipyrrin-acetate). Self-condensation of the dihydrodipyrrin-acetate gave a <i>meso</i>-diarylbacteriochlorin (E-W route). A 2,2-dimethyl-5-aryldihydrodipyrrin-1-(aryl)carbinol underwent self-condensation to give a <i>trans</i>-A?B?-type <i>meso</i>-tetraarylbacteriochlorin (N-S route). In each case, the aromatization process entails a 2e<sup>-</sup>/2H? (aerobic) dehydrogenative oxidation following the dihydrodipyrrin self-condensation. Comparison of a tetrahydrodipyrrin-acetal (0%) versus a dihydrodipyrrin-acetal (41%) in bacteriochlorin formation and results with various 1-substituted dihydrodipyrrins revealed the importance of resonance stabilization of the reactive hydrodipyrrin intermediate. Altogether 10 new dihydrodipyrrins and five new bacteriochlorins have been prepared. The bacteriochlorins exhibit characteristic bacteriochlorophyll-like absorption spectra, including a Q<sub>y</sub> band in the region 726-743 nm.