Interplay with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and phosphorylation by GSK3? implicate human B-Myb in DNA-damage signaling.
ABSTRACT: B-Myb, a highly conserved member of the Myb transcription factor family, is expressed ubiquitously in proliferating cells and controls the cell cycle dependent transcription of G2/M-phase genes. Deregulation of B-Myb has been implicated in oncogenesis and loss of genomic stability. We have identified B-Myb as a novel interaction partner of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, a key player in the repair of DNA double strand breaks. We show that B-Myb directly interacts with the Nbs1 subunit of the MRN complex and is recruited transiently to DNA-damage sites. In response to DNA-damage B-Myb is phosphorylated by protein kinase GSK3? and released from the MRN complex. A B-Myb mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by GSK3? disturbs the regulation of pro-mitotic B-Myb target genes and leads to inappropriate mitotic entry in response to DNA-damage. Overall, our work suggests a novel function of B-Myb in the cellular DNA-damage signalling.
Project description:The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks in large chromatin domains flanking the lesion site. The mechanism of MRN accumulation involves direct binding of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) subunit to phosphorylated mediator of the DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), a large nuclear adaptor protein that interacts directly with phosphorylated H2AX. NBS1 contains an FHA domain and two BRCT domains at its amino terminus. Here, we show that both of these domains participate in the interaction with phosphorylated MDC1. Point mutations in key amino acid residues of either the FHA or the BRCT domains compromise the interaction with MDC1 and lead to defects in MRN accumulation at sites of DNA damage. Surprisingly, only mutation in the FHA domain, but not in the BRCT domains, yields a G2/M checkpoint defect, indicating that MDC1-dependent chromatin accumulation of the MRN complex at sites of DNA breaks is not required for G2/M checkpoint activation.
Project description:The MRE11-RAD50-Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1 [MRN]) complex accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in microscopically discernible nuclear foci. Focus formation by the MRN complex is dependent on MDC1, a large nuclear protein that directly interacts with phosphorylated H2AX. In this study, we identified a region in MDC1 that is essential for the focal accumulation of the MRN complex at sites of DNA damage. This region contains multiple conserved acidic sequence motifs that are constitutively phosphorylated in vivo. We show that these motifs are efficiently phosphorylated by caseine kinase 2 (CK2) in vitro and directly interact with the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain of NBS1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mutation of these conserved motifs in MDC1 or depletion of CK2 by small interfering RNA disrupts the interaction between MDC1 and NBS1 and abrogates accumulation of the MRN complex at sites of DNA DSBs in vivo. Thus, our data reveal the mechanism by which MDC1 physically couples the MRN complex to damaged chromatin.
Project description:The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex is essential for the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and initiation of DNA damage signaling. Here, we show that Rad17, a replication checkpoint protein, is required for the early recruitment of the MRN complex to the DSB site that is independent of MDC1 and contributes to ATM activation. Mechanistically, Rad17 is phosphorylated by ATM at a novel Thr622 site resulting in a direct interaction of Rad17 with NBS1, facilitating recruitment of the MRN complex and ATM to the DSB, thereby enhancing ATM signaling. Repetition of these events creates a positive feedback for Rad17-dependent activation of MRN/ATM signaling which appears to be a requisite for the activation of MDC1-dependent MRN complex recruitment. A point mutation of the Thr622 residue of Rad17 leads to a significant reduction in MRN/ATM signaling and homologous recombination repair, suggesting that Thr622 phosphorylation is important for regulation of the MRN/ATM signaling by Rad17. These findings suggest that Rad17 plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage via regulation of the MRN/ATM pathway.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most serious forms of DNA damage that can occur in the genome. Here, we show that the DSB-induced signaling cascade and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair pathway can be genetically separated. We demonstrate that the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts to promote DNA end resection and the generation of single-stranded DNA, which is critically important for HR repair. These functions of the MRN complex can occur independently of the H2AX-mediated DNA damage signaling cascade, which promotes stable accumulation of other signaling and repair proteins such as 53BP1 and BRCA1 to sites of DNA damage. Nevertheless, mild defects in HR repair are observed in H2AX-deficient cells, suggesting that the H2AX-dependent DNA damage-signaling cascade assists DNA repair. We propose that the MRN complex is responsible for the initial recognition of DSBs and works together with both CtIP and the H2AX-dependent DNA damage-signaling cascade to facilitate repair by HR and regulate DNA damage checkpoints.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a condition similar to Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T), is a radiation-hypersensitive genetic disorder showing chromosomal instability, radio-resistant DNA synthesis, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to malignances. The product of the responsible gene, NBS1, forms a complex with MRE11 and RAD50 (MRN complex). The MRN complex is necessary for the DNA damage-induced activation of ATM. However, the regulation of MRN complex formation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of MRN complex formation. We used an immunoprecipitation assay to determine whether levels of the MRN complex were increased by radiation-induced DNA damage and found that the levels of these proteins and their mRNAs did not increase. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of NBS1 contributed to the DNA damage-induced MRN complex formation. However, pre-treatment of cells with an ATM-specific inhibitor did not affect homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. G0 phase cells, decreasing NBS1 and HR activity but not NHEJ, gained HR-related chromatin association of RAD51 by overexpression of NBS1, suggesting that the amount of NBS1 may be important for repressing accidental activation of HR. These evidences suggest that NBS1 is regulated by two kind of mechanisms: complex formation dependent on ATM, and protein degradation mediated by an unknown MG132-resistant pathway. Such regulation of NBS1 may contribute to cellular responses to double-strand breaks.
Project description:Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2TRFH domain. Phosphorylation of NBS1 serine 432 by CDK2 in S/G2 dissociates NBS1 from TRF2, promoting TRF2-Apollo/SNM1B complex formation and the protection of leading-strand telomeres. Classical-NHEJ-mediated repair of telomeres lacking TRF2 requires phosphorylated NBS1S432 to activate ATM, while interaction of de-phosphorylated NBS1S432 with TRF2 promotes alternative-NHEJ repair of telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1. Our work advances understanding of how the TRF2TRFH domain orchestrates telomere end protection and reveals how the phosphorylation status of the NBS1S432 dictates repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres.
Project description:The MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1)-ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) pathway is essential for sensing and signaling from DNA double-strand breaks. The MRN complex acts as a DNA damage sensor, maintains genome stability during DNA replication, promotes homology-dependent DNA repair and activates ATM. MRN is essential for cell viability, which has limited functional studies of the complex. Small-molecule inhibitors of MRN could circumvent this experimental limitation and could also be used as cellular radio- and chemosensitization compounds. Using cell-free systems that recapitulate faithfully the MRN-ATM signaling pathway, we designed a forward chemical genetic screen to identify inhibitors of the pathway, and we isolated 6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-4(1H)-pyrimidinone (mirin, 1) as an inhibitor of MRN. Mirin prevents MRN-dependent activation of ATM without affecting ATM protein kinase activity, and it inhibits Mre11-associated exonuclease activity. Consistent with its ability to target the MRN complex, mirin abolishes the G2/M checkpoint and homology-dependent repair in mammalian cells.
Project description:Ectopic R-loop accumulation causes DNA replication stress and genome instability. To avoid these outcomes, cells possess a range of anti-R-loop mechanisms, including RNaseH that degrades the RNA moiety in R-loops. To comprehensively identify anti-R-loop mechanisms, we performed a genome-wide trigenic interaction screen in yeast lacking RNH1 and RNH201. We identified?>100 genes critical for fitness in the absence of RNaseH, which were enriched for DNA replication fork maintenance factors including the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. While MRN has been shown to promote R-loops at DNA double-strand breaks, we show that it suppresses R-loops and associated DNA damage at transcription-replication conflicts. This occurs through a non-nucleolytic function of MRE11 that is important for R-loop suppression by the Fanconi Anemia pathway. This work establishes a novel role for MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 in directing tolerance mechanisms at transcription-replication conflicts.
Project description:Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette-ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection. MRN can interfere with cancer therapy and is an attractive target for precision medicine. Its conformations change the paradigm whereby kinases initiate damage sensing. Delineated results reveal kinase activation, posttranslational targeting, functional scaffolding, conformations storing binding energy and enabling access, interactions with hub proteins such as replication protein A (RPA), and distinct networks at DNA breaks and forks. MRN biochemistry provides prototypic insights into how it initiates, implements, and regulates multifunctional responses to genomic stress.
Project description:The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) protein complex and ATM/Tel1 kinase protect genome integrity through their functions in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, checkpoint signaling, and telomere maintenance. Nbs1 has a conserved C-terminal motif that binds ATM/Tel1, but the full extent and significance of ATM/Tel1 interactions with MRN are unknown. Here, we show that Tel1 overexpression bypasses the requirement for Nbs1 in DNA damage signaling and telomere maintenance. These activities require Mre11-Rad50, which localizes to DSBs and bind Tel1 in the absence of Nbs1. Fusion of the Tel1-binding motif of Nbs1 to Mre11 is sufficient to restore Tel1 signaling in nbs1? cells. Tel1 overexpression does not restore Tel1 signaling in cells carrying the rad50-I1192W mutation, which impairs the ability of Mre11-Rad50 to form the ATP-bound closed conformation. From these findings, we propose that Tel1 has a high-affinity interaction with the C-terminus of Nbs1 and a low-affinity association with Mre11-Rad50, which together accomplish efficient localization and activation of Tel1 at DSBs and telomeres.