Comparative Rates of Serious Infections Among Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Receiving Immunosuppressive Medications.
ABSTRACT: While infection burden is high among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), there is uncertainty about whether infection rates differ by immunosuppressive drug regimens. We undertook this study to compare infection rates among SLE patients newly initiating immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA), or cyclophosphamide (CYC).Within the Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2010; 29 most populated US states), we identified adults with SLE starting MMF, AZA, or CYC treatment. We estimated propensity scores for receipt of MMF versus AZA and MMF versus CYC based on sociodemographic, comorbidity, and medication use information. After 1:1 propensity score matching, we estimated incidence rates of serious infections up to 6 and 12 months after drug initiation and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of first infection and death, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We performed primary intent-to-treat (ITT) and secondary as-treated analyses.We studied 1,350 propensity score-matched pairs of MMF and AZA initiators and 674 propensity score-matched pairs of MMF and CYC initiators. In 6-month ITT analyses, the incidence rate per 100 person-years for first serious hospitalized infection was 14.6 in MMF users and 15.2 in AZA users (HR of MMF versus AZA 0.99 [95% CI 0.74-1.32]). Comparing MMF to CYC, the incidence rate per 100 person-years for first serious infection was 24.1 in MMF users and 24.6 in CYC users (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.69-1.32]). There were no differences in mortality in either comparison. As-treated analyses yielded similar results.In a nationwide longitudinal study of Medicaid SLE patients at high risk of infection, rates of serious infection and mortality did not differ among new users of MMF, AZA, or CYC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Azathioprine (AZA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are immunosuppressants frequently used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We studied longitudinal patterns and predictors of adherence to AZA and MMF in a nationwide US SLE cohort. METHODS:In the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-2010) database, we identified patients with SLE who initiated AZA or MMF (no use in the prior 6 months) with ?12 months of continuous follow-up. We dichotomized adherence at 80%, with ?24 of 30 days per month considered adherent. We used group-based trajectory models to estimate monthly adherence patterns and multivariable multinomial logistic regression to determine the association between demographic, SLE and utilization-related predictors, and the odds ratios (OR) of belonging to a nonadherent versus the adherent trajectory, separately for AZA and MMF. RESULTS:We identified 2,309 AZA initiators and 2,070 MMF initiators with SLE. Four-group trajectory models classified 17% of AZA and 21% of MMF initiators as adherent. AZA and MMF nonadherers followed similar trajectory patterns. African American race (OR 1.67 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.20-2.31]) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.06-2.35]) increased odds of AZA nonadherence; there were no significant associations between race/ethnicity and MMF nonadherence. Male sex and polypharmacy were associated with lower odds of nonadherence to both medications; lupus nephritis was associated with lower odds of nonadherence to MMF (OR 0.74 [95% CI 0.55-0.99]). CONCLUSION:Adherence to AZA or MMF over the first year of use was rare. Race, sex, and lupus nephritis were modestly associated with adherence, but the magnitude, direction, and significance of predictors differed by medication, suggesting the complexity of predicting adherence behavior.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Clinical trials revealed a high efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with class III-V-lupus nephritis. Also extrarenal manifestations respond to MMF treatment. However, few attempts have been undertaken to delineate its mechanism of action in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a disease characterized by enhanced B cell activation.<h4>Methods</h4>Clinical and paraclinical parameters of 107 patients with SLE were recorded consecutively and analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into treatment groups (MMF: n=39, azathioprine (AZA) n=30 and controls without immunosuppressive therapy n=38). To further delineate the effect of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on naive and memory B cells in vitro assays were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Although patients taking AZA flared more frequently than patients on MMF or controls, the analysis of clinical parameters did not reveal significant differences.However, profound differences in paraclinical parameters were found. B cell frequencies and numbers were significantly higher in patients taking MMF compared to those on AZA but lower numbers and frequencies of plasmablasts were detected compared to AZA-treated patients or controls. Notably, MMF treatment was associated with a significantly higher frequency and number of transitional B cells as well as naive B cells compared to AZA treatment. Differences in T cell subsets were not significant. MPA abrogated in vitro proliferation of purified B cells completely but had only moderate impact on B cell survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The thorough inhibition of B cell activation and plasma cell formation by MMF might explain the favorable outcomes of previous clinical trials in patients with SLE, since enhanced B cell proliferation is a hallmark of this disease.
Project description:Background: Although there are multiple ways to manage immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD), including treatment with glucocorticoids, "steroid-sparing" immunosuppressive drugs, or biologic agents, few clinical trials on IgG4-RD have been conducted. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids (GCs) combined with cyclophosphamide (CYC) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in IgG4-RD patients. This cohort study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01670695). Methods: This retrospective study included 155 IgG4-RD patients who received GCs with CYC or MMF at the Department of Rheumatology at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2012 and July 2018. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to match two groups of patients based on their baseline clinical characteristics. Treatment response, relapse rate, and drug safety were analyzed. The treatment response was evaluated based on complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and no change (NC), and the cumulative relapse rate and adverse events in each treatment group were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test, respectively. Results: Of the 155 IgG4-RD patients, 90 were treated with GCs plus CYC (group I) and 65 with GCs plus MMF (group II). After propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis, 108 patients were selected (54 in each group), 49 of whom had "definite" IgG4-RD, 8 "probable" IgG4-RD, and 51 "possible" IgG4-RD. At the last follow-up, the total response in groups I and II was 98.15 and 96.3%, respectively, and within 12 months, the cumulative relapse rate in group II was significantly higher than that in group I (14.8 vs. 3.7%, P = 0.046). Recurrence occurred at the paranasal sinus, lacrimal glands, skin, lung, pancreas, and bile ducts, and the relapsed patients achieved remission after switching immunosuppressants or/and increasing the GC dose. Conclusions: In IgG4-RD patients with internal organ involvement, GCs plus CYC or MMF are both effective with similar effects in disease response, while GCs plus CYC reduced the relapse rate better than GCs plus MMF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC) on modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS) in participants enrolled in the Scleroderma Lung Study (SLS) I and II. METHODS:SLS I participants received daily oral CYC or matching placebo for 1 year, whereas SLS II participants received daily MMF for 2 years or daily oral CYC for 1 year followed by placebo for second year. We assessed the impact of MMF and CYC on the MRSS in SLS II over a 24-month period. We also compared the change in MRSS in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) assigned to CYC and MMF in SLS II and SLS I versus placebo in SLS I over a 24-month period using a linear mixed model. RESULTS:In SLS II, the baseline mean ± SD MRSS was 14.0 ± 10.6 units for CYC and 15.3 ± 10.4 units for MMF; 58.5% were classified as dcSSc. CYC and MMF were associated with statistically significant improvements in MRSS from baseline over the period of 24 months in dcSSc (P < 0.05 at each time point), but there were no differences between the 2 groups. In the dcSSc subgroup, the change in MRSS from baseline to all 6-month visits was similar in SLS II groups (MMF, CYC, pooled cohort [MMF + CYC]) and in the SLS I CYC group and showed statistically significant improvements compared to SLS I placebo at 12, 18, and 24 months (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:In SLS II, MMF and CYC treatment resulted in improvements in MRSS in patients with dcSSc over 24 months. In addition, MMF and CYC treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in MRSS in patients with dcSSc when compared with the SLS I placebo group.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim was to examine the risk of cervical neoplasia in women with SLE, overall and with respect to treatment, compared with women from the general population.<h4>Methods</h4>By linking national Swedish registers, we assembled a cohort including women with SLE (n = 4976) and matched general population comparators (n = 29 703). Two subcohorts of treated SLE patients were defined on the basis of treatment with antimalarials (n = 1942) and other immunosuppressants (AZA, CYC, ciclosporin, MTX, MMF or rituximab; n = 2175). The main outcome was defined as a first cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) during follow-up. Secondary outcomes were first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1; first CIN grades 2-3; and first invasive cervical cancer during follow-up (2006-12). Cox regression models estimated relative risks adjusted for age, level of education, health-care utilization, number of children, marital status, family history of cervical cancer and prior cervical screening.<h4>Results</h4>Based on 121 events of cervical neoplasia during 23 136 person-years among SLE patients, there was an increased risk of any cervical neoplasia compared with the general population [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.12 (95% CI: 1.65, 2.71)]. The risk of CIN 1 [HR = 2.33 (95% CI: 1.58, 3.44)], CIN 2-3 [HR = 1.95 (95% CI: 1.43, 2.65)], but not invasive cervical cancer [HR = 1.64 (95% CI: 0.54, 5.02)], was increased in women with SLE. The subcohort treated with other immunosuppressants was at highest risk of cervical neoplasia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>SLE is a risk factor for cervical neoplasia, in particular for pre-malignant cervical lesions. Among patients with SLE, the risk is higher among those treated with immunosuppresants compared with those treated with antimalarials.
Project description:Objectives: The successful introduction of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a treatment for renal allograft reduced the incidence of acute rejection. The inspiring effects obtained by the MMF have led to an evaluation of its therapeutic potency on ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). However, there is little evidence of the MMF's efficacy on the AAV. The meta-analysis is carried out to evaluate the efficacy of MMF as a remission induction therapy in AAV. Methods: Up to June 30th, 2020, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase have been searched comprehensively. According to heterogeneity, the pooled remission rates are synthesized by either fixed-effect or random-effect models. Results: The eight included studies comprising 230 patients who were treated with MMF as induction therapy are included in our analysis. The pooled overall remission rate is 74% (95% CI: 0.68–0.80). The remission rate, the infection rate and the rate of leukopenia of four randomized controlled trials aimed at comparing the effects of MMF with cyclophosphamide (CYC) during induction therapy for AAV have no statistical significance (P > 0.05). Conclusion: MMF may be an alternative to CYC for remission induction therapy in AAV with MPO-ANCA, mild to moderate renal involvement and non-life-threatening state. Whether to observe the effect of MMF in AAV or to compare the difference between MMF and CYC in the future studies, risk stratification and subgrouping of AAV patients should be first carried out to correctly identify the AAV subgroup suitable for MMF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The management of proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) comprises timely and coordinated immunosuppressive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and safety profile of low dose mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC) in induction therapy of LN in Nepalese population. METHODS:We conducted a prospective, open-label, randomized trial over a period of one and half years. Forty-nine patients with class III to V lupus nephritis were enrolled, out of which 42 patients (21 in each group) could complete the study. CYC was given intravenously as a monthly pulse and MMF was administered orally in the tablet form in the maximum daily dose of 1.5 g in two divided doses. RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 25.43?±?10.17 years with female to male ratio of 7.3:1. Mean baseline serum creatinine was 1.58?±?1.38 mg/dL and eGFR was 62.38?±?26.76 ml/min/1.73m2. Mean 24-h urinary protein was 4.35?±?3.71 g per 1.73 m2 body surface area. At 6 months, serum creatinine (mg/dL) decreased from 1.73 to 0.96 in CYC and from 1.24 to 0.91 in the MMF group with improvement in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) from 60.33 to 88.52 in CYC and from 64.42 to 89.09 in MMF group. Twenty-four-hour urinary protein (gm/1.73m2) reduced from 4.47 to 0.94 in CYC and from 4.5 to 0.62 in the MMF group. Primary end point was achieved in higher percentage of patients with MMF than CYC (28.6% vs. 19%) while equal proportion of patients (67% in each group) achieved secondary end point in both groups. Number of non-responders was higher in CYC group than in the MMF group (14.3% vs. 4.8%). There was no difference in the rate of achievement of secondary end point in both CYC and MMF groups (3.16 vs. 3.05 months). The occurrence of adverse events was higher in the CYC than in MMF group (56 vs. 15 events). CONCLUSION:Present study has concluded that MMF, used in relatively lower dose, is equally effective in inducing remission with reduction of proteinuria and improvement of kidney function with lesser adverse events than CYC in the induction therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered to ClinicalTrials.gov PRS. NCT03200002 (Registered date: June 28, 2017).
Project description:To examine the epidemiology of serious infections, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in a nationwide cohort of SLE and lupus nephritis (LN) patients.Using the Medicaid Analytic eXtract database for the years 2000-2006, we identified patients ages 18-64 years who had SLE and the subset who had LN. We ascertained cases of serious hospitalized infections using validated algorithms, and we determined 30-day mortality rates. Poisson regression was used to calculate infection incidence rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the first infection, adjusted for sociodemographic variables, medication use, and an SLE-specific risk adjustment index.We identified 33,565 patients with SLE, 7,113 of whom had LN. There were 9,078 serious infections in 5,078 SLE patients and 3,494 infections in 1,825 LN patients. The infection incidence rate per 100 person-years was 10.8 in the SLE cohort and 23.9 in the LN subcohort. In adjusted models for the SLE cohort, we observed increased risks of infection in men as compared to women (HR 1.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.20-1.47]), in blacks as compared to whites (HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.06-1.21]), and in users of glucocorticoids (HR 1.51 [95% CI 1.43-1.61]) and immunosuppressive drugs (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.03-1.20]) as compared to never users. Hydroxychloroquine users had a reduced risk of infection as compared to never users (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.68-0.77]). The 30-day mortality rate per 1,000 person-years among those hospitalized with infections was 21.4 in the SLE cohort and 38.6 in the LN subcohort.In this diverse, nationwide cohort of SLE patients, we observed a substantial burden of serious infections with many subsequent deaths, particularly among those with LN.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) and CCL18 levels and the severity and progression of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS:Patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Lung Study II (cyclophosphamide [CYC] versus mycophenolate mofetil [MMF]) were included. Baseline and 12-month plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess CCL18 and KL-6 levels. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were measured every 3 months. Joint models were created to investigate the relationship between baseline CCL18 and KL-6 levels and the course of the FVC and DLco over 1 year according to treatment arm. RESULTS:Baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels each correlated with the extent of radiographic fibrosis. Levels of both CCL18 and KL-6 declined significantly at 1 year. In both treatment arms (n = 71 for CYC, n = 62 for MMF), a higher baseline KL-6 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of FVC (P = 0.024 for CYC; P = 0.005 for MMF) and DLco (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.004 for MMF) over 1 year. A higher baseline CCL18 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of the FVC (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.007 for MMF) and DLco (P = 0.001 for CYC; P < 0.001 for MMF) over 1 year, as well as mortality (P = 0.0008 for CYC arm only). CONCLUSION:In a rigorously conducted clinical trial for SSc-related ILD, KL-6 and CCL18 levels correlated with ILD severity and declined with immunosuppression. Patients with higher baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels were more likely to experience disease progression despite treatment. KL-6 and CCL18 levels could be used to identify patients with a progressive ILD phenotype who may benefit from a more aggressive initial treatment approach.
Project description:Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a common autoimmune glomerulonephritis that can result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Whether immunosuppressants are superior or equivalent to supportive care is still controversial. A network meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment for IgAN. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched on December 30, 2018. We used a random-effects model with a Bayesian approach to appraise both renal outcomes and serious adverse effects. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to present the relative effects. The ranking probabilities were calculated by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). In total, 24 RCTs comprising 6 interventions were analyzed. Steroids significantly delayed the progression of renal deterioration with acceptable serious adverse effects, compared with supportive care (RR?=?0.28, 95% CI?=?0.13-0.51, SUCRA?=?48.7%). AZA combined with steroids might be an alternative immunosuppressive therapy. Tacrolimus might decrease the proteinuria level (RR?=?3.1, 95% CI?=?1.2-9.4, SUCRA?=?66.5%) but cannot improve renal function, and the side effects of tacrolimus should not be neglected. MMF and CYC showed no superiority in the treatment of IgAN. In summary, steroids might be recommended as the first-line immunosuppressive therapy for IgAN.