HUWE1 interacts with PCNA to alleviate replication stress.
ABSTRACT: Defects in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and DNA repair compromise genomic stability and promote cancer development. In particular, unrepaired DNA lesions can arrest the progression of the DNA replication machinery during S-phase, causing replication stress, mutations, and DNA breaks. HUWE1 is a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins involved in cell fate, survival, and differentiation. Here, we report that HUWE1 is essential for genomic stability, by promoting replication of damaged DNA We show that HUWE1-knockout cells are unable to mitigate replication stress, resulting in replication defects and DNA breakage. Importantly, we find that this novel role of HUWE1 requires its interaction with the replication factor PCNA, a master regulator of replication fork restart, at stalled replication forks. Finally, we provide evidence that HUWE1 mono-ubiquitinates H2AX to promote signaling at stalled forks. Altogether, our work identifies HUWE1 as a novel regulator of the replication stress response.
Project description:The protection and efficient restart of stalled replication forks is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. Here, we identify a regulatory pathway that promotes stalled forks recovery from replication stress. We show that the mammalian replisome component C20orf43/RTF2 (homologous to S. pombe Rtf2) must be removed for fork restart to be optimal. We further show that the proteasomal shuttle proteins DDI1 and DDI2 are required for RTF2 removal from stalled forks. Persistence of RTF2 at stalled forks results in fork restart defects, hyperactivation of the DNA damage signal, accumulation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), sensitivity to replication drugs, and chromosome instability. These results establish that RTF2 removal is a key determinant for the ability of cells to manage replication stress and maintain genome integrity.
Project description:DNA replication stress is often defined by the slowing or stalling of replication fork progression leading to local or global DNA synthesis inhibition. Failure to resolve replication stress in a timely manner contribute toward cell cycle defects, genome instability and human disease; however, the mechanism for fork recovery remains poorly defined. Here, we show that the translesion DNA polymerase (Pol) kappa, a DinB orthologue, has a unique role in both protecting and restarting stalled replication forks under conditions of nucleotide deprivation. Importantly, Pol kappa-mediated DNA synthesis during hydroxyurea (HU)-dependent fork restart is regulated by both the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway and PCNA polyubiquitination. Loss of Pol kappa prevents timely rescue of stalled replication forks, leading to replication-associated genomic instability, and a p53-dependent cell cycle defect. Taken together, our results identify a previously unanticipated role for Pol kappa in promoting DNA synthesis and replication stress recovery at sites of stalled forks.
Project description:The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1/Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in integrating/coordinating diverse cellular processes such as DNA damage repair and apoptosis. A previous study has shown that HUWE1 is required for the early step of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, by targeting MCL-1 for proteasomal degradation. However, HUWE1 is subsequently inactivated, promoting cell survival and the subsequent DNA damage repair process. The mechanism underlying its regulation during this process remains largely undefined. Here, we show that the Cullin4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) is required for proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage. CUL4B is activated in a NEDD8-dependent manner, and ubiquitinates HUWE1 in vitro and in vivo. The depletion of CUL4B stabilizes HUWE1, which in turn accelerates the degradation of MCL-1, leading to increased induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, cells deficient in CUL4B showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage reagents. More importantly, upon CUL4B depletion, these phenotypes can be rescued through simultaneous depletion of HUWE1, consistent with the role of CUL4B in regulating HUWE1. Collectively, these results identify CRL4B as an essential E3 ligase in targeting the proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage, and provide a potential strategy for cancer therapy by targeting HUWE1 and the CUL4B E3 ligase.
Project description:Three DNA polymerases, polymerases ?, ?, and ? (Pol ?, Pol ?, and Pol ?), are responsible for eukaryotic genome duplication. When DNA replication stress is encountered, DNA synthesis stalls until the stress is ameliorated. However, it is not known whether there is a difference in the association of each polymerase with active and stalled replication forks. Here, we show that each DNA polymerase has a distinct pattern of association with active and stalled replication forks. Pol ? is enriched at extending Okazaki fragments of active and stalled forks. In contrast, although Pol ? contacts the nascent lagging strands of active and stalled forks, it binds to only the matured (and not elongating) Okazaki fragments of stalled forks. Pol ? has greater contact with the nascent single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) of the leading strand on active forks than on stalled forks. We propose that the configuration of DNA polymerases at stalled forks facilitates the resumption of DNA synthesis after stress removal.
Project description:Prim-pol is a recently identified DNA primase-polymerase belonging to the archaeao-eukaryotic primase (AEP) superfamily. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized prim-pol in human cells, which we designate hPrimpol1 (human primase-polymerase 1). hPrimpol1 possesses primase and DNA polymerase activities in vitro, interacts directly with RPA1 and is recruited to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks in an RPA1-dependent manner. Cells depleted of hPrimpol1 display increased spontaneous DNA damage and defects in the restart of stalled replication forks. Both RPA1 binding and the primase activity of hPrimpol1 are required for its cellular function during DNA replication. Our results indicate that hPrimpol1 is a novel factor involved in the response to DNA replication stress.
Project description:Replication fork stalling and collapse is a major source of genome instability leading to neoplastic transformation or cell death. Such stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR) or non-conservatively repaired using micro-homology mediated end joining (MMEJ). HR repair of stressed forks is initiated by 5' end resection near the fork junction, which permits 3' single strand invasion of a homologous template for fork restart. This 5' end resection also prevents classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ), a competing pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Unopposed NHEJ can cause genome instability during replication stress by abnormally fusing free double strand ends that occur as unstable replication fork repair intermediates. We show here that the previously uncharacterized Exonuclease/Endonuclease/Phosphatase Domain-1 (EEPD1) protein is required for initiating repair and restart of stalled forks. EEPD1 is recruited to stalled forks, enhances 5' DNA end resection, and promotes restart of stalled forks. Interestingly, EEPD1 directs DSB repair away from cNHEJ, and also away from MMEJ, which requires limited end resection for initiation. EEPD1 is also required for proper ATR and CHK1 phosphorylation, and formation of gamma-H2AX, RAD51 and phospho-RPA32 foci. Consistent with a direct role in stalled replication fork cleavage, EEPD1 is a 5' overhang nuclease in an obligate complex with the end resection nuclease Exo1 and BLM. EEPD1 depletion causes nuclear and cytogenetic defects, which are made worse by replication stress. Depleting 53BP1, which slows cNHEJ, fully rescues the nuclear and cytogenetic abnormalities seen with EEPD1 depletion. These data demonstrate that genome stability during replication stress is maintained by EEPD1, which initiates HR and inhibits cNHEJ and MMEJ.
Project description:A series of critical pathways are responsible for the detection, signaling, and restart of replication forks that encounter blocks during S-phase progression. Small base lesions may obstruct replication fork progression and processing, but the link between repair of small lesions and replication forks is unclear. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized role for DNA-PK, an important enzyme in DNA repair, in cellular responses to DNA replication stress. The enzyme catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated on S2056 at sites of stalled replication forks in response to short hydroxyurea treatment. Using DNA fiber experiments, we found that catalytically active DNA-PK was required for efficient replication restart of stalled forks. Furthermore, enzymatically active DNA-PK was also required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to stalled replication forks. This activity was enhanced by preventing Mre11-dependent DNA end resection, suggesting that XRCC1 must be recruited early to an unresected stalled fork. We also found that XRCC1 was required for effective restart of a subset of stalled replication forks. Overall, our work suggested that DNA-PK and PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 is necessary to effectively protect, repair, and restart stalled replication forks, providing new insight into how genomic stability is preserved.
Project description:DNA replication stress (DRS) leads to the accumulation of stalled DNA replication forks leaving a fraction of genomic loci incompletely replicated, a source of chromosomal rearrangements during their partition in mitosis. MUS81 is known to limit the occurrence of chromosomal instability by processing these unresolved loci during mitosis. Here, we unveil that the endonucleases ARTEMIS and XPF-ERCC1 can also induce stalled DNA replication forks cleavage through non-epistatic pathways all along S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. We also showed that both nucleases are recruited to chromatin to promote replication fork restart. Finally, we found that rapid chromosomal breakage controlled by ARTEMIS and XPF is important to prevent mitotic segregation defects. Collectively, these results reveal that Rapid Replication Fork Breakage (RRFB) mediated by ARTEMIS and XPF in response to DRS contributes to DNA replication efficiency and limit chromosomal instability.
Project description:Replication fork integrity, which is essential for the maintenance of genome stability, is monitored by checkpoint-mediated phosphorylation events. 14-3-3 proteins are able to bind phosphorylated proteins and were shown to play an undefined role under DNA replication stress. Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) processes stalled replication forks in checkpoint-defective yeast cells. We now identify 14-3-3 proteins as in vivo interaction partners of Exo1, both in yeast and mammalian cells. Yeast 14-3-3-deficient cells fail to induce Mec1-dependent Exo1 hyperphosphorylation and accumulate Exo1-dependent ssDNA gaps at stalled forks, as revealed by electron microscopy. This leads to persistent checkpoint activation and exacerbated recovery defects. Moreover, using DNA bi-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that 14-3-3 proteins promote fork progression under limiting nucleotide concentrations. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins assist in controlling the phosphorylation status of Exo1 and additional unknown targets, promoting fork progression, stability, and restart in response to DNA replication stress.
Project description:Faithful DNA replication is a cornerstone of genomic integrity. PTEN plays multiple roles in genome protection and tumour suppression. Here we report on the importance of PTEN in DNA replication. PTEN depletion leads to impairment of replication progression and stalled fork recovery, indicating an elevation of endogenous replication stress. Exogenous replication inhibition aggravates replication-originated DNA lesions without inducing S phase arrest in cells lacking PTEN, representing replication stress tolerance. iPOND analysis reveals the physical association of PTEN with DNA replication forks and PTEN-dependent recruitment of Rad51. PTEN deletion results in Rad51 dissociation from replication forks. Stalled replication forks in Pten-null cells can be reactivated by ectopic Rad51 or PTEN, the latter facilitating chromatin loading of Rad51. These data highlight the interplay of PTEN with Rad51 in promoting stalled fork restart. We propose that loss of PTEN may initiate a replication stress cascade that progressively deteriorates through the cell cycle.