Hereditary spastic paraplegia due to a novel mutation of the REEP1 gene: Case report and literature review.
ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a heterogeneous group of diseases little known in clinical practice due to its low prevalence, slow progression, and difficult diagnosis. This results in an underestimation of HSP leading to belated diagnosis and management. In depth diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and identification of genomic mutations. We describe the clinical presentation and pathogeny of HSP through a report of a case due to a novel mutation of the REEP1 gene (SPG31).A 64-year-old woman presented gait disturbances due to spasticity of the lower limbs progressing since her third decade. Previous investigations failed to find any cause.DNA analysis was performed to search for HSP causing mutations.A novel heterozygote mutation (c.595?+?1G>A) of the REEP1 gene, within the splice site of intron 6, was discovered. This nucleotide change causes exon 6 skipping leading to frame shift and a truncated transcript identified by complementary DNA sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction products.REEP1 is a known protein predominantly located in the upper motor neurons. Mutation of REEP1 primary affects the longest axons explaining predominance of pyramidal syndrome on lower limbs.Slow progressive pyramidal syndrome of the lower limbs should elicit a diagnosis of HSP. We describe a novel mutation of the REEP1 gene causing HSP. Pathogeny is based on resulting abnormal REEP1 protein which is involved in the development of longest axons constituting the corticospinal tracts.
Project description:Axonopathies are a group of clinically diverse disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the axons of specific neurons. In hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), the axons of cortical motor neurons degenerate and cause a spastic movement disorder. HSP is linked to mutations in several loci known collectively as the spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs). We identified a heterozygous receptor accessory protein 1 (REEP1) exon 2 deletion in a patient suffering from the autosomal dominantly inherited HSP variant SPG31. We generated the corresponding mouse model to study the underlying cellular pathology. Mice with heterozygous deletion of exon 2 in Reep1 displayed a gait disorder closely resembling SPG31 in humans. Homozygous exon 2 deletion resulted in the complete loss of REEP1 and a more severe phenotype with earlier onset. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that REEP1 is a neuron-specific, membrane-binding, and membrane curvature-inducing protein that resides in the ER. We further show that Reep1 expression was prominent in cortical motor neurons. In REEP1-deficient mice, these neurons showed reduced complexity of the peripheral ER upon ultrastructural analysis. Our study connects proper neuronal ER architecture to long-term axon survival.
Project description:Mutations in the receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) have recently been reported to cause autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type SPG31. In a large collaborative effort, we screened a sample of 535 unrelated HSP patients for REEP1 mutations and copy number variations. We identified 13 novel and 2 known REEP1 mutations in 16 familial and sporadic patients by direct sequencing analysis. Twelve out of 16 mutations were small insertions, deletions or splice site mutations. These changes would result in shifts of the open-reading-frame followed by premature termination of translation and haploinsufficiency. Interestingly, we identified two disease associated variations in the 3'-UTR of REEP1 that fell into highly conserved micro RNA binding sites. Copy number variation analysis in a subset of 133 HSP index patients revealed a large duplication of REEP1 that involved exons 2-7 in an Irish family. Clinically most SPG31 patients present with a pure spastic paraplegia; rare complicating features were restricted to symptoms or signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Interestingly, the distribution of age at onset suggested a bimodal pattern with the appearance of initial symptoms of disease either before the age of 20 years or after the age of 30 years. The overall mutation rate in our clinically heterogeneous sample was 3.0%; however, in the sub-sample of pure HSP REEP1 mutations accounted for 8.2% of all patients. These results firmly establish REEP1 as a relatively frequent autosomal dominant HSP gene for which genetic testing is warranted. We also establish haploinsufficiency as the main molecular genetic mechanism in SPG31, which should initiate and guide functional studies on REEP1 with a focus on loss-of-function mechanisms. Our results should be valid as a reference for mutation frequency, spectrum of REEP1 mutations, and clinical phenotypes associated with SPG31.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SPG4 gene (spastin) and in the SPG3A gene (atlastin) account for the majority of 'pure' autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Recently, mutations in the REEP1 gene were identified to cause autosomal dominant HSP type SPG31. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of REEP1 mutations in a cohort of 162 unrelated Caucasian index patients with 'pure' HSP and a positive family history (at least two persons per family presented symptoms). METHODS: 162 patients were screened for mutations by, both, DHPLC and direct sequencing. RESULTS: Ten mutations were identified in the REEP1 gene, these included eight novel mutations comprising small insertions/deletions causing frame shifts and subsequently premature stop codons, one nonsense mutation and one splice site mutation as well as two missense mutations. Both missense mutations and the splice site mutation were not identified in 170 control subjects. CONCLUSION: In our HSP cohort we found pathogenic mutations in 4.3% of cases with autosomal dominant inheritance. Our results confirm the previously observed mutation range of 3% to 6.5%, respectively, and they widen the spectrum of REEP1 mutations.
Project description:Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs; SPG1-45) are inherited neurological disorders characterized by lower extremity spastic weakness. More than half of HSP cases result from autosomal dominant mutations in atlastin-1 (also known as SPG3A), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1; SPG31), or spastin (SPG4). The atlastin-1 GTPase interacts with spastin, a microtubule-severing ATPase, as well as with the DP1/Yop1p and reticulon families of ER-shaping proteins, and SPG3A caused by atlastin-1 mutations has been linked pathogenically to abnormal ER morphology. Here we investigated SPG31 by analyzing the distribution, interactions, and functions of REEP1. We determined that REEP1 is structurally related to the DP1/Yop1p family of ER-shaping proteins and localizes to the ER in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, where it colocalizes with spastin and atlastin-1. Upon overexpression in COS7 cells, REEP1 formed protein complexes with atlastin-1 and spastin within the tubular ER, and these interactions required hydrophobic hairpin domains in each of these proteins. REEP proteins were required for ER network formation in vitro, and REEP1 also bound microtubules and promoted ER alignment along the microtubule cytoskeleton in COS7 cells. A SPG31 mutant REEP1 lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic region did not interact with microtubules and disrupted the ER network. These data indicate that the HSP proteins atlastin-1, spastin, and REEP1 interact within the tubularER membrane in corticospinal neurons to coordinate ER shaping and microtubule dynamics. Thus, defects in tubular ER shaping and network interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton seem to be the predominant pathogenic mechanism of HSP.
Project description:Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs; SPG1-76 plus others) are length-dependent disorders affecting long corticospinal axons, and the most common autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in genes that encode the spastin (SPG4), atlastin-1 (SPG3A) and REEP1 (SPG31) proteins. These proteins bind one another and shape the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network throughout cells. They also are involved in lipid droplet formation, enlargement, or both in cells, though mechanisms remain unclear. Here we have identified evidence of partial lipoatrophy in Reep1 null mice in addition to prominent spastic paraparesis. Furthermore, Reep1-/- embryonic fibroblasts and neurons in the cerebral cortex both show lipid droplet abnormalities. The apparent partial lipodystrophy in Reep1 null mice, although less severe, is reminiscent of the lipoatrophy phenotype observed in the most common form of autosomal recessive lipodystrophy, Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy. Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the BSCL2 gene that encodes an ER protein, seipin, that is also mutated in the autosomal dominant HSP SPG17 (Silver syndrome). Furthermore, REEP1 co-immunoprecipitates with seipin in cells. This strengthens the link between alterations in ER morphogenesis and lipid abnormalities, with important pathogenic implications for the most common forms of HSP.
Project description:Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) comprises a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that affect the upper motor neurons and their axonal projections. For the novel SPG31 locus on chromosome 2p12, we identified six different mutations in the receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 gene (REEP1). REEP1 mutations occurred in 6.5% of the patients with HSP in our sample, making it the third-most common HSP gene. We show that REEP1 is widely expressed and localizes to mitochondria, which underlines the importance of mitochondrial function in neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders with spastic paraparesis as the main clinical feature. Complex forms may co-occur with other motor, sensory, and cognitive impairment. A growing number of loci and genes are being identified, but still more than 50% of the patients remain without molecular diagnosis. We present a Spanish family with autosomal dominant HSP and intellectual disability (ID) in which we found a possible dual genetic diagnosis with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in the parents and three siblings: a heterozygous duplication of 15q11.2-q13.1 found by array CGH and a novel missense heterozygous change in REEP1 [c.73A>G; p.(Lys25Glu)] found by whole exome sequencing (WES). Following the standard genetic diagnosis approach in ID, array CGH analysis was first performed in both brothers affected by spastic paraparesis and ID from school age, and a heterozygous duplication of 15q11.2-q13.1 was found. Subsequently, the duplication was also found in the healthy mother and in the sister, who presented attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from school age and pes cavus with mild pyramidal signs at 22 years of age. Methylation analysis revealed that the three siblings carried the duplication unmethylated in the maternal allele, whereas their mother harbored it methylated in her paternal allele. Functional studies revealed an overexpression of UBE3A and ATP10A in the three siblings, and the slightest cognitive phenotype of the sister seems to be related to a lower expression of ATP10A. Later, searching for the cause of HSP, WES was performed revealing the missense heterozygous variant in REEP1 in all three siblings and the father, who presented subtle pyramidal signs in the lower limbs as well as the sister. Our findings reinforce the association of maternally derived UBE3A overexpression with neurodevelopmental disorders and support that a spectrum of clinical severity is present within families. They also reveal that a dual genetic diagnosis is possible in patients with presumed complex forms of HSP and cognitive impairment.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Mutations in the spastin gene (SPAST) are the most common causes of HSP, accounting for 40-67% of autosomal dominant HSP (AD-HSP) and 12-18% of sporadic cases. Mutations in the atlastin-1 gene (ATL1) and receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 gene (REEP1) are the second and third most common causes of AD-HSP, respectively. METHODS:Direct sequence analysis was used to screen mutations in SPAST, ATL1, and REEP1 in 27 unrelated Korean patients with pure and complicated HSP. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was also performed to detect copy-number variations of the three genes. RESULTS:Ten different SPAST mutations were identified in 11 probands, of which the following 6 were novel: c.760A>T, c.131C>A, c.1351_1353delAGA, c.376_377dupTA, c.1114A>G, and c.1372A>C. Most patients with SPAST mutations had AD-HSP (10/11, 91%), and the frequency of SPAST mutations accounted for 66.7% (10/15) of the AD-HSP patients. No significant correlation was found between the presence of the SPAST mutation and any of the various clinical parameters of pure HSP. No ATL1 and REEP1 mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that SPAST mutations are responsible for most Korean cases of genetically confirmed AD-HSP. Our observation of the absence of ATL1 and REEP1 mutations needs to be confirmed in larger series.
Project description:Defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane shaping and interaction with other organelles seem to be a crucial mechanism underlying Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) neurodegeneration. REEP1, a transmembrane protein belonging to TB2/HVA22 family, is implicated in SPG31, an autosomal dominant form of HSP, and its interaction with Atlastin/SPG3A and Spastin/SPG4, the other two major HSP linked proteins, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in modifying ER architecture. In addition, the Drosophila ortholog of REEP1, named ReepA, has been found to regulate the response to ER neuronal stress. Herein we investigated the role of ReepA in ER morphology and stress response. ReepA is upregulated under stress conditions and aging. Our data show that ReepA triggers a selective activation of Ire1 and Atf6 branches of Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and modifies ER morphology. Drosophila lacking ReepA showed Atf6 and Ire1 activation, expansion of ER sheet-like structures, locomotor dysfunction and shortened lifespan. Furthermore, we found that naringenin, a flavonoid that possesses strong antioxidant and neuroprotective activity, can rescue the cellular phenotypes, the lifespan and locomotor disability associated with ReepA loss of function. Our data highlight the importance of ER homeostasis in nervous system functionality and HSP neurodegenerative mechanisms, opening new opportunities for HSP treatment.
Project description:Background: REEP1 is a common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) but is rare in China. The pathological mechanism of REEP1 is not fully understood. Methods: We screened for REEP1 mutations in 31 unrelated probands from Chinese HSP families using next-generation sequencing targeting pathogenic genes for HSP and other related diseases. All variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The proband family members were also screened for variants for the segregation analysis. All previously reported REEP1 mutations and cases were reviewed to clarify the genetic and clinical features of REEP1-related HSP. Results: A pathogenic mutation, REEP1c. 125G>A (p.Trp42*), was detected in a pure HSP family from North China out of 31 HSP families (1/31). This locus, which is located in the second hydrophobic domain of REEP1, is detected in both Caucasian patients with complicated HSP phenotypes and Chinese pure HSP families. Conclusion: REEP1-related HSP can be found in the Chinese population. The 42nd residue is a novel transethnic mutation hotspot. Mutations in this spot can lead to both complicated and pure form of HSP. Identification of transethnic hotspot will contribute to clarify the underlying pathological mechanisms.