Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.
ABSTRACT: Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led to the hypothesis that DENV infection induces cross-reactive antibodies that influence the severity of secondary ZIKV infections. It has also been proposed that pre-existing ZIKV immunity could affect DENV pathogenesis. We examined outcomes of secondary ZIKV infections in three rhesus and fifteen cynomolgus macaques, as well as secondary DENV-2 infections in three additional rhesus macaques up to a year post-primary ZIKV infection. Although cross-binding antibodies were detected prior to secondary infection for all animals and cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected for some animals, previous DENV or ZIKV infection had no apparent effect on the clinical course of heterotypic secondary infections in these animals. All animals had asymptomatic infections and, when compared to controls, did not have significantly perturbed hematological parameters. Rhesus macaques infected with DENV-2 approximately one year after primary ZIKV infection had higher vRNA loads in plasma when compared with serum vRNA loads from ZIKV-naive animals infected with DENV-2, but a differential effect of sample type could not be ruled out. In cynomolgus macaques, the serotype of primary DENV infection did not affect the outcome of secondary ZIKV infection.
Project description:Mouse and nonhuman primate models now serve as useful platforms to study Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis, candidate therapies, and vaccines, but they rely on needle inoculation of virus: the effects of mosquito-borne infection on disease outcome have not been explored in these models. Here we show that infection via mosquito bite delays ZIKV replication to peak viral loads in rhesus macaques. Importantly, in mosquito-infected animals ZIKV tissue distribution was limited to hemolymphatic tissues, female reproductive tract tissues, kidney, and liver, potentially emulating key features of human ZIKV infections, most of which are characterized by mild or asymptomatic disease. Furthermore, deep sequencing analysis reveals that ZIKV populations in mosquito-infected monkeys show greater sequence heterogeneity and lower overall diversity than in needle-inoculated animals. This newly developed system will be valuable for studying ZIKV disease because it more closely mimics human infection by mosquito bite than needle-based inoculations.
Project description:The Sementis Copenhagen Vector (SCV) is a new vaccinia virus-derived, multiplication-defective, vaccine technology assessed herein in non-human primates. Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with a multi-pathogen recombinant SCV vaccine encoding the structural polyproteins of both Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). After one vaccination, neutralising antibody responses to ZIKV and four strains of CHIKV, representative of distinct viral genotypes, were generated. A second vaccination resulted in significant boosting of neutralising antibody responses to ZIKV and CHIKV. Following challenge with ZIKV, SCV-ZIKA/CHIK-vaccinated animals showed significant reductions in viremias compared with animals that had received a control SCV vaccine. Two SCV vaccinations also generated neutralising and IgG ELISA antibody responses to vaccinia virus. These results demonstrate effective induction of immunity in non-human primates by a recombinant SCV vaccine and illustrates the utility of SCV as a multi-disease vaccine platform capable of delivering multiple large immunogens.
Project description:Infection with Asian-lineage Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Animal models of infection are thus urgently needed. Here we show that rhesus macaques are susceptible to infection by an Asian-lineage ZIKV closely related to strains currently circulating in the Americas. Following subcutaneous inoculation, ZIKV RNA is detected in plasma 1 day post infection (d.p.i.) in all animals (N=8, including 2 pregnant animals), and is also present in saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Non-pregnant and pregnant animals remain viremic for 21 days and for up to at least 57 days, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies are detected by 21?d.p.i. Rechallenge 10 weeks after the initial challenge results in no detectable virus replication, indicating protective immunity against homologous strains. Therefore, Asian-lineage ZIKV infection of rhesus macaques provides a relevant animal model for studying pathogenesis and evaluating potential interventions against human infection, including during pregnancy.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology after vaginal ZIKV transmission compared to a mosquito transmitted ZIKV.
Project description:Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia and virus RNA in 50% of macaques, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion. The magnitude and duration of infectious virus in the blood of macaques suggest humans infected with Zika virus through sexual transmission will likely generate viremias sufficient to infect competent mosquito vectors. Our results indicate that transmission of Zika virus by sexual intercourse might serve as a virus maintenance mechanism in the absence of mosquito-to-human transmission and could increase the probability of establishment and spread of Zika virus in regions where this virus is not present.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted flavivirus that is associated with fetal CNS-damaging malformations during pregnancy in humans. This study documents the viral kinetics and immune responses in rhesus macaques infected with a clinical ZIKV Brazilian isolate. We evaluated the viral kinetics and immune responses induced after an i.v. infection with a Brazilian ZIKV clinical isolate (HS-2015-BA-01) in rhesus macaques for up to 142 d. ZIKV-specific Ab-secreting cells, germinal center reactions, and monocyte, dendritic cell, NK, and T cell frequencies were monitored. ZIKV loads were readily detected in plasma (until day 5 or 7), semen and urine (until days 7 and 14), and saliva (until day 42), but the viremia was rapidly controlled. No detectable clinical manifestations were observed. However, lymph node hyperplasia was clearly visible postviremia but was associated with low frequencies of ZIKV-specific Ab-secreting cells in lymph nodes and bone marrow, correlating with low Ab titers. CD14+/CD16- monocytes and myeloid CD11chi dendritic cells decreased in blood, whereas NK and T cell numbers were only marginally altered during the course of the study. ZIKV infection caused a significant lymphoid tissue activation but limited induction of ZIKV-specific B cells, suggesting that these parameters need to be considered for ZIKV vaccine design.
Project description:Human infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can lead to vertical transmission and fetal aberrations, including microcephaly. Prophylactic administration of antibodies can diminish or prevent ZIKV infection in animal models, but whether passive immunization can protect nonhuman primates and their fetuses during pregnancy has not been determined. Z004 and Z021 are neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to domain III of the envelope (EDIII) of ZIKV. Together the two antibodies protect nonpregnant macaques against infection even after Fc modifications to prevent antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in vitro and extend their half-lives. Here we report on prophylactic coadministration of the Fc-modified antibodies to pregnant rhesus macaques challenged three times with ZIKV during first and second trimester. The two antibodies did not entirely eliminate maternal viremia but limited vertical transmission, protecting the fetus from neurologic damage. Thus, maternal passive immunization with two antibodies to EDIII can shield primate fetuses from the harmful effects of ZIKV.
Project description:Prior to the emergence of Asian genotype Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Western hemisphere, sexual transmission in humans was documented. Sexual transmission by African genotype ZIKVs has not been assessed in laboratory animal models, due to rapid and high mortality rates of immunodeficient mice following inoculation. To overcome these limitations, immunocompetent C57Bl/6 mice were used to longitudinally assess Asian and African genotype ZIKV sexual transmission potential. Furthermore, to determine if enhanced pathogenesis of African genotype ZIKVs is due to structural determinants, PRVABC59 prM/E was replaced with African MR766 prM/E (chimeric ZIKV). The African genotype and chimeric ZIKV elicited greater pathogenic effects in the male reproductive tract and generated higher viremias. Yet, the duration, magnitude and efficiency of seminal shedding of infectious virus and viral RNA were similar between chimeric-, African and Asian genotype ZIKV-inoculated mice. These data show that increased male reproductive tract pathology does not increase sexual transmission potential.
Project description:To evaluate potential immunocompetent small animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, we inoculated Syrian golden hamsters (subcutaneously or intraperitoneally) and strain 13 guinea pigs (intraperitoneally) with Senegalese ZIKV strain ArD 41525 or Philippines ZIKV strain CPC-0740. We did not detect viremia in hamsters inoculated subcutaneously with either virus strain, although some hamsters developed virus neutralizing antibodies. However, we detected statistically significant higher viremias (P = 0.0285) and a higher median neutralization titer (P = 0.0163) in hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally with strain ArD 41525 compared with strain CPC-0740. Furthermore, some hamsters inoculated with strain ArD 41525 displayed mild signs of disease. By contrast, strain 13 guinea pigs inoculated intraperitoneally with either strain did not have detectable viremias and less than half developed virus neutralizing antibodies. Our results support the use of the Syrian golden hamster intraperitoneal model to explore phenotypic variation between ZIKV strains.