The PIDDosome activates p53 in response to supernumerary centrosomes.
ABSTRACT: Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells, are replicated exactly once during the cell division cycle to form the poles of the mitotic spindle. Supernumerary centrosomes can lead to aberrant cell division and have been causally linked to chromosomal instability and cancer. Here, we report that an increase in the number of mature centrosomes, generated by disrupting cytokinesis or forcing centrosome overduplication, triggers the activation of the PIDDosome multiprotein complex, leading to Caspase-2-mediated MDM2 cleavage, p53 stabilization, and p21-dependent cell cycle arrest. This pathway also restrains the extent of developmentally scheduled polyploidization by regulating p53 levels in hepatocytes during liver organogenesis. Taken together, the PIDDosome acts as a first barrier, engaging p53 to halt the proliferation of cells carrying more than one mature centrosome to maintain genome integrity.
Project description:Centrosome amplification results into genetic instability and predisposes cells to neoplastic transformation. Supernumerary centrosomes trigger p53 stabilization dependent on the PIDDosome (a multiprotein complex composed by PIDD1, RAIDD and Caspase-2), whose activation results in cleavage of p53's key inhibitor, MDM2. Here, we demonstrate that PIDD1 is recruited to mature centrosomes by the centriolar distal appendage protein ANKRD26. PIDDosome-dependent Caspase-2 activation requires not only PIDD1 centrosomal localization, but also its autoproteolysis. Following cytokinesis failure, supernumerary centrosomes form clusters, which appear to be necessary for PIDDosome activation. In addition, in the context of DNA damage, activation of the complex results from a p53-dependent elevation of PIDD1 levels independently of centrosome amplification. We propose that PIDDosome activation can in both cases be promoted by an ANKRD26-dependent local increase in PIDD1 concentration close to the centrosome. Collectively, these findings provide a paradigm for how centrosomes can contribute to cell fate determination by igniting a signalling cascade.
Project description:Tumor blood vessels support tumor growth and progression. Centrosomes are microtubule organization centers in cells, and often up to 30% of tumor endothelial cells (ECs) acquire excess (>2) centrosomes. Although excess centrosomes can lead to aneuploidy and chromosome instability in tumor cells, how untransformed ECs respond to excess centrosomes is poorly understood. We found that the frequency of primary human ECs with excess centrosomes was quickly reduced in a p53-dependent manner. Excess centrosomes in ECs were associated with p53 phosphorylation at Ser33, increased p21 levels, and decreased cell proliferation and expression of senescence markers, but independent of DNA damage and apoptosis. Aspects of the senescence-associated phenotype were also observed in mouse ECs that were isolated from tumors with excess centrosomes. Primary ECs with excess centrosomes in vascular sprouts also had elevated Ser33 p53 phosphorylation and expressed senescence markers. Our work demonstrates that nontransformed ECs respond differently to excess centrosomes than do most tumor cells-they undergo senescence in vascular sprouts and vessels, which suggests that pathologic outcomes of centrosome overduplication depend on the transformation status of cells.-Yu, Z., Ruter, D. L., Kushner, E. J., Bautch, V. L. Excess centrosomes induce p53-dependent senescence without DNA damage in endothelial cells.
Project description:Polyploidization frequently precedes tumorigenesis but also occurs during normal development in several tissues. Hepatocyte ploidy is controlled by the PIDDosome during development and regeneration. This multi-protein complex is activated by supernumerary centrosomes to induce p53 and restrict proliferation of polyploid cells, otherwise prone for chromosomal instability. PIDDosome deficiency in the liver results in drastically increased polyploidy. To investigate PIDDosome-induced p53-activation in the pathogenesis of liver cancer, we chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. Strikingly, PIDDosome deficiency reduced tumor number and burden, despite the inability to activate p53 in polyploid cells. Liver tumors arise primarily from cells with low ploidy, indicating an intrinsic pro-tumorigenic effect of PIDDosome-mediated ploidy restriction. These data suggest that hyperpolyploidization caused by PIDDosome deficiency protects from HCC. Moreover, high tumor cell density, as a surrogate marker of low ploidy, predicts poor survival of HCC patients receiving liver transplantation. Together, we show that the PIDDosome is a potential therapeutic target to manipulate hepatocyte polyploidization for HCC prevention and that tumor cell density may serve as a novel prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival in HCC patients.
Project description:Cancer cells frequently exhibit overduplicated centrosomes that lead to formation of multipolar spindles, chromosome missegregation, and aneuploidy. However, the molecular events involved in centrosome overduplication remain largely unknown. Experimentally, centrosome overduplication is observed in p53-deficient cells arrested in S phase with hydroxyurea. Using this assay, we have identified distinct roles for Cdk2, microtubules, dynein, and Hsp90 in the overduplication of functional centrosomes in mammalian cells and show that Cdk2 is also required for the generation of centriolar satellites. Moreover, we demonstrate that nuclear export is required for centriolar satellite formation and centrosome overduplication, with export inhibitors causing a Cdk-dependent accumulation of nuclear centrin granules. Hence, we propose that centrosome precursors may arise in the nucleus, providing a novel mechanistic explanation for how nuclear Cdk2 can promote centrosome overduplication in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, this study defines a molecular pathway that may be targeted to prevent centrosome overduplication in S-phase-arrested cancer cells.
Project description:Proper blood vessel formation requires coordinated changes in endothelial cell polarity and rearrangement of cell-cell junctions to form a functional lumen. One important regulator of cell polarity is the centrosome, which acts as a microtubule organizing center. Excess centrosomes perturb aspects of endothelial cell polarity linked to migration, but whether centrosome number influences apical-basal polarity and cell-cell junctions is unknown. Here, we show that excess centrosomes alter the apical-basal polarity of endothelial cells in angiogenic sprouts and disrupt endothelial cell-cell adherens junctions. Endothelial cells with excess centrosomes had narrower lumens in a 3D sprouting angiogenesis model, and zebrafish intersegmental vessels had reduced perfusion following centrosome overduplication. These results indicate that endothelial cell centrosome number regulates proper lumenization downstream of effects on apical-basal polarity and cell-cell junctions. Endothelial cells with excess centrosomes are prevalent in tumor vessels, suggesting how centrosomes may contribute to tumor vessel dysfunction.
Project description:The presence of supernumerary centrosomes is prevalent in cancer, where they promote the formation of transient multipolar mitotic spindles. Active clustering of supernumerary centrosomes enables the formation of a functional bipolar spindle that is competent to complete a bipolar division. Disruption of spindle pole clustering in cancer cells promotes multipolar division and generation of non-proliferative daughter cells with compromised viability. Hence molecular pathways required for spindle pole clustering in cells with supernumerary centrosomes, but dispensable in normal cells, are promising therapeutic targets. Here we demonstrate that Aurora A kinase activity is required for spindle pole clustering in cells with extra centrosomes. While cells with two centrosomes are ultimately able to build a bipolar spindle and proceed through a normal cell division in the presence of Aurora A inhibition, cells with supernumerary centrosomes form multipolar and disorganized spindles that are not competent for chromosome segregation. Instead, following a prolonged mitosis, these cells experience catastrophic divisions that result in grossly aneuploid, and non-proliferative daughter cells. Aurora A inhibition in a panel of Acute Myeloid Leukemia cancer cells has a similarly disparate impact on cells with supernumerary centrosomes, suggesting that centrosome number and spindle polarity may serve as predictive biomarkers for response to therapeutic approaches that target Aurora A kinase function.
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6422193 | BioStudies
Project description:Centriole copy number is tightly maintained by the once per cycle duplication of these organelles. Centrioles constitute the core of centrosomes, which organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and form the poles of the mitotic spindle. Centrosome amplification is frequently observed in tumors, where it promotes aneuploidy and contributes to invasive phenotypes. In non-transformed cells, centrosome amplification triggers PIDDosome activation as a protective response to inhibit cell proliferation, but how extra-centrosomes activate the PIDDosome remains unclear. Using a genome-wide screen, we identify centriole distal appendages as critical for PIDDosome activation in cells with extra centrosomes. The distal appendage protein ANKRD26 is found to interact with and recruit the PIDDosome component PIDD1 to centriole distal appendages, and this interaction is required for PIDDosome activation following centrosome amplification. Furthermore, a recurrent ANKRD26 mutation found in human tumors disrupts PIDD1 localization and PIDDosome activation in cells with extra centrosomes. Our data support a model in which ANKRD26 initiates a centriole-derived signal to limit cell proliferation in response to centrosome amplification.
Project description:Ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI1), a transcription factor frequently overexpressed in myeloid neoplasias, has been implicated in the generation of malignancy-associated centrosomal aberrations and chromosomal instability. Here, we sought to investigate the underlying cause of centrosome amplification in EVI1-overexpressing cells. We found that overexpression of EVI1-HA in U2OS cells induced supernumerary centrosomes, which were consistently associated with enlarged nuclei or binuclear cells. Live cell imaging experiments identified cytokinesis failure as the underlying cause of this phenotype. In accordance with previous reports, EVI1 overexpression induced a partial cell cycle arrest in G0/1 phase, accompanied by elevated cyclin D1 and p21 levels, reduced Cdk2 activity and activation of the p53 pathway. Supernumerary centrosomes predominantly occurred in resting cells, as identified by low levels of the proliferation marker Ki-67, leading to the conclusion that they result from tetraploidization after cytokinesis failure and are confined to G0/1-arrested tetraploid cells. Depletion of p53 using siRNA revealed that further polyploidization of these cells was inhibited by the p53-dependent tetraploidy checkpoint.
Project description:The embryonic brain is one of the tissues most vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In this study, we showed that ionizing radiation induces apoptosis in the neural progenitors of the mouse cerebral cortex, and that the surviving progenitor cells subsequently develop a considerable amount of supernumerary centrosomes. When mouse embryos at Day 13.5 were exposed to ?-rays, brains sizes were reduced markedly in a dose-dependent manner, and these size reductions persisted until birth. Immunostaining with caspase-3 antibodies showed that apoptosis occurred in 35% and 40% of neural progenitor cells at 4 h after exposure to 1 and 2 Gy, respectively, and this was accompanied by a disruption of the apical layer in which mitotic spindles were positioned in unirradiated mice. At 24 h after 1 Gy irradiation, the apoptotic cells were completely eliminated and proliferation was restored to a level similar to that of unirradiated cells, but numerous spindles were localized outside the apical layer. Similarly, abnormal cytokinesis, which included multipolar division and centrosome clustering, was observed in 19% and 24% of the surviving neural progenitor cells at 48 h after irradiation with 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. Because these cytokinesis aberrations derived from excess centrosomes result in growth delay and mitotic catastrophe-mediated cell elimination, our findings suggest that, in addition to apoptosis at an early stage of radiation exposure, radiation-induced centrosome overduplication could contribute to the depletion of neural progenitors and thereby lead to microcephaly.