Divergent Synthetic Access to E- and Z-Stereodefined All-Carbon-Substituted Olefin Scaffolds: Application to Parallel Synthesis of (E)- and (Z)-Tamoxifens.
ABSTRACT: A highly substrate-general synthesis of all-carbon-substituted E- and Z-stereodefined olefins is performed. The method comprises two sets of parallel and stereocomplementary preparations of (E)- and (Z)-?,?-unsaturated esters involving two robust and distinctive reactions: 1)?stereocomplementary enol tosylations using readily available TsCl/diamine/(LiCl) base reagents, and 2)?stereoretentive Negishi cross-coupling using the catalysts [Pd(dppe)Cl2] (for E) and [Pd(dppb)Cl2] (for Z). The present parallel approach is categorized as both type?I (convergent approach: 16?examples, 56-87?% yield) and type?II (divergent approach: 18?examples, 70-95?% yield). The obtained (E)- and (Z)-?,?-unsaturated ester scaffolds are successfully transformed into various E- and Z-stereodefined known and novel olefins (8×2?derivatization arrays). As a demonstration, application to the parallel synthesis of both (E)- and (Z)-tamoxifens, a representative motif of all-carbon-substituted olefins, is accomplished in a total of eight steps with an overall yield of 58?% (average 93?%) and 57?% (average 93?%), respectively.
Project description:The synthesis of densly functionized ?-silyl-?-hydroxyl vinylsilanes via ruthenium-catalyzed multicomponent reaction (MCR) is reported herein. Exceptionally high regio- and diastereoselectivity was achieved by employing an unprecedented hydrosilylation of bifunctional silyl-propargyl boronates. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, and unique tolerability of this method make it a valuable tool for the synthesis of highly elaborated building blocks. The one-pot synthesis of stereodefined olefins, the generation of a valuable cyclohexene building block through a four-component MCR, and further functionalization in an abundance of diastereoselective reactions is disclosed herein.
Project description:A convergent synthesis of highly substituted and stereodefined skipped polyenes is described from the reductive cross-coupling of substituted 1,5-diene-3-ols with alkynes. The control of site selectivity in functionalization of the substituted diene is a central feature of this complex fragment union reaction.
Project description:Stereodefined enol derivatives of aldehydes are prepared from terminal alkynes. Specifically, terminal alkynes are known to undergo Cp2ZrCl2-catalyzed methylalumination. Here, we show that the resultant vinylalanes can be oxygenated with peroxyzinc species to generate trisubstituted enolates. Electrophilic trapping with carboxylic anydrides or silyl triflates yields trisubstituted enol esters or silanes, respectively. The tandem carbometalation/oxygenation tolerates free and protected alcohols, heterocycles, olefins, and nitriles. Stereodefined enol esters can undergo asymmetric dihydroxylation to yield optically active alpha-hydroxy aldehydes. Reduction with NaBH4 provides the diols of 1,1-disubstituted olefins in excellent ee. An application of this methodology to the enantioselective synthesis of the insect pheromone frontalin is presented. Finally, alpha-hydroxy aldehydes are shown to undergo homologation to a terminal alkyne, reductive amination, oxidation and olefination. Preliminary results indicate that tandem carbometalation/amination can be accomplished with azodicarboxylates. In this way, ene-hydrazines are formed in excellent yield.
Project description:A sequence of regio- and stereoselective carbometalation followed by oxidation of ynamides leads to stereodefined fully substituted enolates that subsequently react with various functionalized allyl bromide reagents to provide the expected products possessing an enantiomerically pure quaternary carbon stereocentre in the ?-position to the carbonyl group in excellent yields and enantiomeric ratios after cleavage of the oxazolidinone moiety. Three new bonds are formed in a single-pot operation.
Project description:A catalytic regio- and stereoselective 1,4-hydroboration of 1,3-dienes was accomplished with pinacolborane in the presence of Ni(cod)(2) and PCy(3). This reaction exhibits broad substrate scope operating on a range of substituted dienes and occurs with generally high levels of selectivity and efficiency. Reactivity patterns suggest that the reactive conformation of the diene is the S-cis form. The intermediate allylboronate can be oxidized to stereodefined allylic alcohols or can be used in stereoselective carbonyl addition reactions.
Project description:The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is a fundamentally important transformation in modern organic synthesis. The development of new reaction modes for new chemical accessibility and higher synthetic efficiency is still the consistent pursuance in this field. An efficient Suzuki-Miyaura coupling enabled by a controllable 1,4-palladium migration was realized to afford stereodefined multisubstituted olefins and 1,3-dienes. The reaction exhibits remarkable broad substrate scope, excellent functional-group tolerance, versatile conversion with obtained products, and easy scalability. The practicality of this method is highlighted by the aggregation-induced emission feature of the produced olefins and 1,3-dienes, as well as the capability of affording geometric isomer pairs with a marked difference on photoluminescent quantum yield values.
Project description:The Z-selective cross metathesis of allylic-substituted olefins is explored with recently developed ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. The reaction proceeds with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z-isomer (typically >95%) and yields of up to 88% for a variety of allylic substituents. This includes the first synthesis of Z-?,?-unsaturated acetals by cross metathesis and their elaboration to Z-?,?-unsaturated aldehydes. In addition, the reaction is tolerant of a variety of cross partners, varying in functionality and steric profile.
Project description:The synthesis of functionalized ?,?-unsaturated sulfonamides by means of cross-metathesis of vinyl sulfonamides and olefins has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly in the presence of Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst and its nitro analogue, providing a wide range of substituted products. The usefulness of this methodology has been proven in the preparation of new derivatives of biologically active ingredients, moxifloxacin and naratriptan.
Project description:A convergent process for the assembly of stereodefined mono- and bicyclic exo-alkylidene-gamma-lactams is described that proceeds through the union of beta-halo allylic alcohols, aromatic imines, and CO. Overall, regio- and stereoselective Ti-mediated reductive cross-coupling, followed by Pd-catalyzed carbonylation, can be performed in a one- or two-pot procedure, defining a highly selective three-component coupling process for heterocycle synthesis.
Project description:A stereoselective synthesis of anti-1,2-diols has been developed using a multitasking Ru catalyst in an assisted tandem catalysis protocol. A cyclometalated Ru complex catalyzes first a Z-selective cross-metathesis of two terminal olefins, followed by a stereospecific dihydroxylation. Both steps are catalyzed by Ru, as the Ru complex is converted to a dihydroxylation catalyst upon addition of NaIO4. A variety of olefins were transformed into valuable, highly functionalized, and stereodefined molecules. Mechanistic experiments were performed to probe the nature of the oxidation step and catalyst inhibition pathways. These experiments point the way to more broadly applicable tandem catalytic transformations.