The gene expression of numerous SLC transporters is altered in the immortalized hypothalamic cell line N25/2 following amino acid starvation.
ABSTRACT: Amino acids are known to play a key role in gene expression regulation, and in mammalian cells, amino acid signaling is mainly mediated via two pathways, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and the amino acid responsive (AAR) pathway. It is vital for cells to have a system to sense amino acid levels, in order to control protein and amino acid synthesis and catabolism. Amino acid transporters are crucial in these pathways, due to both their sensing and transport functions. In this large-scale study, an immortalized mouse hypothalamic cell line (N25/2) was used to study the gene expression changes following 1, 2, 3, 5 or 16 h of amino acid starvation. We focused on genes encoding solute carriers (SLCs) and putative SLCs, more specifically on amino acid transporters. The microarray contained 28 270 genes and 86.2% of the genes were expressed in the cell line. At 5 h of starvation, 1001 genes were upregulated and 848 genes were downregulated, and among these, 47 genes from the SLC superfamily or atypical SLCs were found. Of these, 15 were genes encoding amino acid transporters and 32 were genes encoding other SLCs or atypical SLCs. Increased expression was detected for genes encoding amino acid transporters from system A, ASC, L, N, T, xc-, and y+. Using GO annotations, genes involved in amino acid transport and amino acid transmembrane transporter activity were found to be most upregulated at 3 h and 5 h of starvation.
Project description:Solute carriers (SLCs) are vital as they are responsible for a major part of the molecular transport over lipid bilayers. At present, there are 430 identified SLCs, of which 28 are called atypical SLCs of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) type. These are MFSD1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4A, 4B, 5, 6, 6 L, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13A, 14A and 14B; SV2A, SV2B and SV2C; SVOP and SVOPL; SPNS1, SPNS2 and SPNS3; and UNC93A and UNC93B1. We studied their fundamental properties, and we also included CLN3, an atypical SLC not yet belonging to any protein family (Pfam) clan, because its involvement in the same neuronal degenerative disorders as MFSD8. With phylogenetic analyses and bioinformatic sequence comparisons, the proteins were divided into 15 families, denoted atypical MFS transporter families (AMTF1-15). Hidden Markov models were used to identify orthologues from human to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans Topology predictions revealed 12 transmembrane segments (for all except CLN3), corresponding to the common MFS structure. With single-cell RNA sequencing and in situ proximity ligation assay on brain cells, co-expressions of several atypical SLCs were identified. Finally, the transcription levels of all genes were analysed in the hypothalamic N25/2 cell line after complete amino acid starvation, showing altered expression levels for several atypical SLCs.
Project description:Membrane-bound solute carriers (SLCs) are essential as they maintain several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, ion transport and waste removal. The SLC family comprise about 400 transporters, and we have identified two new putative family members, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 1 (MFSD1) and 3 (MFSD3). They cluster phylogenetically with SLCs of MFS type, and both proteins are conserved in chordates, while MFSD1 is also found in fruit fly. Based on homology modelling, we predict 12 transmembrane regions, a common feature for MFS transporters. The genes are expressed in abundance in mice, with specific protein staining along the plasma membrane in neurons. Depriving mouse embryonic primary cortex cells of amino acids resulted in upregulation of Mfsd1, whereas Mfsd3 is unaltered. Furthermore, in vivo, Mfsd1 and Mfsd3 are downregulated in anterior brain sections in mice subjected to starvation, while upregulated specifically in brainstem. Mfsd3 is also attenuated in cerebellum after starvation. In mice raised on high-fat diet, Mfsd1 was specifically downregulated in brainstem and hypothalamus, while Mfsd3 was reduced consistently throughout the brain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Solute carriers (SLCs) are membrane bound transporters responsible for the movement of soluble molecules such as amino acids, ions, nucleotides, neurotransmitters and oligopeptides over cellular membranes. At present, there are 395 SLCs identified in humans, where about 40% are still uncharacterized with unknown expression and/or function(s). Here we have studied two uncharacterized atypical SLCs that belong to the Major Facilitator Superfamily Pfam clan, Major facilitator superfamily domain 5 (MFSD5) and Major facilitator superfamily domain 11 (MFSD11). We provide fundamental information about the histology in mice as well as data supporting their disposition to regulate expression levels to keep the energy homeostasis. RESULTS:In mice subjected to starvation or high-fat diet, the mRNA expression of Mfsd5 was significantly down-regulated (P<0.001) in food regulatory brain areas whereas Mfsd11 was significantly up-regulated in mice subjected to either starvation (P<0.01) or high-fat diet (P<0.001). qRT-PCR analysis on wild type tissues demonstrated that both Mfsd5 and Mfsd11 have a wide central and peripheral mRNA distribution, and immunohistochemistry was utilized to display the abundant protein expression in the mouse embryo and the adult mouse brain. Both proteins are expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but not in astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS:Mfsd5 and Mfsd11 are both affected by altered energy homeostasis, suggesting plausible involvement in the energy regulation. Moreover, the first histological mapping of MFSD5 and MFSD11 shows ubiquitous expression in the periphery and the central nervous system of mice, where the proteins are expressed in excitatory and inhibitory mouse brain neurons.
Project description:Acquisition of nutrients during intra-vacuolar growth of L. pneumophila within macrophages or amoebae is poorly understood. Since many genes of L. pneumophila are acquired by inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer from eukaryotic hosts, we examined the presence of human solute carrier (SLC)-like transporters in the L. pneumophila genome using I-TASSER to assess structural alignments. We identified 11 SLC-like putative transporters in L. pneumophila that are structurally similar to SLCs, eight of which are amino acid transporters, and one is a tricarboxylate transporter. The two other transporters, LstA and LstB, are structurally similar to the human glucose transporter, SLC2a1/Glut1. Single mutants of lstA or lstB have decreased ability to import, while the lstA/lstB double mutant is severely defective for uptake of glucose. While lstA or lstB single mutants are not defective in intracellular proliferation within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and human monocyte-derived macrophages, the lstA/lstB double mutant is severely defective in both host cells. The two phenotypic defects of the lstA/lstB double mutant in uptake of glucose and intracellular replication are both restored upon complementation of either lstA or lstB. Our data show that the two glucose transporters, LstA and LstB, are redundant and are required for intracellular replication within human macrophages and amoebae.
Project description:The immortalized mouse hypothalamic cell line N25/2 was treated with medium containing amino acids or medium lacking all amino acids for 1, 2, 3, 5 or 16 hours, and the gene expression was measured for 28270 genes using microarray. Numerous transporters from the SLC family were transcriptionally regulated in response to changed amino acid levels. Overall design: Singlet's were run in in each treatment group (controls vs. starved cells) for all times (1, 2, 3 and 16 hours), except for 5 hours with four replicates in each treatment group.
Project description:Out of the 430 known solute carriers (SLC) in humans, 30% are still orphan transporters regarding structure, distribution or function. Approximately one third of all SLCs belong to the evolutionary conserved and functionally diverse Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). Here, we studied the orphan proteins, MFSD4A and MFSD9, which are atypical SLCs of MFS type. Hidden Markov Models were used to identify orthologues in several vertebrates, and human MFSD4A and MFSD9 share high sequence identity with their identified orthologues. MFSD4A and MFSD9 also shared more than 20% sequence identity with other phylogenetically related SLC and MFSD proteins, allowing new family clustering. Homology models displayed 12 transmembrane segments for both proteins, which were predicted to fold into a transporter-shaped structure. Furthermore, we analysed the location of MFSD4A and MFSD9 in adult mouse brain using immunohistochemistry, showing abundant neuronal protein staining. As MFSD4A and MFSD9 are plausible transporters expressed in food regulatory brain areas, we monitored transcriptional changes in several mouse brain areas after 24 hours food-deprivation and eight weeks of high-fat diet, showing that both genes were affected by altered food intake in vivo. In conclusion, we propose MFSD4A and MFSD9 to be novel transporters, belonging to disparate SLC families. Both proteins were located to neurons in mouse brain, and their mRNA expression levels were affected by the diet.
Project description:The prevalence of metabolic diseases is growing worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that solute carrier (SLC) transporters contribute to the etiology of various metabolic diseases. Consistent with metabolic characteristics, the top five organs in which SLC transporters are highly expressed are the kidney, brain, liver, gut, and heart. We aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of important SLC transporter-mediated physiological processes and their potentials as drug targets. SLC transporters serve as 'metabolic gate' of cells and mediate the transport of a wide range of essential nutrients and metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, and inorganic/metal ions. Gene-modified animal models have demonstrated that SLC transporters participate in many important physiological functions including nutrient supply, metabolic transformation, energy homeostasis, tissue development, oxidative stress, host defense, and neurological regulation. Furthermore, the human genomic studies have identified that SLC transporters are susceptible or causative genes in various diseases like cancer, metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, immunological disorders, and neurological dysfunction. Importantly, a number of SLC transporters have been successfully targeted for drug developments. This review will focus on the current understanding of SLCs in regulating physiology, nutrient sensing and uptake, and risk of diseases.
Project description:Amino acid sensing and signaling is vital for cells, and both gene expression and protein levels of amino acid transporters are regulated in response to amino acid availability. Here, the aim was to study the regulation of all members of the SLC38 amino acid transporter family, Slc38a1-11, in mouse brain cells following amino acid starvation. We reanalyzed microarray data for the immortalized hypothalamic cell line N25/2 subjected to complete amino acid starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5, or 16 h, focusing specifically on the SLC38 family. All 11 Slc38 genes were expressed in the cell line, and Slc38a1, Slc38a2, and Slc38a7 were significantly upregulated at 5 h and most strongly at 16 h. Here, protein level changes were measured for SLC38A7 and the orphan family member SLC38A11 which has not been studied under different amino acid starvation condition at protein level. At 5 h, no significant alteration on protein level for either SLC38A7 or SLC38A11 could be detected. In addition, primary embryonic cortex cells were deprived of nine amino acids, the most common amino acids transported by the SLC38 family members, for 3 h, 7 h or 12 h, and the gene expression was measured using qPCR. Slc38a1, Slc38a2, Slc38a5, Slc38a6, Slc38a9, and Slc38a10 were upregulated, while Slc38a3 and Slc38a7 were downregulated. Slc38a8 was upregulated at 5 h and downregulated at 12 h. In conclusion, several members from the SLC38 family are regulated depending on amino acid levels and are likely to be involved in amino acid sensing and signaling in brain.
Project description:Host factor requirements for different classes of viruses have not been fully unraveled. Replication of the viral genome and synthesis of viral proteins within the human host cell are associated with an increased demand for nutrients and specific metabolites. With more than 400 acknowledged members to date in humans, solute carriers (SLCs) represent the largest family of transmembrane proteins dedicated to the transport of ions and small molecules such as amino acids, sugars and nucleotides. Consistent with their impact on cellular metabolism, several SLCs have been implicated as host factors affecting the viral life cycle and the cellular response to infection. In this study, we aimed at characterizing the role of host SLCs in cell survival upon viral infection by performing unbiased genetic screens using a focused CRISPR knockout library. Genetic screens with the cytolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) showed that the loss of two SLCs genes, encoding the sialic acid transporter SLC35A1/CST and the zinc transporter SLC30A1/ZnT1, affected cell survival upon infection. Further characterization of these genes suggests a role for both of these transporters in the apoptotic response induced by VSV, offering new insights into the cellular response to oncolytic virus infections.
Project description:Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of thirteen anticancer drug-relevant solute carrier transporters (SLCs) in pancreatic cancer in the context of clinical-pathological characteristics and the KRAS mutation status of tumors. Methods: Tumors and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues were obtained from 32 histologically verified patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The transcript profile of SLCs was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. KRAS mutations in exon 2 were assessed by high resolution melting analysis and confirmed by sequencing. Results: SLC22A3 was upregulated and SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A11, SLC28A1, SLC28A3 and SLC29A1 were downregulated when compared with non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues. Moreover, significantly lower levels of SLC22A1, SLC22A11 and SLC29A1 were found in tumors with angioinvasion. There was also a significantly higher transcript level of SLC28A1 in tumors with regional lymph nodes affected by metastasis. The study found that a high expression of SLC22A1 or SLC28A1was significantly associated with poor overall survival in unselected patients. In contrast, a high expression of SLC22A3 or SLC29A3 was significantly associated with longer overall survival in patients treated with nucleoside analogs. Finally, SLC levels were not found to be associated with KRAS mutation status in exon 2. Conclusions: This study identified a number of associations of SLCs with prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Transcript levels of thirteen anticancer drug-relevant solute carrier transporters (SLCs) were determined by qPCR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic tissue samples from 32 pancreatic cancer patients. MRPL19, ELF1 and POLR2A were used as reference genes for data normalization.