Engineering a trifunctional proline utilization A chimaera by fusing a DNA-binding domain to a bifunctional PutA.
ABSTRACT: Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme with proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains that catalyses the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate. Trifunctional PutAs also have an N-terminal ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding domain and moonlight as autogenous transcriptional repressors of the put regulon. A unique property of trifunctional PutA is the ability to switch functions from DNA-bound repressor to membrane-associated enzyme in response to cellular nutritional needs and proline availability. In the present study, we attempt to construct a trifunctional PutA by fusing the RHH domain of Escherichia coli PutA (EcRHH) to the bifunctional Rhodobacter capsulatus PutA (RcPutA) in order to explore the modular design of functional switching in trifunctional PutAs. The EcRHH-RcPutA chimaera retains the catalytic properties of RcPutA while acquiring the oligomeric state, quaternary structure and DNA-binding properties of EcPutA. Furthermore, the EcRHH-RcPutA chimaera exhibits proline-induced lipid association, which is a fundamental characteristic of functional switching. Unexpectedly, RcPutA lipid binding is also activated by proline, which shows for the first time that bifunctional PutAs exhibit a limited form of functional switching. Altogether, these results suggest that the C-terminal domain (CTD), which is conserved by trifunctional PutAs and certain bifunctional PutAs, is essential for functional switching in trifunctional PutAs.
Project description:Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Structures of type A PutAs have revealed the catalytic core consisting of proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) modules connected by a substrate-channeling tunnel. Type B PutAs also have a C-terminal domain of unknown function (CTDUF) that is absent in type A PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), mutagenesis, and kinetics are used to determine the contributions of this domain to PutA structure and function. The 1127-residue Rhodobacter capsulatus PutA (RcPutA) is used as a representative CTDUF-containing type B PutA. The reaction progress curve for the coupled PRODH-P5CDH activity of RcPutA does not exhibit a time lag, implying a substrate channeling mechanism. RcPutA is monomeric in solution, which is unprecedented for PutAs. SAXS rigid body modeling with target-decoy validation is used to build a model of RcPutA. On the basis of homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), the CTDUF is predicted to consist of a ?-hairpin fused to a noncatalytic Rossmann fold domain. The predicted tertiary structural interactions of the CTDUF resemble the quaternary structural interactions in the type A PutA dimer interface. The model is tested by mutagenesis of the dimerization hairpin of a type A PutA and the CTDUF hairpin of RcPutA. Similar functional phenotypes are observed in the two sets of variants, supporting the hypothesis that the CTDUF mimics the type A PutA dimer interface. These results suggest annotation of the CTDUF as an ALDH superfamily domain that facilitates P5CDH activity and substrate channeling by stabilizing the aldehyde-binding site and sealing the substrate-channeling tunnel from the bulk medium.
Project description:Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDH) catalyze the four-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate via the intermediates P5C and l-glutamate-?-semialdehyde (GSA). In Gram-negative bacteria, PRODH and P5CDH are fused together in the bifunctional enzyme proline utilization A (PutA) whereas in other organisms PRODH and P5CDH are expressed as separate monofunctional enzymes. Substrate channeling has previously been shown for bifunctional PutAs, but whether the monofunctional enzymes utilize an analogous channeling mechanism has not been examined. Here, we report the first evidence of substrate channeling in a PRODH-P5CDH two-enzyme pair. Kinetic data for the coupled reaction of PRODH and P5CDH from Thermus thermophilus are consistent with a substrate channeling mechanism, as the approach to steady-state formation of NADH does not fit a non-channeling two-enzyme model. Furthermore, inactive P5CDH and PRODH mutants inhibit NADH production and increase trapping of the P5C intermediate in coupled assays of wild-type PRODH-P5CDH enzyme pairs, indicating that the mutants disrupt PRODH-P5CDH channeling interactions. A dissociation constant of 3 ?m was estimated for a putative PRODH-P5CDH complex by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Interestingly, P5CDH binding to PRODH was only observed when PRODH was immobilized with the top face of its (??)8 barrel exposed. Using the known x-ray crystal structures of PRODH and P5CDH from T. thermophilus, a model was built for a proposed PRODH-P5CDH enzyme channeling complex. The structural model predicts that the core channeling pathway of bifunctional PutA enzymes is conserved in monofunctional PRODH-P5CDH enzyme pairs.
Project description:SIGNIFICANCE:Proline catabolism refers to the 4-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate catalyzed by the enzymes proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate ?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH, or ALDH4A1). These enzymes and the intermediate metabolites of the pathway have been implicated in tumor growth and suppression, metastasis, hyperprolinemia metabolic disorders, schizophrenia susceptibility, life span extension, and pathogen virulence and survival. In some bacteria, PRODH and GSALDH are combined into a bifunctional enzyme known as proline utilization A (PutA). PutAs are not only virulence factors in some pathogenic bacteria but also fascinating systems for studying the coordination of metabolic enzymes via substrate channeling. Recent Advances: The past decade has seen an explosion of structural data for proline catabolic enzymes. This review surveys these structures, emphasizing protein folds, substrate recognition, oligomerization, kinetic mechanisms, and substrate channeling in PutA. CRITICAL ISSUES:Major unsolved structural targets include eukaryotic PRODH, the complex between monofunctional PRODH and monofunctional GSALDH, and the largest of all PutAs, trifunctional PutA. The structural basis of PutA-membrane association is poorly understood. Fundamental aspects of substrate channeling in PutA remain unknown, such as the identity of the channeled intermediate, how the tunnel system is activated, and the roles of ancillary tunnels. FUTURE DIRECTIONS:New approaches are needed to study the molecular and in vivo mechanisms of substrate channeling. With the discovery of the proline cycle driving tumor growth and metastasis, the development of inhibitors of proline metabolic enzymes has emerged as an exciting new direction. Structural biology will be important in these endeavors.
Project description:Proline has important roles in multiple biological processes such as cellular bioenergetics, cell growth, oxidative and osmotic stress response, protein folding and stability, and redox signaling. The proline catabolic pathway, which forms glutamate, enables organisms to utilize proline as a carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD+-dependent glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) convert proline to glutamate in two sequential oxidative steps. Depletion of PRODH and GSALDH in humans leads to hyperprolinemia, which is associated with mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Also, some pathogens require proline catabolism for virulence. A unique aspect of proline catabolism is the multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) enzyme found in Gram-negative bacteria. PutA is a large (>1000 residues) bifunctional enzyme that combines PRODH and GSALDH activities into one polypeptide chain. In addition, some PutAs function as a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor of proline utilization genes. This review describes several attributes of PutA that make it a remarkable flavoenzyme: (1) diversity of oligomeric state and quaternary structure; (2) substrate channeling and enzyme hysteresis; (3) DNA-binding activity and transcriptional repressor function; and (4) flavin redox dependent changes in subcellular location and function in response to proline (functional switching).
Project description:PutA (proline utilization A) from Escherichia coli is a 1320-amino-acid residue protein that is both a bifunctional proline catabolic enzyme and an autogenous transcriptional repressor. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a PutA DNA-binding domain along with functional analysis of a mutant PutA defective in DNA binding. Crystals were grown using a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1-52 of E. coli PutA (PutA52). The 2.1 Angstrom resolution structure of PutA52 mutant Lys9Met was determined using Se-Met MAD phasing, and the structure of native PutA52 was solved at 1.9 Angstrom resolution using molecular replacement. Residues 3-46 form a ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) substructure, thus establishing PutA as the largest protein to contain an RHH domain. The PutA RHH domain forms the intertwined dimer with tightly packed hydrophobic core that is characteristic of the RHH family. The structures were used to examine the three-dimensional context of residues conserved in PutA RHH domains. Homology modeling suggests that Lys9 and Thr5 contact DNA bases through the major groove, while Arg15, Thr28, and His30 may interact with the phosphate backbone. Lys9 is shown to be essential for specific recognition of put control DNA using gel shift analysis of the Lys9Met mutant of full-length PutA. Lys9 is disordered in the PutA52 structure, which implies an induced-fit binding mechanism in which the side chain of Lys9 becomes ordered through interaction with DNA. These results provide new insights into the structural basis of DNA recognition by PutA and reveal three-dimensional structural details of the PutA dimer interface.
Project description:Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs.Proline dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124); l-glutamate-?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199).The atomic coordinates and structure factor amplitudes have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 5UR2. The SAXS data have been deposited in the SASBDB under the following accession codes: SASDCP3 (BbPutA), SASDCQ3 (DvPutA 1.5 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCX3 (DvPutA 3.0 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCY3 (DvPutA 4.5 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCR3 (LpPutA 3.0 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCV3 (LpPutA 5.0 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCW3 (LpPutA 8.0 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCS3 (BjPutA 2.3 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCT3 (BjPutA 4.7 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCU3 (BjPutA 7.0 mg·mL-1 ), SASDCZ3 (R51E 2.3 mg·mL-1 ), SASDC24 (R51E 4.7 mg·mL-1 ), SASDC34 (R51E 7.0 mg·mL-1 ).
Project description:The bifunctional proline catabolic flavoenzyme, proline utilization A (PutA), catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate via the sequential activities of FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD(+)-dependent Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Although structures for some of the domains of PutA are known, a structure for the full-length protein has not previously been solved. Here we report the 2.1 A resolution crystal structure of PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum, along with data from small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and steady-state and rapid-reaction kinetics. PutA forms a ring-shaped tetramer in solution having a diameter of 150 A. Within each protomer, the PRODH and P5CDH active sites face each other at a distance of 41 A and are connected by a large, irregularly shaped cavity. Kinetics measurements show that glutamate production occurs without a lag phase, suggesting that the intermediate, Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, is preferably transferred to the P5CDH domain rather than released into the bulk medium. The structural and kinetic data imply that the cavity serves both as a microscopic vessel for the hydrolysis of Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate semialdehyde and a protected conduit for the transport of glutamate semialdehyde to the P5CDH active site.
Project description:Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the two-step oxidation of l-proline to l-glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate-?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) active sites. Substrate inhibition of the coupled PRODH-GSALDH reaction by proline is a common kinetic feature of PutAs, yet the structural basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. To understand the mechanism of substrate inhibition, we determined the 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA complexed with proline. Proline was discovered in five locations remote from the PRODH active site. Most notably, strong electron density indicated that proline bound tightly to the GSAL binding site of the GSALDH active site. The pose and interactions of proline bound in this site are remarkably similar to those of the natural aldehyde substrate, GSAL, implying that proline inhibits the GSALDH reaction of PutA. Kinetic measurements show that proline is a competitive inhibitor of the PutA GSALDH reaction. Together, the structural and kinetic data show that substrate inhibition of the PutA coupled reaction is due to proline binding in the GSAL site.
Project description:Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20-30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100-200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA.
Project description:Escherichia coli proline utilization A (EcPutA) is the archetype of trifunctional PutA flavoproteins, which function both as regulators of the proline utilization operon and bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the four-electron oxidation of proline to glutamate. EcPutA shifts from a self-regulating transcriptional repressor to a bifunctional enzyme in a process known as functional switching. The flavin redox state dictates the function of EcPutA. Upon proline oxidation, the flavin becomes reduced, triggering a conformational change that causes EcPutA to dissociate from the put regulon and bind to the cellular membrane. Major structure/function domains of EcPutA have been characterized, including the DNA-binding domain, proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate-?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalytic domains, and an aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily fold domain. Still lacking is an understanding of the membrane-binding domain, which is essential for EcPutA catalytic turnover and functional switching. Here, we provide evidence for a conserved C-terminal motif (CCM) in EcPutA having a critical role in membrane binding. Deletion of the CCM or replacement of hydrophobic residues with negatively charged residues within the CCM impairs EcPutA functional and physical membrane association. Furthermore, cell-based transcription assays and limited proteolysis indicate that the CCM is essential for functional switching. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer involving dansyl-labeled liposomes, residues in the ?-domain are also implicated in membrane binding. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the CCM and ?-domain converge to form a membrane-binding interface near the PRODH domain. The discovery of the membrane-binding region will assist efforts to define flavin redox signaling pathways responsible for EcPutA functional switching.