Epigenome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Differential Methylation Biomarkers in High-Grade Bladder Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic changes, including CpG island hypermethylation, occur frequently in bladder cancer (BC) and may be exploited for BC detection and distinction between high-grade (HG) and low-grade (LG) disease. Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed using Agilent Human CpG Island Microarrays to determine epigenetic differences between LG and HG cases. Pathway enrichment analysis and functional annotation determined that the most frequently methylated pathways in HG BC were enriched for anterior/posterior pattern specification, embryonic skeletal system development, neuron fate commitment, DNA binding, and transcription factor activity. We identified 990 probes comprising a 32-gene panel that completely distinguished LG from HG based on methylation. Selected genes from this panel, EOMES, GP5, PAX6, TCF4, and ZSCAN12, were selected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based validation by MethyLight in an independent series (n=84) of normal bladder samples and LG and HG cases. GP5 and ZSCAN12, two novel methylated genes in BC, were significantly hypermethylated in HG versus LG BC (P≤.03). We validated our data in a second independent cohort of LG and HG BC cases (n=42) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Probes representing our 32-gene panel were significantly differentially methylated in LG versus HG tumors (P≤.04). These results indicate the ability to distinguish normal tissue from cancer, as well as LG from HG, based on methylation and reveal important pathways dysregulated in HG BC. Our findings were corroborated using publicly available data sets from TCGA. Ultimately, the creation of a methylation panel, including GP5 and ZSCAN12, able to distinguish between disease phenotypes will improve disease management and patient outcomes.
Project description:To address the shortcomings of cystoscopy and urine cytology for detecting and grading bladder cancer (BC), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses was employed as an alternative method for the diagnosis of BC. A series of differential serum metabolites were further identified for low-grade(LG) and high-grade(HG) BC patients, suggesting metabolic dysfunction in malignant proliferation, immune escape, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion of cancer cells in BC patients. In total, three serum metabolites including inosine, acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine and PS(O-18:0/0:0) were selected by binary logistic regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test based on their combined use for HG BC showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.961 in the discovery set and 0.950 in the validation set when compared to LG BC. Likewise, this composite biomarker panel can also differentiate LG BC from healthy controls with the AUC of 0.993 and 0.991 in the discovery and validation set, respectively. This finding suggested that this composite serum metabolite signature was a promising and less invasive classifier for probing and grading BC, which deserved to be further investigated in larger samples.
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC) is still characterized by a very high death rate in patients with this disease. One of the reasons for this is the lack of adequate markers which could help determine the biological potential of the tumor to develop into its invasive stage. It has been found that some microRNAs (miRNAs) correlate with disease progression. The purpose of this study was to identify which miRNAs can accurately predict the presence of BC and can differentiate low grade (LG) tumors from high grade (HG) tumors. The study included 55 patients with diagnosed bladder cancer and 30 persons belonging to the control group. The expression of seven selected miRNAs was estimated with the real-time PCR technique according to miR-103-5p (for the normalization of the results). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the feasibility of using selected markers as biomarkers for detecting BC and discriminating non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) from muscle invasive BC (MIBC). For HG tumors, the relevant classifiers are miR-205-5p and miR-20a-5p, whereas miR-205-5p and miR-182-5p are for LG (AUC = 0.964 and AUC = 0.992, respectively). NMIBC patients with LG disease are characterized by significantly higher miR-130b-3p expression values compared to patients in HG tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bladder cancer is highly related to immune cell infiltration. This study aimed to develop a new classification of BC molecular subtypes based on immune-cell-associated CpG sites. METHODS:The genes of 28 types of immune cells were obtained from previous studies. Then, methylation sites corresponding to immune-cell-associated genes were acquired. Differentially methylated sites (DMSs) were identified between normal samples and bladder cancer samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis of differentially methylated sites was performed to divide the sites into several subtypes. Then, the potential mechanism of different subtypes was explored. RESULTS:Bladder cancer patients were divided into three groups. The cluster 3 subtype had the best prognosis. Cluster 1 had the poorest prognosis. The distribution of immune cells, level of expression of checkpoints, stromal score, immune score, ESTIMATEScore, tumor purity, APC co_inhibition, APC co_stimulation, HLA, MHC class_I, Type I IFN Response, Type II IFN Response, and DNAss presented significant differences among the three subgroups. The distribution of genomic alterations was also different. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed classification was accurate and stable. BC patients could be divided into three subtypes based on the immune-cell-associated CpG sites. Specific biological signaling pathways, immune mechanisms, and genomic alterations were varied among the three subgroups. High-level immune infiltration was correlated with high-level methylation. The lower RNAss was associated with higher immune infiltration. The study of the intratumoral immune microenvironment may provide a new perspective for BC therapy.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) encompasses heterogeneous pathologies with different subtypes exhibiting distinct molecular changes, including those related to DNA methylation. However, the role of these changes in mediating BC heterogeneity is poorly understood. Lowly methylated regions (LMRs), non-CpG island loci that usually contain transcription factor (TF) binding sites, have been suggested to act as regulatory elements that define cellular identity. In this study, we aimed to identify the key subtype-specific TFs that may lead to LMR generation and shape the BC methylome and transcription program. We initially used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data available at The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal to identify subtype-specific LMRs. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within the BC PAM50 subtype-specific LMRs were selected by comparing tumors and normal tissues in a larger TCGA cohort assessed by HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K) arrays and TF enrichment analyses were performed. To assess the impact of LMRs on gene expression, TCGA RNA sequencing data were downloaded and Pearson correlations between methylation levels of loci presenting subtype-specific TF motifs and expression of the nearest genes were calculated. WGBS methylome data revealed a large number of LMRs for each of the BC subtypes. Analysis of these LMRs in the 450K datasets available for a larger sample set identified 7,765, 5,657, and 19 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) between normal adjacent tissues and tumor tissues from basal, luminal, and HER2-enriched subtypes, respectively. Unsupervised clustering showed that the discriminatory power of the top DMPs was remarkably strong for basal BC. Interestingly, in this particular subtype, we found 4,409 differentially hypomethylated positions grouped into 1,185 DMRs with a strong enrichment for the early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) motifs. The methylation levels of the DMRs containing EBF1 motifs showed a strong negative correlation with the expression of 719 nearby genes, including BTS2 and CD74, two oncogenes known to be specific for basal BC subtype and for poor outcome. This study identifies LMRs specific to the three main BC subtypes and reveals EBF1 as a potentially important regulator of BC subtype-specific methylation and gene expression program.
Project description:DNA methylation was assessed in genomic DNA obtained from the arcuate nucleus of heifers fed to gain body weight at high (HG, n = 4) and low (LG, n = 4) rates from 4.5 to 8.5 mo of age. A methyl-CpG binding domain-based (MBD) protein assay was performed to capture fragments of methylated DNA (methylated-enriched DNA). Input (total) and methylated-enriched DNA were labeled with two different dyes and co-hybridized to a custom-designed oligonucleotide array targeted to genes associated with nutritional inputs and the control of puberty. The ratio of the log2 (enriched/input) of the normalized intensities, were determined. Data was analyzed comparing values of HG versus LG heifers. Two nutritional schedules: HG (n=4 heifers) and LG (n=4 heifers); one array per heifer; methylated enriched DNA (enriched) and total DNA (input) co-hybridyzed into each array Methylated-enriched DNA obtained from a methyl-CpG binding domain-based (MBD) protein assay
Project description:Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in the western world and ranks as the most expensive to manage, due to the need for cystoscopic examination. BC shows frequent changes in DNA methylation, and several studies have shown the potential utility of urinary biomarkers by detecting epigenetic alterations in voided urine. The aim of this study is to develop a targeted bisulfite next-generation sequencing assay to diagnose BC from urine with high sensitivity and specificity.We defined a 150 CpG loci biomarker panel from a cohort of 86 muscle-invasive bladder cancers and 30 normal urothelium. Based on this panel, we developed the UroMark assay, a next-generation bisulphite sequencing assay and analysis pipeline for the detection of bladder cancer from urinary sediment DNA. The 150 loci UroMark assay was validated in an independent cohort (n?=?274, non-cancer (n?=?167) and bladder cancer (n?=?107)) voided urine samples with an AUC of 97%. The UroMark classifier sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 97% and NPV of 97% for the detection of primary BC was compared to non-BC urine.Epigenetic urinary biomarkers for detection of BC have the potential to revolutionise the management of this disease. In this proof of concept study, we show the development and utility of a novel high-throughput, next-generation sequencing-based biomarker for the detection of BC-specific epigenetic alterations in urine.
Project description:Objective:To identify DNA methylation related biomarkers in patients with breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods:A total of seven BC methylation studies including 1,438 BC patients or breast tissues were included in this study. An elastic net regularized Cox proportional hazards regression (CPH) model was used to build a multi-5'-C-phosphate-G-3' methylation panel. The diagnosis and prognosis power of the panel was evaluated and validated using a Kaplan-Meier curve, univariate and multivariable CPH, subgroup analysis. A nomogram containing the panel was developed. The relationships between the panel-based methylation risk and the immune landscape and genomic metrics were investigated. Results:Sixty-eight CpG sites were significantly correlated with the overall survival (OS) of BC patients, and based on the result of penalized CPH, a 28-CpG site based multi CpG methylation panel was found. The prognosis and diagnosis role of the panel was validated in the discovery set, validation set, and six independent cohorts, which indicated that higher methylation risk was associated with poor OS, and the panel outperformed currently available biomarkers and remained an independent factor after adjusting for other clinical features. The methylation risk was negatively correlated with innated and adaptive immune cells, and positively correlated with total mutation load, SCNA, and MATH. Conclusions:We validated a multi CpG methylation panel that could independently predict the OS of BC patients. The Th2-mediated tumor promotion effect-suppression of innate and adaptive immunity-participated in the progression of high-risk BC. Patients with high methylation risk were associated with tumor heterogeneity and poor survival.
Project description:PURPOSE: There is a need to supplement or supplant the conventional diagnostic tools, namely, cystoscopy and B-type ultrasound, for bladder cancer (BC). We aimed to identify novel DNA methylation markers for BC through genome-wide profiling of BC cell lines and subsequent methylation-specific PCR (MSP) screening of clinical urine samples. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methyl-DNA binding domain (MBD) capture technique, methylCap/seq, was performed to screen for specific hypermethylated CpG islands in two BC cell lines (5637 and T24). The top one hundred hypermethylated targets were sequentially screened by MSP in urine samples to gradually narrow the target number and optimize the composition of the diagnostic panel. The diagnostic performance of the obtained panel was evaluated in different clinical scenarios. RESULTS: A total of 1,627 hypermethylated promoter targets in the BC cell lines was identified by Illumina sequencing. The top 104 hypermethylated targets were reduced to eight genes (VAX1, KCNV1, ECEL1, TMEM26, TAL1, PROX1, SLC6A20, and LMX1A) after the urine DNA screening in a small sample size of 8 normal control and 18 BC subjects. Validation in an independent sample of 212 BC patients enabled the optimization of five methylation targets, including VAX1, KCNV1, TAL1, PPOX1, and CFTR, which was obtained in our previous study, for BC diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.68% and 87.25%, respectively. In addition, the methylation of VAX1 and LMX1A was found to be associated with BC recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a promising diagnostic marker panel for early non-invasive detection and subsequent BC surveillance.
Project description:DNA methylation has been reported as one of the most critical epigenetic aberrations during the tumorigenesis and development of breast cancer (BC). This study explored a novel promoter CpG-based signature for long-term survival prediction of BC patients. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data as training set, and results were validated in an independent dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). First, the differential methylation CpG sites were screened in TCGA dataset, of which the candidate promoter CpG sites were preliminarily identified with the univariate Cox regression analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis. Second, the signature was constructed with stepwise regression analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, which was validated with the survival analysis of two cohorts each from TCGA and GEO databases. The 10-year receiver operating characteristic curves of risk score presented an area under the curve of over 0.7 for both cohorts. A nomogram was also constructed and released. Moreover, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed to identify the more active pathways in high-risk patients. The CpG sites-target gene correlations and differential methylation regions were further explored. In conclusion, the promoter CpG-based signature exhibited good prognostic prediction efficacy in the long-term overall survival of BC patients.
Project description:Epigenetic alterations in tissues targeted for cancer play a causal role in carcinogenesis. Changes in DNA methylation in nontarget tissues, specifically peripheral blood, can also affect risk of malignant disease. We sought to identify specific profiles of DNA methylation in peripheral blood that are associated with bladder cancer risk and therefore serve as an epigenetic marker of disease susceptibility.We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling on participants involved in a population-based incident case-control study of bladder cancer.In a training set of 112 cases and 118 controls, we identified a panel of 9 CpG loci whose profile of DNA methylation was significantly associated with bladder cancer in a masked, independent testing series of 111 cases and 119 controls (P < .0001). Membership in three of the most methylated classes was associated with a 5.2-fold increased risk of bladder cancer (95% CI, 2.8 to 9.7), and a model that included the methylation classification, participant age, sex, smoking status, and family history of bladder cancer was a significant predictor of bladder cancer (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.82). CpG loci associated with bladder cancer and aging had neighboring sequences enriched for transcription-factor binding sites related to immune modulation and forkhead family members.These results indicate that profiles of epigenetic states in blood are associated with risk of bladder cancer and signal the potential utility of epigenetic profiles in peripheral blood as novel markers of susceptibility to this and other malignancies.