Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis.
ABSTRACT: Denmark is a low prevalence country with regard to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In 2008 and 2014, two neonatal wards in the Copenhagen area experienced outbreaks with a typical community acquired MRSA belonging to the same spa type and sequence type (t015:ST45) and both were PVL and ACME negative. In outbreak 1, the isolates harbored SCCmec IVa and in outbreak 2 SCCmec V. The clinical presentation differed between the two outbreaks, as none of five MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 1 had mastitis vs. five of six MRSA positive mothers in outbreak 2 (p < 0.02). To investigate if whole-genome sequencing could identify virulence genes associated with mastitis, t015:ST45 isolates from Denmark (N = 101) were whole-genome sequenced. Sequence analysis confirmed two separate outbreaks with no sign of sustained spread into the community. Analysis of the accessory genome between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also be important virulence factors for human mastitis.
Project description:Objective:Mastitis is considered as an economically important disease of dairy buffaloes in Asia. This study examined the mastitis milk and nasal swab samples for the detection and genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in water buffaloes. Materials and Methods:Staphylococcus aureus was identified based on biochemical tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection of nuc gene, whereas MRSA on mecA gene. The disc diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), spa, and multilocus sequence typing for the genotyping of isolates. Results:Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 39/93 milk (41.94%) and 27/384 nasal swab (7.03%) samples. However, only nine isolates (23.08%) harbored the mecA gene from milk samples and three isolates (11.11%) from the nasal carriage. All MRSA isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin and penicillin, whereas 50% were found resistant to clindamycin. All these isolates were found susceptible to sulfa-trimethoprim and chloramphenicol, whereas the majority of the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifampicin. The SCCmec types of the MRSA isolates were type IVc (50.00%), type II (8.33%), type I (8.33%), and non-typeable (33.33%). The spa types and sequence type (ST) identified were t019 (ST30), t701 (ST1649), t311 (ST5), t657 (ST1148), t015 (ST508), t1939 (ST12), t800 (ST9), t091 (ST2454), t138 (ST5991), and t1642 (ST5992). Conclusion:Milk and nasal swab samples from dairy water buffaloes were found positive for MRSA. The MRSA isolates were still susceptible to most antibiotics tested. Moreover, the genotypes of some MRSA isolates were found similar to some human MRSA strains, suggesting a possible human to animal transmission.
Project description:Recently, we demonstrated rapid dissemination of different methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones at the Institute for Microbiology at the University of Magdeburg (B. Ghebremedhin, W. König, and B. König, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:388-398, 2005). The majority of them harbored the readily transmissible mec cassette type IV. Thus, theoretically, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) might capture the mecA gene from circulating MRSA, or MRSA strains might catch mobile toxin genes from MSSA. Therefore, we characterized MSSA strains circulating at the University Hospital in Magdeburg. Among a total of 84 MSSA strains under study, about 40% possessed the tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) gene and up to four additional enterotoxin genes. tst-positive MSSA strains belonged to all known agr groups (I to IV) and to 14 different spa types (t008, t012, t015, t019, t024, t056, t065, t127, t133, t162, t271, t287, t399, and t400), and they were classified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) as ST1, ST8, ST30, ST39, ST45, ST101, ST121, ST395, and ST426. In contrast, simultaneously circulating MRSA strains (n = 24) harbored in general two or three genes of the enterotoxin gene cluster, and the tst-positive MRSA isolates belonged to the well-known epidemic types ST22, ST45, and ST228 and were classified as spa types t001, t028, and t032. From our results, one may conclude that the pool of circulating MSSA strains is an important parameter with regard to the epidemiology of hospital- and community-acquired MRSA clones and their potential virulence.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Widespread in the environment, Staphylococcus spp. infect animals and humans as normal flora or pathogens. By extending our recent report of multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus in dairy goats, this study investigated the staphylococcal infection and characterized the MDR-S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from goats in 2008 to elucidate the appearance of MRSA in goats and the mastitis associated staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE) types. A total of 555 samples were collected from six goat parts and three environmental sources among four dairy goat farms in southern Taiwan. Coagulase-positive and negative Staphylococcus spp. (CPS and CNS, respectively) were also identified. Furthermore, predominant SE genes of nine enterotoxin genes sea through sej along with antimicrobial resistance and genetic variations were determined. RESULTS: In total, 137 staphylococcal strains were identified and found predominantly in milk, and in the vagina, anus, and nasal cavity. The most prevalent species was S. lentus, followed by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. xylosus. Enterotoxin genes were not identified in any CNS isolates, however sec and see were identified only in S. aureus associated with mastitis in goat. In compared to the isolates from 2006 to 2007, 27 S. aureus isolates from 2008 were found to be more resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, and tetracycline. Eleven MRSA isolates were identified and belonged to SCCmec type III (nine isolates) as the major type and SCCmec type II (two isolates). These MRSA isolates revealed pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern A (five isolates), C (one isolate), and D (one isolate) of human isolates. The other two isolates without pulsotypes belonged to ST59. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and infection sites of CNS differed from those of CPS. Genetic analyses indicated that genetic divergence, possible zoonotic transfer of MRSA, and the involvement of sec as important virulence factors for of S. aureus that lead to mastitis in goats.
Project description:The prevalent Staphylococcus aureus clones and antibiotic susceptibility profiles are known to change dynamically and geographically; however, recent S. aureus strains causing infections in women and children in China have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from patients in four centers for women and children in Guangzhou, China. In total, 131 S. aureus isolates (100 from children and 31 from women) were analyzed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing, virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiling, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec typing, and mutation analyses of rpoB. A total of 58 spa types, 27 sequence types (STs), and 10 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified. While CC59 (ST59-IV, 48.8%; ST338-III, 35.7%) and CC45 (ST45-IV, 100%) were the major clones (84.4%) among MRSA isolates, CC5 (ST188, 24.3%; ST1, 21.6%) and CC398 (ST398, 70%) were the major ones (70.1%) among MSSA isolates. ST338-MRSA-III mostly found in pus but hardly in respiratory tract samples while ST45-MRSA-IV was on the opposite, even though they both found in blood and cerebrospinal fluid sample frequently. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes seb-seq-sek were strongly associated with ST59 and ST338, while sec was associated with ST45, ST121, ST22, and ST30. All ST338, ST1232, and SCCmec III isolates carried lukF/S-PV genes. A total of 80% of ST338 isolates were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. All ST45 isolates exhibited intermediate or complete resistance to rifampicin. In total, 481 HIS/ASN mutations in rpoB were found in rifampicin-resistant or intermediate-resistant isolates. ST338-III and ST45-IV emerged as two of three major clones in MRSA isolates from women and children in Guangzhou, China, though ST59-MRSA-IV remained the most prevalent MRSA clone. Clonal distribution of S. aureus varied, depending on the specimen source. Virulence genes and antibiograms were closely associated with the clonal lineage. These results clarified the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus from women and children in Guangzhou, China, and provide critical information for the control and treatment of S. aureus infections.
Project description:Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), the most prevalent causes of hospital-associated and community-associated infections, could exist on frequently touched surfaces. This study aims to determine the contamination prevalence and the characteristics of MRSA and MRSE isolated from secondary school environments. Methods: We collected environmental samples from ten secondary schools in Guangzhou city between October 2016 and January 2017. The samples were confirmed for MRSA and MRSE isolates by using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, toxin gene screening, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to further characterize the isolates. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests. Results: A total of 1830 environmental samples were collected. The prevalence of MRSA and MRSE contamination were 1.86% (34/1830) and 5.14% (94/1830), respectively. The proportions of multidrug resistance in both MRSA (58.82%) and MRSE (63.83%) isolates were high. Seven clonal complexes (CC) and 12 sequence types (ST) were identified, with the CC5 (35.29%) and ST45 (25.53%) being the most prevalent. We found that 44.12% of the MRSA isolates were community-acquired and the main type was ST45-SCCmec IV. We found that 5.88% and 32.35% of MRSA isolates were positive to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst) gene, respectively. No MRSE isolate was positive to the toxin genes. Conclusion: Our findings raise potential public health concerns for environmental contamination of MRSA and MRSE in school environments. Surfaces of school environments may potentially provide a source for cross-contamination with these bacteria into the wider community.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for the pathogen transmission and the development of infections. Limited information is available on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus colonization in pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS:A cross-sectional, island-wide study was conducted in 2011. Nasal swabs were collected from pediatric ICU patients at six tertiary hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS:Of 114 patients enrolled in total, nasal colonization of S. arueus was detected in 30 (26.3%) of them, among whom 20 (17.5%) with methicillin-resistant S. arueus (MRSA). The ST59/SCCmec IV and V clones were most common and accounted for 45% of MRSA isolates, followed by ST239/SCCmec III (25%) and ST45/SCCmec IV (20%) clones. Three ST59 MRSA isolates carried the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated a high prevalence of S. arueus and MRSA nasal colonization among pediatric ICU patients in Taiwan. Identification of epidemic clones warrants the implement of infection control measures to reduce colonization and prevent the dissemination of MRSA in hospitals.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pervasive healthcare-acquired (HA) pathogen with recent emergence as a community-acquired (CA) pathogen. To elucidate whether meat mediates MRSA transmission between animals and humans in Japan, this study examined MRSA isolates from retail meat (n = 8), cows with mastitis (n = 7), and humans (HA-MRSA = 46 and CA-MRSA = 54) by molecular typing, virulence gene analyses, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates from retail meat were classified into sequence type (ST) 8/spa type t1767 (n = 4), ST8/t4133 (n = 1), ST59/t3385 (n = 1), ST88/t375 (n = 1), and ST509/t375 (n = 1). All seven MRSA isolates from cows with mastitis were ST8/t1767. 46 HA-MRSA were clonal complex (CC) 5, divided into t002 (n = 30), t045 (n = 12), and t7455 (n = 4). 54 CA-MRSA were classified into 6 different CCs: CC1 (n = 14), CC5 (n = 7), CC8 (n = 29), CC45 (n = 1), CC89 (n = 1), CC509 (n = 1), and into 16 different spa types including newly identified t17177, t17193, and t17194. The majority were CC8/t1767 (n = 16). CC of one CA-MRSA isolate (spa type t1767) was not classified. Among 41 CC8 MRSA (five from meat, seven from cows with mastitis, and 29 CA-MRSA), 14 ST8/SCCmec IVl isolates (three from meat, one from a cow with mastitis, and 10 CA-MRSA) had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and similar spa type (t1767, t4133, and t17177), and were typed as CA-MRSA/J (ST8/SCCmec IVl, positive for sec + sel + tst but negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the arginine catabolic mobile element). These results suggest that there is a transmission cycle of CA-MRSA/J among meat, cows, and humans in Japan, although it is unclear whether the origin is cow.
Project description:Thirty-three (33) isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from healthy edible marine fish harvested from two aquaculture settings and the Kariega estuary, South Africa, were characterised in this study. The phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to 13 antibiotics were determined, and their antibiotic resistance determinants were assessed. A multiplex PCR was used to determine the epidemiological groups based on the type of SCCmec carriage followed by the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin-encoding genes sea-sed and the Panton Valentine leucocidin gene (pvl). A high antibiotic resistance percentage (67-81%) was observed for Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Rifampicin, and Clindamycin, while maximum susceptibility to Chloramphenicol (100%), Imipenem (100%), and Ciprofloxacin (94%) was recorded. Nineteen (58%) of the MRSA strains had Vancomycin MICs of ?2??g/mL, 4 (12%) with MICs ranging from 4-8??g/mL, and 10 (30%) with values ?16??g/mL. Overall, 27 (82%) isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) with Erythromycin-Ampicillin-Rifampicin-Clindamycin (E-AMP-RIP-CD) found to be the dominant antibiotic-resistance phenotype observed in 4 isolates. Resistance genes such as tetM, tetA, ermB, blaZ, and femA were detected in two or more resistant strains. A total of 19 (58%) MRSA strains possessed SCCmec types I, II, or III elements, characteristic of healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), while 10 (30%) isolates displayed SCCmec type IVc, characteristic of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Six (18%) of the multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA were enterotoxigenic, harbouring the see, sea, or sec genes. A prevalence of 18% (6/33) was also recorded for the luk-PVL gene. The findings of this study showed that marine fish contained MDR-MRSA strains that harbour SCCmec types, characteristic of either HA-MRSA or CA-MRSA, but with a low prevalence of enterotoxin and pvl genes. Thus, there is a need for continuous monitoring and implementation of better control strategies within the food chain to minimise contamination of fish with MDR-MRSA and the ultimate spread of the bug.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were identified in macaques, their environmental facility, and nasal cultures of personnel from the Washington National Primate Research Center [WaNPRC] and included MRSA ST188 SCCmec IV and MRSA ST3268 SCCmec V. The aim of the current study was to determine the carriage of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes, and other characteristics of the primate MRSA isolates to determine if there were any obvious differences that would account for differences in transmission within the WaNPRC facility. In total, 1,199 samples from primates were tested for the presence of MRSA resulting in 158 MRSA-positive samples. Fifteen ST188 isolates (all from Macaca nemestrina) and nine ST3268 (four from Macaca mulatta, two from Macaca fascicularis, three from M. nemestrina), were selected for further characterization. All but one of the 15 ST188 isolates had spa type t189 and the remaining one had spa type t3887. These isolates were resistant to ?-lactams [blaZ, mecA], macrolides/lincosamides [erm(B)], aminoglycosides [aacA-aphD], and fluoroquinolones. Five isolates were additionally resistant to tetracyclines [tet(K)] and had elevated MICs for benzalkonium chloride [qacC]. In comparison, the nine ST3268 isolates had the related spa types t15469 (n = 5) and t13638 (n = 4). All nine ST3268 isolates were resistant to ?-lactams [blaZ, mecA], and tetracyclines [tet(K)]. Some isolates were additionally resistant to aminoglycosides [aacA-aphD], fluoroquinolones and/or showed elevated MICs for benzalkonium chloride [qacC]. In contrast to the ST188 isolates, the ST3268 isolates had the enterotoxin gene cluster egc [seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, selu] and enterotoxin genes sec and sel. The two clones have differences regarding their spa types, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes as well as ST and SCCmec types. However, the data presented does not provide insight into why ST188 spreads easily while ST3268 did not spread within the WaNPRC in-house primates.
Project description:Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCCmec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCCmec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak.