Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition.
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation performance improvements and the final wines contained less ethanol and higher amounts of glycerol. Finally, it is interesting to note that in co-inoculated fermentations, wine strains of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum performed better than non-wine strains of the same species.
Project description:Fermentations carried out at low temperatures (10-15°C) enhance the production and retention of flavor volatiles, but also increase the chances of slowing or arresting the process. Notwithstanding, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main species responsible for alcoholic fermentation, other species of the genus Saccharomyces, such as cryophilic species Saccharomyces eubayanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum, are better adapted to low-temperature fermentations during winemaking. In this work, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. uvarum hybrid was constructed to improve the enological features of a wine S. cerevisiae strain at low temperature. Fermentations of white grape musts were performed, and the phenotypic differences between parental and hybrid strains under different temperature conditions were examined. This work demonstrates that hybridization constitutes an effective approach to obtain yeast strains with desirable physiological features, like low-temperature fermentation capacity, which genetically depend on the expression of numerous genes (polygenic character). As this interspecific hybridization approach is not considered a GMO, the genetically improved strains can be quickly transferred to the wine industry.
Project description:Temperature is one of the most important parameters affecting the length and rate of alcoholic fermentation and final wine quality. Wine produced at low temperature is often considered to have improved sensory qualities. However, there are certain drawbacks to low temperature fermentations such as reduced growth rate, long lag phase, and sluggish or stuck fermentations. To investigate the effects of temperature on commercial wine yeast, we compared its metabolome growing at 12 °C and 28 °C in a synthetic must. Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is the case of the cryotolerant yeasts Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. In an attempt to detect inter-specific metabolic differences, we characterized the metabolome of these species growing at 12°C, which we compared with the metabolome of S. cerevisiae (not well adapted at low temperature) at the same temperature. Our results show that the main differences between the metabolic profiling of S. cerevisiae growing at 12 °C and 28 °C were observed in lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. Moreover, the global metabolic comparison among the three species revealed that the main differences between the two cryotolerant species and S. cerevisiae were in carbohydrate metabolism, mainly fructose metabolism. However, these two species have developed different strategies for cold resistance. S. bayanus var. uvarum presented elevated shikimate pathway activity, while S. kudriavzevii displayed increased NAD(+) synthesis.
Project description:Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.
Project description:The Muscat Bailey A (MBA) grape, one of the most prominent grape cultivars in Korea, contains considerable amounts of monoterpene alcohols that have very low odor thresholds and significantly affect the perception of wine aroma. To develop a potential wine starter for Korean MBA wine, nine types of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated from various Korean food materials, including nuruk, Sémillon grapes, persimmons, and Muscat Bailey A grapes, and their physiological, biochemical, and enzymatic properties were investigated and compared to the conventional wine fermentation strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W-3. Through API ZYM analysis, Wickerhamomyces anomalus JK04, Hanseniaspora vineae S7, Hanseniaspora uvarum S8, Candida railenensis S18, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima S36 were revealed to have ?-glucosidase activity. Their activities were quantified by culturing in growth medium composed of different carbon sources: 2% glucose, 1% glucose + 1% cellobiose, and 2% cellobiose. W. anomalus JK04 and M. pulcherrima S36 showed the highest ?-glucosidase activities in all growth media; thus, they were selected and utilized for MBA wine fermentation. MBA wines co-fermented with non-Saccharomyces yeasts (W. anomalus JK04 or M. pulcherrima S36) and S. cerevisiae W-3 showed significantly increased levels of linalool, citronellol, and geraniol compared to MBA wine fermented with S. cerevisiae W-3 (control). In a sensory evaluation, the flavor, taste, and overall preference scores of the co-fermented wines were higher than those for the control wine, suggesting that W. anomalus JK04 and M. pulcherrima S36 are favorable wine starters for improving Korean MBA wine quality.
Project description:Wine yeast breeding programs utilizing interspecific hybridization deliver cost-effective tools to winemakers looking to differentiate their wines through the development of new wine styles. The addition of a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome to a commercial wine yeast can generate novel phenotypes ranging from wine flavor and aroma diversity to improvements in targeted fermentation traits. In the current study we utilized a novel approach to screen isolates from an evolving population for increased fitness in a S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum interspecific hybrid previously generated to incorporate the targeted phenotype of lower volatile acidity production. Sequential grape-juice fermentations provided a selective environment from which to screen isolates. Chromosomal markers were used in a novel approach to identify isolates with potential increased fitness. A strain with increased fitness relative to its parents was isolated from an early timepoint in the evolving population, thereby minimizing the risk of introducing collateral mutations and potentially undesirable phenotypes. The evolved strain retained the desirable fermentation trait of reduced volatile acidity production, along with other winemaking traits of importance while exhibiting improved fermentation kinetics.
Project description:In winemaking, the use of alternative yeast starters is becoming increasingly popular. They contribute to the diversity and complexity of wine sensory features and are typically used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to ensure complete fermentation. This practice has drawn the interest on interactions between different oenological yeasts, which are also relevant in spontaneous and conventional fermentations, or in the vineyard. Although several interactions have been described and some mechanisms have been suggested, the possible involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not yet been considered. This work describes the production of EVs by six wine yeast species (S. cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida sake and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) in synthetic grape must. Proteomic analysis of EV-enriched fractions from S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii showed enrichment in glycolytic enzymes and cell-wall-related proteins. The most abundant protein found in S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans EV-enriched fractions was the enzyme exo-1,3-?-glucanase. However, this protein was not involved in the here-observed negative impact of T. delbrueckii extracellular fractions on the growth of other yeast species. These findings suggest that EVs may play a role in fungal interactions during wine fermentation and other aspects of wine yeast biology.
Project description:Wineries face unprecedented challenges due to new market demands and climate change effects on wine quality. New yeast starters including non-conventional Saccharomyces species, such as S. kudriavzevii, may contribute to deal with some of these challenges. The design of new fermentations using non-conventional yeasts requires an improved understanding of the physiology and metabolism of these cells. Dynamic modeling brings the potential of exploring the most relevant mechanisms and designing optimal processes more systematically. In this work we explore mechanisms by means of a model selection, reduction and cross-validation pipeline which enables to dissect the most relevant fermentation features for the species under consideration, Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii CR85. The pipeline involved the comparison of a collection of models which incorporate several alternative mechanisms with emphasis on the inhibitory effects due to temperature and ethanol. We focused on defining a minimal model with the minimum number of parameters, to maximize the identifiability and the quality of cross-validation. The selected model was then used to highlight differences in behavior between species. The analysis of model parameters would indicate that the specific growth rate and the transport of hexoses at initial times are higher for S. cervisiae T73 while S. kudriavzevii CR85 diverts more flux for glycerol production and cellular maintenance. As a result, the fermentations with S. kudriavzevii CR85 are typically slower; produce less ethanol but higher glycerol. Finally, we also explored optimal initial inoculation and process temperature to find the best compromise between final product characteristics and fermentation duration. Results reveal that the production of glycerol is distinctive in S. kudriavzevii CR85, it was not possible to achieve the same production of glycerol with S. cervisiae T73 in any of the conditions tested. This result brings the idea that the optimal design of mixed cultures may have an enormous potential for the improvement of final wine quality.
Project description:Speeding up grape must fermentation would be of great economic benefit. We subjected Saccharomyces cerevisiae VIN13 and two recombinant VIN13-strains expressing ATF1 alleles under two different promoters (either PGK1 or HXT7) to four styles of grape must fermentations; we then assessed the effect of constantly stirring a must fermentation (isomixing). The four different fermentation setups were as follows: isomixed, closed in an ANKOM Rf Gas productions system; isomixed, open in a stirred tall tube cylinder; static, closed constituting a conventional fermentation in a wine bottle equipped with an airlock and static; and static, open in a tall tube cylinder (without stirring). We report on major fermentation parameters and the volatile aroma compositions generated in the finished wines. The primary fermentations of the strains subjected to constant stirring finished after 7 days, whereas the static fermentations reached dryness after 19 days. The wines derived from isomixed fermentations produced approximately 0.7% less ethanol compared to the unstirred fermentations. The speed that the isomixed fermentation took to reach completion may provide an alternative to static fermentations in the preparation of base wines for sparkling wine production. The observed increase of volatiles of isomixed fermentations merits further investigation.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae is by far the most widely used yeast in oenology. However, during the last decade, several other yeasts species has been purposed for winemaking as they could positively impact wine quality. Some of these non-conventional yeasts (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans, etc.) are now proposed as starters culture for winemakers in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae, and several others are the subject of various studies (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris, etc.). Along with their biotechnological use, the knowledge of these non-conventional yeasts greatly increased these last 10 years. The aim of this review is to describe the last updates and the current state-of-art of the genetics of non-conventional yeasts (including S. uvarum, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris, etc.). We describe how genomics and genetics tools provide new data into the population structure and biodiversity of non-conventional yeasts in winemaking environments. Future challenges will lie on the development of selection programs and/or genetic improvement of these non-conventional species. We discuss how genetics, genomics and the advances in next-generation sequencing will help the wine industry to develop the biotechnological use of non-conventional yeasts to improve the quality and differentiation of wines.
Project description:In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation) and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of non-Saccharomyces in the design of tailored starter cultures for typical wines.