E2F and GATA switches turn off WD repeat domain 77 expression in differentiating cells.
ABSTRACT: WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77) is expressed during earlier lung development when cells are rapidly proliferating, but is absent from adult lung. It is re-activated during lung tumorigenesis and is essential for lung cancer cell proliferation. Signalling pathways/molecules that control WDR77 gene expression are unknown. Promoter mapping, gel shift assay and ChIP revealed that the WDR77 promoter contains bona fide response elements for E2F and GATA transcriptional factors as demonstrated in prostate cancer, lung cancer and erythroid cells, as well as in mouse lung tissues. The WDR77 promoter is transactivated by E2F1, E2F3, GATA1 and GATA6, but suppressed by E2F6, GATA1 and GATA3 in prostate cancer PC3 cells. WDR77 expression is associated with E2F1, E2F3, GATA2 and GATA6 occupancy on the WDR77 gene, whereas, in contrast, E2F6, GATA1 and GATA3 occupancy is associated with the loss of WDR77 expression during erythroid maturation and lung development. More importantly, the loss of WDR77 expression that results from E2F and GATA switches is required for cellular differentiation of erythroid and lung epithelial cells. In contrast, lung cancer cells avoid post-mitotic differentiation by sustaining WDR77 expression. Altogether, the present study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which WDR77 is regulated during erythroid and lung development and lung tumorigenesis.
Project description:We show that the centrosome- and microtubule-regulating protein ?-tubulin interacts with E2 promoter binding factors (E2Fs) to modulate E2F transcriptional activity and thereby control cell cycle progression. ?-Tubulin contains a C-terminal signal that results in its translocation to the nucleus during late G(1) to early S phase. ?-Tubulin mutants showed that the C terminus interacts with the transcription factor E2F1 and that the E2F1-?-tubulin complex is formed during the G(1)/S transition, when E2F1 is transcriptionally active. Furthermore, E2F transcriptional activity is altered by reduced expression of ?-tubulin or by complex formation between ?-tubulin and E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3, but not E2F6. In addition, the ?-tubulin C terminus encodes a DNA-binding domain that interacts with E2F-regulated promoters, resulting in ?-tubulin-mediated transient activation of E2Fs. Thus, we report a novel mechanism regulating the activity of E2Fs, which can help explain how these proteins affect cell cycle progression in mammalian cells.
Project description:Background:The E2F family is a group of genes encoding a series of transcription factors in higher eukaryotes and participating in the regulation of cell cycle and DNA synthesis in mammals. This study was designed to investigate the role of E2F family in colon cancer. Methods:In this study, the transcriptional levels of E2F1-8 in patients with colon cancer from GEPIA was examined. Meanwhile, the immunohistochemical data of the eight genes were also obtained in the The Human Protein Atlas website. Additionally, we re-identified the mRNA expression levels of these genes via real time PCR. Furthermore, the association between the levels of E2F family and stage plot as wells overall survival of patients with colon cancer were analyzed. Results:We found that the mRNA and protein levels of E2F1, E2F2, E3F3, E2F5, E2F7 and E2F8 were significantly higher in colon cancer tissues than in normal colon tissues while the expression levels of E2F4 and E2F6 displayed no significant difference between colon cancer tissues and normal tissues. Additionally, E2F3, E2F4, E2F7 and E2F8 were significantly associated with the stages of colon cancer. The Kaplan-Meier Plotter showed that the high levels of E2F3 conferred a worse overall survival and disease free survival of patients with colon cancer. Also, high levels of E2F4 resulted in a worse overall survival. Conclusion:Our study implied that E2F3, E2F4, E2F7 and E2F8 are potential targets of precision therapy for patients with colon cancer while E2F1, E2F2, E3F3, E2F5, E2F7 and E2F8 are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of colon cancer.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered a ubiquitous herpesvirus with the ability to cause latent infection in humans worldwide. EBV-association is evidently linked to different types of human malignancies, mainly of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Of interest is the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) which is critical for EBV-mediated immortalization. Recently, EBNA3C was shown to bind the E2F1 transcription regulator. The E2F transcription factors have crucial roles in various cellular functions, including cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell mitosis, and cell fate. Specifically, E2F6, one of the unique E2F family members, is known to be a pRb-independent transcription repressor of E2F-target genes. In our current study, we explore the role of EBNA3C in regulating E2F6 activities. We observed that EBNA3C plays an important role in inducing E2F6 expression in LCLs. Our study also shows that EBNA3C physically interacts with E2F6 at its amino and carboxy terminal domains and they form a protein complex in human cells. In addition, EBNA3C stabilizes the E2F6 protein and is co-localized in the nucleus. We also demonstrated that both EBNA3C and E2F6 contribute to reduction in E2F1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, E2F1 forms a protein complex with EBNA3C and E2F6, and EBNA3C competes with E2F1 for E2F6 binding. E2F6 is also recruited by EBNA3C to the E2F1 promoter, which is critical for EBNA3C-mediated cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical role for E2F family members in EBV-induced malignancies, and provide new insights for targeting E2F transcription factors in EBV-associated cancers as potential therapeutic intervention strategies.
Project description:The human cytochrome c(1) promoter is strongly activated in transfected Drosophila SL2 cells expressing exogenous human E2F1. Transfection-deletion experiments, DNase I protection by E2F1 and gel mobility-shift experiments locate E2F1 activation sites to two regions on either side of the transcription start site. Deletion of either region prevents E2F1 activation in transfected SL2 cells, suggesting a co-operative interaction between them. E2F6, a member of the E2F family that lacks transactivation domains but contains specific suppressor domains, inhibits cytochrome c(1) promoter activity when co-transfected into HeLa cells, indicating that the E2F proteins modulate the cytochrome c(1) promoter in mammalian cells. However, E2F is not a general regulator of oxidative phosphorylation genes since three additional nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes were unaffected by E2F1 or E2F6.
Project description:Using ChIP-chip assays (employing ENCODE arrays and core promoter arrays), we examined the binding patterns of three members of the E2F family in five cell types. We determined that most E2F1, E2F4, and E2F6 binding sites are located within 2 kb of a transcription start site, in both normal and tumor cells. In fact, the majority of promoters that are active (as defined by TAF1 or POLR2A binding) in GM06990 B lymphocytes and Ntera2 carcinoma cells were also bound by an E2F. This very close relationship between E2F binding sites and binding sites for general transcription factors in both normal and tumor cells suggests that a chromatin-bound E2F may be a signpost for active transcription initiation complexes. In general, we found that several E2Fs bind to a given promoter and that there is only modest cell type specificity of the E2F family. Thus, it is difficult to assess the role of any particular E2F in transcriptional regulation, due to extreme redundancy of target promoters. However, Ntera2 carcinoma cells were exceptional in that a large set of promoters were bound by E2F6, but not by E2F1 or E2F4. It has been proposed that E2F6 contributes to gene silencing by recruiting enzymes involved in methylating histone H3. To test this hypothesis, we created Ntera2 cell lines harboring shRNAs to E2F6. We found that reduction of E2F6 only induced minimal alteration of the transcriptome of Ntera2 transcriptome. Our results support the concept of functional redundancy in the E2F family and suggest that E2F6 is not critical for histone methylation.
Project description:Loss of the retinoblastoma protein, pRB, leads to apoptosis, and several results have suggested that this is dependent on the E2F transcription factors. However, so far, the ability of the different E2F family members to contribute to apoptosis is controversial. Here, we show that ectopic expression of E2F3 results in apoptosis in both primary mouse fibroblasts and transgenic mice. Apoptosis induced by E2F3 is associated with the accumulation of E2F1 and, strikingly, we found that E2F3-induced apoptosis is dependent on E2F1. On the basis of these results, we propose that the accumulation of crucial levels of E2F1 activity, and not total E2F activity, is essential for the induction of apoptosis in response to a deregulated pRB pathway. These results are consistent with previous findings that E2F1, but not other E2Fs, can have tumour-suppressing activities.
Project description:Various studies point to the potential role of combinatorial action of transcription factors as a mechanism to achieve the complexity of eukaryotic gene control with a finite number of regulatory proteins. Our previous work has focused on interactions involving the E2F family of transcription factors as an example of combinatorial gene control, leading to the identification of TFE3 and YY1 as transcription partners for several E2F proteins. We now show that additional E2F target genes share a common promoter architecture and are also regulated by the combined action of TFE3 and E2F3. In contrast, the thymidine kinase (TK-1) promoter is also regulated by E2F3 but independent of TFE3. Other promoters exhibit distinct specificity in the interaction with E2F proteins that includes a role for E2F1 but not E2F3, examples where both E2F1 and E2F3 are seen to interact, and promoters that are regulated by TFE3 but independent of an E2F. We propose that these examples of combinatorial interactions involving E2F proteins provide a basis for the specificity of transcription control in the Rb/E2F pathway.
Project description:The E2F family of transcription factors provides essential activities for coordinating the control of cellular proliferation and cell fate. Both E2F1 and E2F3 proteins have been shown to be particularly important for cell proliferation, whereas the E2F1 protein has the capacity to promote apoptosis. To explore the basis for this specificity of function, we used DNA microarray analysis to probe for the distinctions in the two E2F activities. Gene expression profiles that distinguish either E2F1- or E2F3-expressing cells from quiescent cells are enriched in genes encoding cell cycle and DNA replication activities, consistent with many past studies. E2F1 profile is also enriched in genes known to function in apoptosis. We also identified patterns of gene expression that specifically differentiate the activity of E2F1 and E2F3; this profile is enriched in genes known to function in mitosis. The specificity of E2F function has been attributed to protein interactions mediated by the marked box domain, and we now show that chimeric E2F proteins generate expression signatures that reflect the origin of the marked box, thus linking the biochemical mechanism for specificity of function with specificity of gene activation.
Project description:The E2F transcription factors control key elements of development, including mammary gland branching morphogenesis, with several E2Fs playing essential roles. Additional prior data has demonstrated that loss of individual E2Fs can be compensated by other E2F family members, but this has not been tested in a mammary gland developmental context. Here we have explored the role of the E2Fs and their ability to functionally compensate for each other during mammary gland development. Using gene expression from terminal end buds and chromatin immunoprecipitation data for E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3, we noted both overlapping and unique mammary development genes regulated by each of the E2Fs. Based on our computational findings and the fact that E2Fs share a common binding motif, we hypothesized that E2F transcription factors would compensate for each other during mammary development and function. To test this hypothesis, we generated RNA from E2F1-/-, E2F2-/- and E2F3+/- mouse mammary glands. QRT-PCR on mammary glands during pregnancy demonstrated increases in E2F2 and E2F3a in the E2F1-/- mice and an increase in E2F2 levels in E2F3+/- mice. During lactation we noted that E2F3b transcript levels were increased in the E2F2-/- mice. Given that E2Fs have previously been noted to have the most striking effects on development during puberty, we hypothesized that loss of individual E2Fs would be compensated for at that time. Double mutant mice were generated and compared with the single knockouts. Loss of both E2F1 and E2F2 revealed a more striking phenotype than either knockout alone, indicating that E2F2 was compensating for E2F1 loss. Interestingly, while E2F2 was not able to functionally compensate for E2F3+/- during mammary outgrowth, increased E2F2 expression was observed in E2F3+/- mammary glands during pregnancy day 14.5 and lactation day 5. Together, these findings illustrate the specificity of E2F family members to compensate during development of the mammary gland.
Project description:The E2F transcriptional activators E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3a regulate many important cellular processes, including DNA replication, apoptosis and centrosome duplication. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing E2F1 or E2F3 suppresses centrosome amplification (CA) and chromosome instability (CIN) in Her2+ breast cancer cells without markedly altering proliferation. However, it is unknown whether and how silencing a single E2F activator, E2F3, affects malignancy of human breast cancer cells. Thus, we injected HCC1954 Her2+ breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3 into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice and demonstrated that loss of E2F3 retards tumor growth. Surprisingly, silencing of E2F3 led to significant reductions in mitotic indices relative to vector controls, while the percentage of cells undergoing S phase were not affected. Nek2 is a mitotic kinase commonly upregulated in breast cancers and a critical regulator of Cdk4- or E2F-mediated CA. In this report, we found that Nek2 overexpression rescued back the CA caused by silencing of shE2F3. However, the effects of Nek2 overexpression in affecting tumor growth rates of shE2F3 and shE2F3; GFP cells were inconclusive. Taken together, our results indicate that E2F3 silencing decreases mammary tumor growth by reducing percentage of cells undergoing mitosis.