The effect of ketorolac and dexamethasone on the incidence of sore throat in women after thyroidectomy: a prospective double-blinded randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of two drugs with anti-inflammatory action, dexamethasone and ketorolac, on reduction of postoperative sore throat (POST) after general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.One hundred and ninety-two female patients scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation for thyroidectomy were enrolled in this prospective study. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intravenous medication; placebo (Group C, n = 45), ketorolac 30 mg immediately before intubation (Group Kpre, n = 47), ketorolac 30 mg at the end of surgery (Group Kpost, n = 45) and dexamethasone 10 mg (Group D, n = 43). The incidence and severity of POST and hoarseness were evaluated at 1, 6 and 24 hours after surgery.Incidences and severities of POST at rest and during swallowing in first 6 hours after extubation were comparable among 4 groups. At 24 hours postextubation, the incidence (P = 0.002, 95% CI of proportion differences; 0.05-0.39) and severity (P = 0.008) of POST during swallowing were significantly lower in group D than in group C. Kpre and Kpost groups did not show a greater reduction in POST than group C, despite lower rescue analgesic requirement at 1 hour after extubation in group Kpre (P = 0.006; 95% CI of proportion differences; 0.07-0.38). No intergroup differences were observed in incidences of hoarseness or adverse events.Intravenous administration of dexamethasone 10 mg, but not ketorolac, before induction of anesthesia reduces the incidence and severity of POST during swallowing at 24 hours after thyroidectomy.
Project description:Background/Aims:An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone for tracheal intubation of general anesthesia on postoperative sore throat (POST). Methods:Comprehensive literature search of databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, which evaluate the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone on POST was conducted. RevMan 5.0 and STATA 12.0 software were used to perform meta-analyses. Results:Fourteen RCTs totaling 1,837 patients were included for analysis. Compared with placebo, a significant reduction in the incidence of POST (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.58, P<0.00001), hoarseness (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31-0.58, P<0.00001), and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.03-0.14, P<0.00001) and a comparable incidence of cough (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.19-1.89, P=0.38) was described in patients receiving dexamethasone, with or without concomitant drugs. Dexamethasone ?0.2 mg/kg had a statistically greater impact on reducing the incidence of POST than dexamethasone 0.1-0.2 mg/kg, while dexamethasone ?0.1 mg/kg did not. Dexamethasone was as effective as other drugs such as ondansetron, magnesium sulfate, ketamine gargle, betamethasone gel, and ketorolac for reducing POST (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.46-1.07, P=0.10). Dexamethasone plus a different drug was more effective than dexamethasone alone for reducing the incidence of POST at 24 hours (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.77, P=0.006). Compared with controls, a statistically higher blood glucose level was the only adverse event during the immediate postoperative period in patients receiving dexamethasone. Conclusions:Intravenous dexamethasone ?0.2 mg/kg within 30 minutes before or after induction of general anesthesia should be recommended as grade 1A evidence with safety and efficacy in reducing the incidence of POST, hoarseness, and PONV in patients without pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, or contraindications for corticosteroids.
Project description:Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a frequent complication of tracheal intubation, particularly after surgery in the prone position. We designed this study to validate the non-inferiority of magnesium sulphate against dexamethasone for prevention of POST after lumbar spinal surgery.One hundred and forty-six patients were randomly allocated to receive either magnesium or dexamethasone. Before anesthetic induction, the magnesium group (n = 73) received magnesium sulphate 30 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg/h by continuous infusion until the end of surgery. The dexamethasone group (n = 73) received dexamethasone 8 mg. The primary endpoint was the overall incidence of POST, which was assessed serially over 48 hr postoperatively. The predefined margin of non-inferiority for magnesium against dexamethasone was 15%.Overall incidences of POST at rest (50.7% versus 49.3% in the magnesium and dexamethasone group, respectively, p = 0.869) and swallowing (65.8% versus 61.6% in the magnesium and dexamethasone group, respectively, p = 0.606) were not different between the groups. The upper limit of the 90% confidence interval, which must be lower than the predefined margin of non-inferiority to prove the non-inferiority of magnesium sulphate against dexamethasone, for at rest and swallowing were 14.97% (p = 0.0496) and 17.19% (p = 0.0854), respectively. The incidences and severities of POST and hoarseness were also not different between the groups throughout the study period.Prophylactic magnesium sulphate appears to be non-inferior to dexamethasone for the prevention of POST at rest in patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery in the prone position.
Project description:Postoperative sore throat (POST) following general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is a common complication. We hypothesized that lidocaine jelly applied to the tapered cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) might decrease the incidence of POST most commonly arising from endotracheal intubation.A total of 208 patients under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups. In the lidocaine group (n?=?104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with lidocaine jelly. In the control group (n?=?104), the distal part of ETTs with tapered-shaped cuff was lubricated with normal saline. The incidence of POST, hoarseness, and cough in the postanesthesia patients was compared.The overall incidence of POST was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [60 (58%) vs 40 (39%), P?=?.006]. The incidence of POST at 1?hour postoperatively was higher in the lidocaine group than in the normal saline group [53 (51%) vs 32 (31%), P?=?.003]. The overall incidence of hoarseness for 24?hours postoperatively was comparable (P?=?.487). The overall incidence of cough for 24?hours postoperatively is higher in the lidocaine group (P?=?.045).The lidocaine jelly applied at the distal part of ETT with tapered-shaped cuff increased the overall incidence of POST in patients undergoing general anesthesia.
Project description:Background:Non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery can be performed under sedation using adjuvant regional anesthesia, however, the benefits of non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery under sedation have not yet been completely verified. In this study, we compare the perioperative safety and pain complaints of sedation without intubation in thoracoscopic bullectomy with that of conventional general anesthesia with double-lumen intubation and mechanical ventilation. Methods:Forty-one patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax who were scheduled for thoracoscopic bullectomy were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one patients were under sedation anesthesia (SA group) and 20 patients were under general anesthesia (GA group). In SA group, sedation was done with dexmedetomidine (a loading dose of 1 µg/kg for 10 min and then maintained in dosages of 0.3-1 µg/kg/h) and ketamine (2-4 mg/kg/h intraoperatively). Meanwhile, in GA group, induction with propofol and rocuronium, intubation with double lumen endotracheal tube and maintenance with 1.0-2.5% sevoflurane was done. In both groups, thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed in the same manner and all operations were conducted by single surgeon. Time for anesthesia [including emergence time and post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) recovery time] and operation, postoperative pain, sore throat, hoarseness, adverse events (nausea, vomiting, hypotension and bradycardia), dose of rescue analgesic drug used for 24 hours post-operatively and perioperative arterial blood gas analysis were recorded. Results:The times for anesthesia, operation and emergence were significantly shorter in SA than GA. Incidence of sore throat were significantly lower in SA. The difference of other adverse events in the two groups was not significant. Conclusions:Our study demonstrated that compared to double-lumen intubation with general anesthesia, non-intubation with sedation for bullectomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax was safe and efficient to reduce perioperative time.
Project description:Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray) or group D (treated with distilled water spray). Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20?cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24?h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p < 0.001) and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p < 0.001). Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.
Project description:Post-operative airway symptoms can be troublesome to patients following an uneventful general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of lubricating an endotracheal tube with betamethasone gel or lidocaine jelly with using an unlubricated tube in reducing the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and cough.This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative study carried out among 120 ASA I and II patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 40 patients each. Endotracheal tube used for patients in group C was unlubricated, while that for group B and group L were lubricated up to 15 cm mark with 2.5 ml of 0.05% betamethasone gel or 2% lidocaine jelly respectively. Incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness and cough were observed at 1, 6 and 24 h following extubation.At 24 h following extubation, group B had the lowest incidence of postoperative sore throat among the three groups (group B: 12.5% vs group L: 37.5% vs group C: 25%; p = 0.036). Severity of postoperative sore throat at 24 h was less with betamethasone (score 0: 87.5%, 1: 10%) compared with lidocaine (score 0: 62.5%, 1: 37.5%) and control (score 0:75%, 1: 20%) (p = 0.006). Observations at other times and of other variables were comparable.Wide spread application of 0.05% betamethasone gel to lubricate the endotracheal tube significantly reduces the incidence and severity of sore throat at 24 h of extubation but not of hoarseness or cough.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study investigated interscalene block for shoulder arthroplasty with various ropivacaine concentrations in the presence of clonidine, dexamethasone, and buprenorphine. The goal was prolonged analgesia with minimal motor blockade. DESIGN:Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. SETTING:University-affiliated orthopedic hospital. METHODS:Patients (20/group) received acetaminophen, ketorolac, pregabalin, opioids, and "Control"; interscalene block, 0.375% ropivacaine, intravenous additives (buprenorphine, clonidine, dexamethasone); "High Dose"; 0.375% ropivacaine, perineural additives; "Medium Dose"; 0.2% ropivacaine, perineural additives; and "Low Dose"; 0.1% ropivacaine, perineural additives. RESULTS:Pain with movement at 24 hours was 4.9?±?2.5 (mean?±?standard deviation [SD]) (Control), 4.5?±?3.0 (High Dose), 3.4?±?1.8 (Medium Dose), 4.2?±?2.4 (Low Dose). The difference between Medium Dose and Control was?-1.5 (95% CI:?-2.9,?-0.1) (P?=?0.040). Median time until need for opioids was 16.1 hours (Control) vs 23.7 hours (High Dose); hazard ratio 0.37 [95% CI: 0.17, 0.79]. High Dose had less pain with movement the morning after surgery, vs Control; 2.9?±?2.5 vs 4.9?±?2.7; P?=?0.027. Pain with movement in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit was higher in Low Dose, vs Control; 0.9?±?1.4 vs 0?±?0, P?=?0.009. Low Dose had superior hand strength in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (mean?±?SD of pre-operative strength: 44.0?± 20.3%) compared to Control (27.5?±?24.5%) (P?=?0.031). CONCLUSIONS:For maximum pain reduction, combining perineural additives with ropivacaine 0.375% or 0.2% is suggested. To minimize motor blockade, perineural additives can be combined with ropivacaine, 0.1%.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative hoarseness after general anesthesia is associated with patient discomfort and dissatisfaction. A recent large retrospective study showed that single-lumen endotracheal tube intubation by a trainee did not alter the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal symptoms compared with intubation by a senior anesthesiologist. However, there is limited information about the relationship between the anesthesiologist's experience and hoarseness after double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation. We tested the hypothesis that double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation performed by a trainee increases the incidence of postoperative hoarseness compared to intubation by a senior anesthesiologist. METHODS:This retrospective observational study included patients who underwent lung resection between April 2015 and March 2018 at a university hospital. Double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation was carried out with a Macintosh laryngoscope. We divided the patients into 2 groups - one group comprised of patients who were intubated by a trainee anesthesiologist with <?2?years of experience, and the other group comprised of those who underwent intubation by a senior anesthesiologist with ?2?years of experience. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative hoarseness 24?h after surgery and we collected data on postoperative hoarseness using a checklist of postanesthetic adverse events. One-to-one propensity score matching was conducted and P values <?0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There was a total of 256 eligible patients, of which 153 underwent intubation by trainee anesthesiologists, and the remaining 103 patients were intubated by a senior anesthesiologist. The one-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 96 pairs of patients for the groups. The incidence of postoperative hoarseness 24?h after surgery was significantly higher in patients who were intubated by a trainee anesthesiologist than in patients who were intubated by a senior anesthesiologist (9.4% vs. 2.1%, respectively; P?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Double-lumen endotracheal tube intubation by trainee anesthesiologists with <?2?years of experience increased the incidence of postoperative hoarseness 24?h after surgery compared to intubation by senior anesthesiologists with ?2?years of experience.
Project description:Positional change affects the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in treacheally intubated patients. We compared the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard ETT and a cylindrical ETT after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery.Fifty-two patients aged 18-70 years underwent a tympanomastoidectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive endotracheal intubation with cylindrical (group C, n = 26) or TaperGuard ETTs (group T, n = 26). After endotracheal intubation, the ETT cuff pressure was set at 22 cmH2O in the neutral position of head. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure was measured again and readjusted to 22 cmH2O. In addition, the change of distance from the carina to the tip of the ETT was measured before and after the positional change. The incidence of cough, sore throat, and hoarseness was assessed at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery.There was no difference in demographic data between groups. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure significantly increased in group T (11.9 ± 2.3 cmH2O) compared with group C (6.0 ± 1.9 cmH2O) (P < 0.001). The incidence of a cuff pressure >30 cmH2O was higher in group T (96.2%) than in group C (30.8%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the degree of displacement of an ETT was greater in group T (11.0 ± 1.7 mm) than in group C (7.2 ± 2.6 mm) (P < 0.001). The overall incidences of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness, and cough at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery were comparable between two groups.The cuff pressure was higher in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT after positional change of head from neutral to lateral rotation. In addition, after a positional change, the extent of displacement of ETT was greater in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT.
Project description:This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of ketorolac with local anesthesia compared to local anesthesia alone for perioperative pain control in day care retinal detachment surgery. The randomized controlled trial included 59 eyes of 59 participants for retinal detachment surgery who were randomly assigned (1 : 1) into the ketorolac (K) group and control (C) group. All participants underwent conventional local anesthesia while patients in the K group received an extra administration of preoperative ketorolac. Participants in the K group had a statistically significantly lower intraoperative NRS score (median 1.0 versus 3.0, P = 0.003), lower postoperative NRS score (median 0 versus 1.0, P = 0.035), fewer proportion of rescue analgesic requirement (10% versus 34.5%, P = 0.023), and lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (13.3% versus 41.4%, P = 0.015) compared to the C group. Intraocular pressure (IOP) changes (△IOP) were significantly reduced in the K group (median 1.9 versus 3.0, P = 0.038) compared to the C group 24 hours postoperatively. In conclusion, the combination of local anesthesia with ketorolac provides better pain control in retinal detachment surgery compared to local anesthesia alone. The beneficial effect of ketorolac with local anesthesia may contribute to a wider-spread adoption of day care retinal detachment surgery. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02729285.