Identification of Proteins Interacting with Cytoplasmic High-Mobility Group Box 1 during the Hepatocellular Response to Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.
ABSTRACT: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs inevitably in liver transplantations and frequently during major resections, and can lead to liver dysfunction as well as systemic disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a pathogenic role in hepatic IRI. In the normal liver, HMGB1 is located in the nucleus of hepatocytes; after ischemia reperfusion, it translocates to the cytoplasm and it is further released to the extracellular space. Unlike the well-explored functions of nuclear and extracellular HMGB1, the role of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in hepatic IRI remains elusive. We hypothesized that cytoplasmic HMGB1 interacts with binding proteins involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI. In this study, binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic IRI were identified. Liver tissues from rats with warm ischemia reperfusion (WI/R) injury and from normal rats were subjected to cytoplasmic protein extraction. Co-immunoprecipitation using these protein extracts was performed to enrich HMGB1-protein complexes. To separate and identify the immunoprecipitated proteins in eluates, 2-dimensional electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry detection were performed. Two of the identified proteins were verified using Western blotting: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). Therefore, our results revealed the binding of HMGB1 to BHMT and CTH in cytoplasm during hepatic WI/R. This finding may help to better understand the cellular response to IRI in the liver and to identify novel molecular targets for reducing ischemic injury.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs in liver transplantations and major resections and can lead to liver dysfunction. HMGB1 locates in nucleus of normal hepatocytes, but translocates to cytoplasm and the extracellular space during IRI. Although the functions of nuclear and extracellular HMGB1 are well explored, the role cytoplasmic HMGB1 plays in hepatic IRI is still unknown. We hypothesize cytoplasmic HMGB1 interacts with binding proteins involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI. In this study binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic IRI were identified. Normal and warm ischemia reperfusion (WI/R) liver tissues were used for cytoplasmic protein extraction. The protein extracts were subjected to co-immunoprecipitation to enrich HMGB1-protein complexes. To identify the immunoprecipitated proteins in eluates, 2DE and subsequent MS detection were performed. Three identified proteins were verified using western blotting: betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT), cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) and ATP synthase beta subunit (ATP5B). All three identified proteins have a role in metabolic pathways and autophagy. Our results demonstrate cytoplasmic HMGB1 binds to BHMT, CTH and ATP5B during hepatic WI/R. Since both, cytoplasmic HMGB1 and binding proteins, are involved in autophagy, we speculate this protein complex may be involved in the hepatocellular response to IRI via the autophagy pathway.
Project description:Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), an adaptor protein for inflammasome receptors, is essential for inducing caspase-1 activation and the consequent secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), which is associated with local inflammation during liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? axis exerts its function in hepatic IRI. This study was designed to explore the functional roles and molecular mechanisms of ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? signaling in the regulation of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. With a partial lobar liver warm ischemia (90 minutes) model, ASC-deficient and wild-type mice (C57BL/6) were sacrificed at 6 hours of reperfusion. Separate animal cohorts were treated with an anti-IL-1? antibody or control immunoglobulin G (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally). We found that ASC deficiency inhibited caspase-1/IL-1? signaling and led to protection against liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage, local enhancement of antiapoptotic functions, and down-regulation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-driven inflammation. Interestingly, the treatment of ASC-deficient mice with recombinant HMGB1 re-created liver IRI. Moreover, neutralization of IL-1? ameliorated the hepatocellular damage by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)/cyclooxygenase 2 signaling in IR-stressed livers. In parallel in vitro studies, the knockout of ASC in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages depressed HMGB1 activity via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and led to the inhibition of TLR4/NF-?B and ultimately the depression of proinflammatory cytokine programs.ASC-mediated caspase-1/IL-1? signaling promotes HMGB1 to produce a TLR4-dependent inflammatory phenotype and leads to hepatocellular injury. Hence, ASC/caspase-1/IL-1? signaling mediates the inflammatory response by triggering HMGB1 induction in hepatic IRI. Our findings provide a rationale for a novel therapeutic strategy for managing liver injury due to IR.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical event with high morbidity in patients undergoing complex liver surgery or having abdominal trauma. Inflammatory and oxidative stress responses are the main contributing factors in liver IRI. The iridoid glucoside aucubin (AU) has good anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects; however, there are no relevant reports on the protective effect of glucosides on hepatic IRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AU pretreatment could prevent liver IRI and to explore the mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The sham operation and IRI control groups were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline, while the AU low-dose (AU-L) group, AU medium-dose (AU-M) group, and AU high-dose (AU-H) group were given intraperitoneal injections of AU at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 10 d, liver IRI (70% liver ischemia for 1 h, reperfusion for 6 h) was surgically established in all groups except the sham group. Our results confirmed that liver injury was significantly aggravated after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. AU alleviated the increase of transaminase and pathological changes induced by ischemia-reperfusion and improved liver damage. AU could also ameliorate the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses induced by ischemia-reperfusion and reduced expression of high mobility group protein (HMG)B1, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, AU reduced ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cells apoptosis, increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator (PGC)-1? and uncoupling (UCP)2 protein expression, and reduced caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP) expression. To determine expression levels of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway-related proteins in vitro and in vivo, we also measured TLR-4, myeloid differentiation factor88 (MyD88), NF-?B P65, p-P65, I-kappa-B-alpha (I?B-?), and p-I?B-? levels. The results showed that AU effectively inhibited activation of the TLR-4/NF-?B signaling pathway. In conclusion, we showed for the first time a hepatoprotective effect for AU in liver IRI, which acted by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR-4/NF-?B signaling pathway, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Pretreatment with AU may be a promising strategy for preventing liver IRI.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver resection and transplantation. Here, we analyzed the impact of recombinant human augmenter of liver regeneration (rALR), an anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic protein, on the deleterious process induced by ischemia reperfusion (IR). Application of rALR reduced tissue damage (necrosis), levels of lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress) and expression of anti-oxidative genes in a mouse IRI model. Damage associated molecule pattern (DAMP) and inflammatory cytokines such as HMGB1 and TNF?, were not affected by rALR. Furthermore, we evaluated infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue after IRI and found no change in CD3 or ??TCR positive cells, or expression of IL17/IFN? by ??TCR cells. The quantity of Gr-1 positive cells (neutrophils), and therefore, myeloperoxidase activity, was lower in rALR-treated mice. Moreover, we found under hypoxic conditions attenuated ROS levels after ALR treatment in RAW264.7 cells and in primary mouse hepatocytes. Application of rALR also led to reduced expression of chemo-attractants like CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCl2 in hepatocytes. In addition, ALR expression was increased in IR mouse livers after 3 h and in biopsies from human liver transplants with minimal signs of tissue damage. Therefore, ALR attenuates IRI through reduced neutrophil tissue infiltration mediated by lower expression of key hepatic chemokines and reduction of ROS generation.
Project description:Although CEACAM1 (CC1) glycoprotein resides at the interface of immune liver injury and metabolic homeostasis, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether/how CEACAM1 signaling may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. In the mouse, donor liver CC1 null mutation augmented IRI-OLT (CC1-KO?WT) by enhancing ROS expression and HMGB1 translocation during cold storage, data supported by in vitro studies where hepatic flush from CC1-deficient livers enhanced macrophage activation in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures. Although hepatic CC1 deficiency augmented cold stress-triggered ASK1/p-p38 upregulation, adjunctive ASK1 inhibition alleviated IRI and improved OLT survival by suppressing p-p38 upregulation, ROS induction, and HMGB1 translocation (CC1-KO?WT), whereas ASK1 silencing (siRNA) promoted cytoprotection in cold-stressed and damage-prone CC1-deficient hepatocyte cultures. Consistent with mouse data, CEACAM1 expression in 60 human donor liver biopsies correlated negatively with activation of the ASK1/p-p38 axis, whereas low CC1 levels associated with increased ROS and HMGB1 translocation, enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses, and inferior early OLT function. Notably, reduced donor liver CEACAM1 expression was identified as one of the independent predictors for early allograft dysfunction (EAD) in human OLT patients. Thus, as a checkpoint regulator of IR stress and sterile inflammation, CEACAM1 may be considered as a denominator of donor hepatic tissue quality, and a target for therapeutic modulation in OLT recipients.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to act protectively during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the role of the endogenous H2S in acute kidney injury (AKI) is largely unclear. Here, we analyzed the role of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH) in acute renal IRI using CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice whose renal H2S levels were approximately 50% of control (wild-type) mice. Although levels of serum creatinine and renal expression of AKI marker proteins were equivalent between Cth(-/-) and control mice, histological analysis revealed that IRI caused less renal tubular damage in Cth(-/-) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that renal population of infiltrated granulocytes/macrophages was equivalent in these mice. However, renal expression levels of certain inflammatory cytokines/adhesion molecules believed to play a role in IRI were found to be lower after IRI only in Cth(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that the systemic CTH loss does not deteriorate but rather ameliorates the immediate AKI outcome probably due to reduced inflammatory responses in the kidney. The renal expression of CTH and other H2S-producing enzymes was markedly suppressed after IRI, which could be an integrated adaptive response for renal cell protection.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major factor influencing graft outcome in liver transplantation, but its mechanism is not well defined. Although complement, including the membrane attack complex (MAC), a terminal product of complement activation, is thought to be involved in the multiple reactions subsequent to the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) process, the role of MAC in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI requires further investigation. We used a warm ischemia-reperfusion injury model in mice and a syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation model in rats to define the role of complement, including MAC, in hepatic IR. CD59-deficient mice had more severe liver dysfunction, evidenced by increased aspartate aminotransferase levels and increased injury of liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells than did CD59-sufficient mice during warm hepatic IR. Furthermore, complement depletion in CD59-deficient mice by pretreatment with cobra venom factor (CVF) or the genetic introduction of C3 deficiency partially protected against development of the severe liver dysfunction that occurred in CD59-deficient mice. Severity of liver dysfunction correlated with MAC deposition, apoptotic cells, and increased inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor ?. Moreover, depletion of complement with CVF in orthotopic liver transplantation recipient rats attenuated IRI of the donor livers. Taken together, these results highlight the protective role of CD59 and pathogenic role of complement, including MAC, in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication of hemorrhagic shock, liver resection and transplantation. YAP, a key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is essential for determining cell fate and maintaining homeostasis in the liver. We aimed to elucidate its role in IRI. METHODS:The role of YAP/Hippo signaling was systematically studied in biopsy specimens from 60 patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in a mouse model of liver warm IRI. Human biopsy specimens were collected after 2-10?h of cold storage and 3?h post-reperfusion, before being screened by western blot. In the mouse model, the role of YAP was probed by activating or inhibiting YAP prior to ischemia-reperfusion. RESULTS:In human biopsies, high post-OLT YAP expression was correlated with well-preserved histology and improved hepatocellular function at postoperative day 1-7. In mice, the ischemia insult (90?min) triggered intrinsic hepatic YAP expression, which peaked at 1-6?h of reperfusion. Activation of YAP protected the liver against IR-stress, by promoting regenerative and anti-oxidative gene induction, while diminishing oxidative stress, necrosis/apoptosis and the innate inflammatory response. Inhibition of YAP aggravated hepatic IRI and suppressed repair/anti-oxidative genes. In mouse hepatocyte cultures, activating YAP prevented hypoxia-reoxygenation induced stress. Interestingly, YAP activation suppressed extracellular matrix synthesis and diminished hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, whereas YAP inhibition significantly delayed hepatic repair, potentiated HSC activation, and enhanced liver fibrosis at 7?days post-IRI. Notably, YAP activation failed to protect Nrf2-deficient livers against IR-mediated damage, leading to extensive fibrosis. CONCLUSION:Our novel findings document the crucial role of YAP in IR-mediated hepatocellular damage and liver fibrogenesis, providing evidence of a potential therapeutic target for the management of sterile liver inflammation in transplant recipients. LAY SUMMARY:In the clinical arm, graft YAP expression negatively correlated with liver function and tissue damage after human liver transplantation. YAP activation attenuated hepatocellular oxidative stress and diminished the innate immune response in mouse livers following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the mouse model, YAP inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation, and abolished injury-mediated fibrogenesis up to 7?days after the ischemic insult.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA), play critical roles in mediating ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). HMGB1 activates RAGE to exacerbate IRI, but the mechanism underlying cfDNA-induced myocardial IRI remains unknown. We hypothesized that the infarct-exacerbating effect of cfDNA is mediated by HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). METHODS:C57BL/6 wild type mice, RAGE knockout (KO), and Toll-like receptor 9 KO mice underwent 20- or 40-minute occlusions of the left coronary artery followed by up to 60 minutes of reperfusion. Cardiac coronary perfusate was acquired from ischemic hearts without reperfusion. Exogenous mitochondrial DNA was acquired from livers of normal C57BL/6 mice. Myocardial infarct size (IS) was reported as percent risk region, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Phthalo blue (Heucotech, Fairless Hill, Pa) staining. cfDNA levels were measured by Sytox Green assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Mass) and/or spectrophotometer. RESULTS:Free HMGB1 and cfDNA levels were increased in the ischemic myocardium during prolonged ischemia and subsequently in the plasma during reperfusion. In C57BL/6 mice undergoing 40'/60' IRI, deoxyribonuclease I, or anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody reduced IS by approximately half to 29.0% ± 5.2% and 24.3% ± 3.5% (P < .05 vs control 54.3% ± 3.4%). However, combined treatment with deoxyribonuclease I + anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody did not further attenuate IS (29.3% ± 4.9%). In C57BL/6 mice undergoing 20'/60' IRI, injection of 40'/5' plasma upon reperfusion increased IS by more than 3-fold (to 19.9 ± 4.3; P < .05). This IS exacerbation was abolished by pretreating the plasma with deoxyribonuclease I or by depleting the HMGB1 by immunoprecipitation, or by splenectomy. The infarct-exacerbating effect also disappeared in RAGE KO mice and Toll-like receptor 9 KO mice. Injection of 40'/0' coronary perfusate upon reperfusion similarly increased IS. The levels of HMGB1 and cfDNA were significantly elevated in the 40'/0' coronary perfusate and 40'/reperfusion (min) plasma but not in those with 10' ischemia. In C57BL/6 mice without IRI, 40'/5' plasma significantly increased the interleukin-1? protein and messenger RNA expression in the spleen by 30 minutes after injection. Intravenous bolus injection of recombinant HMGB1 (0.1 ?g/g) or mitochondrial DNA (0.5 ?g/g) 5 minutes before reperfusion did not exacerbate IS (P = not significant vs control). However, combined administration of recombinant HMGB1 + mitochondrial DNA significantly increased IS (P < .05 vs individual treated groups) and this infarct-exacerbating effect disappeared in RAGE KO mice and splenectomized C57BL/6 mice. The accumulation of cfDNA in the spleen after combined recombinant HMGB1 + mitochondrial DNA treatment was significantly more elevated in C57BL/6 mice than in RAGE KO mice. CONCLUSIONS:Both HMGB1 and cfDNA are released from the heart upon reperfusion after prolonged ischemia and both contribute importantly and interdependently to post-IRI by a common RAGE-Toll-like receptor 9-dependent mechanism. Depleting either of these 2 damage-associated molecular patterns suffices to significantly reduce IS by approximately 50%.
Project description:Inflammation and oxidative stress are pivotal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may participate in maintaining oxidative homeostasis and response to external stimulus or injury. We investigated whether the in vivo VNS can protect the liver from IRI. In this study, hepatic IRI were induced by ligating the vessels supplying the left and middle lobes of the liver, which underwent 1?h occlusion followed with 24?h reperfusion. VNS was initiated 15?min after ischemia and continued 30?min. Hepatic function, histology, and apoptosis rates were evaluated after 24?h reperfusion. Compared with the IRI group, VNS significantly improved hepatic function. The protective effect was accompanied by a reduction in histological damage in the ischemic area, and the apoptosis rate of hepatocytes has considerable reduction. To find the underlying mechanism, proteomic analysis was performed and differential expression of glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed. Subsequently, test results indicated that VNS upregulated the expression of mRNA and protein of GSS and GST. Meanwhile, VNS increased the plasma levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidases. We found that VNS alleviated hepatic IRI by upregulating the antioxidant glutathione via the GSS/glutathione/GST signaling pathway.