Ovarian function after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a descriptive study following the use of GnRH agonists for myeloablative conditioning and observation only for reduced-intensity conditioning.
ABSTRACT: Gonadal failure is a health and quality-of-life concern in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) survivors. While ovarian dysfunction is nearly universal following myeloablative (MA) conditioning, the risk is unclear after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists decrease ovarian failure rates following conventional chemotherapy, but little is known about its effectiveness with HCT. We investigated the impact of leuprolide on ovarian function after MA conditioning and monitored ovarian function after RIC in this descriptive pilot study. Post-menarchal females <50 years undergoing HCT with adequate baseline ovarian function (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level <40 mIU/mL and normal menstruation) were eligible. Prior to MA conditioning, leuprolide was administered. Those undergoing RIC were observed. FSH was measured at various time points. Seventeen women aged 12-45 years were evaluated (7 in the intervention group and 10 in the observation group). Compared to the historical high rate of ovarian failure after MA conditioning, 3 of 7 evaluable Lupron recipients had ovarian failure at a median of 703 days post transplant. Ovarian failure occurred in 1 of 10 recipients of RIC at a median follow-up of 901 days. In conclusion, leuprolide may protect ovarian function after MA conditioning. Additionally, RIC with cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and low-dose TBI has a low risk of ovarian failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Total body irradiation (TBI) is a common component of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) conditioning regimens. Preclinical studies suggest prolonged bone marrow (BM) injury after TBI could contribute to impaired engraftment and poor hematopoietic function. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied the longitudinal changes in the marrow environment in patients receiving allogeneic HCT with myeloablative (MA, n=42) and reduced intensity (RIC, n=56) doses of TBI from 2003-2013, including BM cellularity, histologic features of injury and repair, hematologic and immunologic recovery. RESULTS:Following MA conditioning, a 30% decrease in the marrow cellularity persisted at 1 year post-transplant (p=0.03). RIC HCT marrow cellularity transiently decreased but returned to baseline by 6 months even though the RIC group received mostly umbilical cord blood (UCB) grafts (82%, vs. 17% in the MA cohort, p<0.01). There was no evidence of persistent marrow vascular damage or inflammation. Recipients of more intensive conditioning did not show more persistent cytopenias with the exception of a tendency for minimal thrombocytopenia. Immune recovery was similar between MA and RIC. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that TBI associated with MA conditioning leads to prolonged reductions in marrow cellularity, but does not show additional histological evidence of long-term injury, which is further supported by similar peripheral counts and immunologic recovery.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Optimal conditioning intensity for allo-HCT for CML in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database, we sought to determine whether reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC) allo-HCT and myeloablative conditioning (MAC) result in similar outcomes in CML patients. We evaluated 1395 CML allo-HCT recipients between the ages of 18 and 60 years. The disease status at transplant was divided into the following categories: chronic phase 1, chronic phase 2 or greater, and accelerated phase. Patients in blast phase at transplant and alternative donor transplants were excluded. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) after allo-HCT. MAC (n = 1204) and RIC allo-HCT recipients (n = 191) from 2007 to 2014 were included. Patient, disease, and transplantation characteristics were similar, with a few exceptions. Multivariable analysis showed no significant difference in OS between MAC and RIC groups. In addition, leukemia-free survival and nonrelapse mortality did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Compared with MAC, the RIC group had a higher risk of early relapse after allo-HCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; <i>P</i> = .001). The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was lower with RIC than with MAC (HR, 0.77; <i>P</i> = .02). RIC provides similar survival and lower cGVHD compared with MAC and therefore may be a reasonable alternative to MAC for CML patients in the TKI era.
Project description:The Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and 2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was recently approved in Japan and has been effective in many patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Although the inhibitor decreases splenomegaly and relieves MF-related symptoms, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains as the only curative therapy for MF. The presence of splenomegaly has been reported as a risk factor for graft failure, delayed engraftment, and poor survival. Here, we report two elderly MF patients with massive splenomegaly and a JAK2 V617F mutation. These patients underwent splenic irradiation to decrease splenomegaly prior to HCT with a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. Massive splenomegaly gradually decreased by 4?Gy splenic irradiation. The subsequent RIC regimen involved 4?Gy total body irradiation and fludarabine and intravenous busulfan. In both patients, engraftment failure did not occur, and complete remission was achieved. The splenomegaly decreased, and MF-related symptoms were resolved. Furthermore, the JAK2 V617F mutation disappeared, and fibrosis in the bone marrow regressed. We suggest that splenic irradiation prior to the RIC regimen for HCT in elderly MF patients with massive splenomegaly is safe. Furthermore, the HCT protocols with splenic irradiation should be considered for patients who have not shown clinical benefits to optimal medical management such as treatment with ruxolitinib.
Project description:Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is increasingly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) for older and medically unfit patients. Data on the efficacy of HCT after RIC relative to myeloablative conditioning (MAC) are limited. We compared the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients >18 yrs who received UCB grafts after either RIC or MAC. One hundred nineteen adult patients with AML in complete remission (CR) underwent an UCB transplant after RIC (n =74, 62%) or MAC (n = 45, 38%) between January 2001 and December 2009. Conditioning was either reduced intensity and consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 200 mg/m(2), and total-body irradiation (TBI) 200 cGy or myelablative and consisted for cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, fludarabine 75 mg/m(2), and TBI 1200-1320 cGy. All patients received cyclosporine (day -3 to day +180) and mycophenolate mofetil (day -3 to day +45) post-HCT immunosuppression and hematopoietic growth factor. Use of RIC was reserved for patients >45 years (n = 66, 89%) or preexisting severe comorbidities (n = 8, 11%). The 2 groups were similar except for preceding myelodysplastic syndrome (RIC = 28% versus MAC = 4%, P < .01) and age that was dictated by the treatment protocols (median, RIC = 55 years versus MAC = 33years; P < .01). The incidence of neutrophil recovery at day +42 was higher with RIC (94% versus MAC = 82%, P < .1), whereas platelet recovery at the sixth month was similar (RIC = 68% versus MAC = 67%, P = .30). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (RIC = 47% versus MAC = 67%, P < .01) was decreased with similar incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (RIC = 30% versus MAC = 34%, P = .43). Median follow-up for survivors was 3.8 and 4.5 years for RIC and MAC, respectively (P = .4). Using RIC, 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased (31% versus MAC = 55%, P = .02) and 3-year relapse incidence was increased (43% versus MAC = 9%, P < .01). Two-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) was similar (RIC = 19% versus MAC = 27%; P = .55). In multivariate analysis, RIC recipients and those in CR2 with CR1 duration <1 year had higher risk of relapse and poorer LFS with no independent predictors of TRM. UCB with RIC extends the use of allogeneic HCT for older and frail patients without excessive TRM with greater benefit for patients in CR1 and CR2 with longer CR1.
Project description:Iatrogenic menopause with consequent infertility is a major complication in reproductive-age women undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Recent guidelines recommend a discussion of the possibility of infertility and the options for fertility preservation as part of informed consent before initiation of any cancer-directed therapy, including HCT. Women age 15 to 49 years at the time of allogeneic HCT, between the years 2001 and 2017, were identified from the Mayo Clinic Rochester institutional HCT database. One hundred seventy-seven women were eligible, of whom 49 (28%) were excluded due to documented postmenopausal state or prior hysterectomy. The median age of the cohort was 31 years (range, 15 to 49 years) with median gravidity and parity being G1P1 (range, G0 to G8, P0 to P6). Fifty-four (42%) women were nulligravid at the time of HCT. Eighty-two percent underwent myeloablative conditioning (MAC), whereas 18% underwent reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Only 34 women (27%) had documented fertility counseling within 72 hours of diagnosis, and a total of 61 (48%) received fertility counseling prior to HCT. Thirty-eight women (30%) were referred to a reproductive endocrinologist, of whom 13 (10%) underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART; nine oocyte cryopreservation, four embryo cryopreservation). Of these, nine procedures yielded successful cryopreserved tissue (two completed at outside institutions). The median time to completion of the seven successful ART procedures at Mayo Clinic was 13 days (range, 9 to 15 days). The remainder of women referred to reproductive endocrinology did not undergo ART due to disease severity (68%), financial barriers (20%), and/or low antral follicle count (12%). Ninety-three women (73%) received leuprolide for ovarian suppression prior to conditioning. Three (4%) of 75 women who underwent MAC and were alive >365 days after HCT had spontaneous menstrual recovery after HCT (median time, 14 months; range, 6 to 21 months), in comparison to 10 (50%) of 20 women who underwent RIC and were alive >365 days after HCT (P < .01) (median, 21.5 months; range, 5 to 83 months). In the latter cohort, there were two spontaneous pregnancies, occurring at 71 and 72 months after HCT, respectively. Oncofertility is an emerging field due to an increasing number of young cancer survivors. Herein, we document that even at a large tertiary HCT center, the rate of documented fertility counseling and reproductive endocrinology referrals was low and the rate of ART was even lower. Spontaneous menstrual recovery was rare but more likely in the setting of nonmalignant disease and RIC HCT. A concerted multidisciplinary effort is needed to understand parenthood goals and to explore the impact of HCT on decision making about fertility preservation and parenthood. These efforts could improve oncofertility referral, ART utilization, and reproductive outcomes.
Project description:Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have allowed older patients and those with comorbidities to receive hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed medical costs from the beginning of conditioning to 100 days after HCT for 484 patients and up to 2 years for 311 patients who underwent a RIC HCT at two institutions from January 2008 to December 2010. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association between clinical variables, center effect, and costs. Patient and transplant characteristics were comparable between the sites, although differences were seen in pretransplant performance scores. Significant predictors for lower costs for the first 100 days included a diagnosis of lymphoma/myeloma and use of human leukocyte antigen-matched related donors. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was associated with higher costs. The overall short-term costs between the two institutions were comparable when adjusted for clinical variables (p = .43). Late costs between 100 days and 2 years after HCT were available for one cohort (n = 311); median costs during this period were $39,000 and accounted for 39% of costs during the first 2 years. Late costs were not associated with any pretransplant variables, but were higher with extensive chronic GVHD and death. After adjustment for clinical characteristics, the overall costs of the RIC transplants were similar between the two institutions despite different management approaches (inpatient vs. outpatient conditioning) and accounting methodologies. Use of unrelated/alternative donors, transplant for diseases other than lymphoma or myeloma, and acute GVHD were predictors for higher early costs, and extensive chronic GVHD and death were associated with higher late costs.
Project description:This study retrospectively compared long-term outcomes of nonmyeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning (NMC/RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from a haploidentical family donor (haplo-HCT) using posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) with those of matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) with or without T-cell depletion (TCD+/TCD-) in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adult patients with DLBCL who had undergone their first NMC/RIC allo-HCT between 2008 and 2015 were included. Recipients of haplo-HCT were limited to those receiving graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with PTCy. GVHD prophylaxis in MSD was limited to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based approaches without in vivo TCD, while MUD recipients received CNI-based prophylaxis with or without TCD. Outcome analyses for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and disease relapse/progression were calculated. A total of 1438 patients (haplo, 132; MSD, 525; MUD TCD+, 403; and MUD TCD-, 378) were included. Patients with haplo donors were significantly older, had a better performance status and had more frequently received total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens and bone marrow grafts than MSD and MUD TCD+ or TCD-. 3-year OS, PFS, NRM and relapse/progression incidence after haplo-HCT was 46%, 38%, 22%, and 41%, respectively, and not significantly different from outcomes of matched donor transplants on multivariate analyses. Haplo-HCT was associated with a lower cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD compared with MSD, MUD TCD+/TCD-. NMC/RIC haplo-HCT with PTCy seems to be a valuable alternative for patients with DLBCL considered for allo-HCT but lacking a matched donor.
Project description:Myeloablative conditioning results in thymic epithelial cell (TEC) injury, slow T-cell reconstitution, and a high risk of opportunistic infections. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) stimulates TEC proliferation and, when given preconditioning, reduces TEC injury. Thymocytes and TECs express androgen receptors, and exposure to androgen inhibits thymopoiesis. In this study, we have investigated whether TEC stimulation via preconditioning treatment with KGF and leuprolide acetate (Lupron), 2 clinically approved agents, given only before conditioning would circumvent the profound TEC and associated T-cell deficiency seen in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. Only combined treatment with KGF plus leuprolide acetate normalized TEC subset numbers and thymic architecture. Thymopoiesis and thymic output were supranormal, leading to the accelerated peripheral reconstitution of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells with a broad Vbeta repertoire and decreased homeostatic T-cell proliferation. Combined therapy facilitated T:B cooperativity and enabled a B-cell humoral response to a CD4 T cell-dependent neoantigen challenge soon after BMT. In vivo antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses and clearance of a live pathogen was superior with combined versus individual agent therapy. Thus, KGF combined with androgen blockade represents a novel approach to restore thymic function and facilitates the rapid recovery of peripheral T-cell function after allogeneic BMT.
Project description:Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and T cell depletion (TCD) through CD34+ cell selection without the use of post-transplantation immunosuppression are 2 strategies used to reduce nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in older patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To compare the efficacy of the RIC and TCD approaches, we evaluated the outcomes of patients age >50 years with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent allo-HCT from an HLA-matched donor with one of these strategies. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the patients receiving TCD (n?=?204) and those receiving RIC (n?=?151), except for a higher proportion of unrelated donors (68% versus 40%; P?<?.001) and a higher comorbidity burden (Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index [HCT-CI] ?3: 51% versus 38%; P?<?.001) in the TCD cohort. Analysis of outcomes at 3 years showed a higher chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/relapse-free survival (CRFS) (51% versus 7%; P?<?.001), lower incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD (18% versus 46% at day +180) and chronic GVHD (6% versus 55% at 3 years; P?<?.001), and a lower incidence of relapse (19% versus 33% at 3 years; P?=?.001) in the TCD group compared with the RIC group. Relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and NRM were similar in the 2 groups. Combining transplantation approach (RIC versus TCD) and comorbidity burden (HCT-CI 0-2 versus ?3), patients with an HCT-CI score of 0-2 seemed to benefit from the TCD approach. In conclusion, in this retrospective study, the use of a CD34+ cell-selected graft and a myeloablative conditioning regimen was associated with higher CRFS and similar RFS and OS compared with unmodified allo-RIC in patients age >50 years with AML and MDS.
Project description:Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) extends the curative potential of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to patients with hematologic malignancies unable to withstand myeloablative conditioning. We prospectively analyzed the outcomes of 123 patients (median age, 57 years; range, 23-70 years) with hematologic malignancies treated with a uniform RIC regimen of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and total-body irradiation (200 cGy) with or without antithymocyte globulin followed by related donor allogeneic HCT at the University of Minnesota between 2002 and 2008. The cohort included 45 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 27 with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 8 with indolent NHL, 10 with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 10 with myeloma, and 23 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, other leukemias, or myeloproliferative disorders. The probability of 4-year overall survival was 73% for patients with indolent NHL, 58% for those with aggressive NHL, 67% for those with HL, 30% for those with AML/MDS, and only 10% for those with myeloma. Corresponding outcomes for relapse in these patients were 0%, 32%, 50%, 33%, and 38%, and those for progression-free survival were 73%, 45%, 27%, 27%, and 10%. The incidence of treatment-related mortality was 14% at day +100 and 22% at 1 year. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 38% at day +100, and that of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 50% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed superior overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with both indolent and aggressive NHL compared with those with AML/MDS, HL, or myeloma. Worse 1-year treatment-related mortality was observed in patients with a Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index score ? 3 and in cytomegalovirus-seropositive recipients. These results suggest that (1) RIC conditioning was well tolerated by an older, heavily pretreated population; (2) patients with indolent and aggressive NHL respond well to RIC conditioning, highlighting the importance of the graft-versus-lymphoma effect; and (3) additional peri-transplantation manipulations are needed to improve outcomes for patients with AML/MDS or myeloma receiving RIC conditioning before HCT.