ABSTRACT: Increased "persistent" current, caused by delayed inactivation, through voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels leads to cardiac arrhythmias or epilepsy. The underlying molecular contributors to these inactivation defects are poorly understood. Here, we show that calmodulin (CaM) binding to multiple sites within NaV channel intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) limits persistent Na+ current and accelerates inactivation across the NaV family. Arrhythmia or epilepsy mutations located in NaV1.5 or NaV1.2 channel CTDs, respectively, reduce CaM binding either directly or by interfering with CTD-CTD interchannel interactions. Boosting the availability of CaM, thus shifting its binding equilibrium, restores wild-type (WT)-like inactivation in mutant NaV1.5 and NaV1.2 channels and likewise diminishes the comparatively large persistent Na+ current through WT NaV1.6, whose CTD displays relatively low CaM affinity. In cerebellar Purkinje neurons, in which NaV1.6 promotes a large physiological persistent Na+ current, increased CaM diminishes the persistent Na+ current, suggesting that the endogenous, comparatively weak affinity of NaV1.6 for apoCaM is important for physiological persistent current.
Project description:Volatile anesthetics depress neurotransmitter release in a brain region- and neurotransmitter-selective manner by unclear mechanisms. Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs), which are coupled to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, are inhibited by volatile anesthetics through reduction of peak current and modulation of gating. Subtype-selective effects of anesthetics on Nav might contribute to observed neurotransmitter-selective anesthetic effects on release. We analyzed anesthetic effects on Na+ currents mediated by the principal neuronal Nav subtypes Nav1.1, Nav1.2, and Nav1.6 heterologously expressed in ND7/23 neuroblastoma cells using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Isoflurane at clinically relevant concentrations induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation and slowed recovery from fast inactivation in all three Nav subtypes, with the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation significantly more positive for Nav1.1 (-49.7 ± 3.9 mV) than for Nav1.2 (-57.5 ± 1.2 mV) or Nav1.6 (-58.0 ± 3.8 mV). Isoflurane significantly inhibited peak Na+ current (I Na) in a voltage-dependent manner: at a physiologically relevant holding potential of -70 mV, isoflurane inhibited peak I Na of Nav1.2 (16.5% ± 5.5%) and Nav1.6 (18.0% ± 7.8%), but not of Nav1.1 (1.2% ± 0.8%). Since Nav subtypes are differentially expressed both between neuronal types and within neurons, greater inhibition of Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 compared with Nav1.1 could contribute to neurotransmitter-selective effects of isoflurane on synaptic transmission.
Project description:See Lerche (doi:10.1093/brain/awy073) for a scientific commentary on this article.Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c.649dupC mutation. Single-cell patch-clamp experiments on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from homozygous patients showed increased Na+ currents that were fully rescued by expression of wild-type PRRT2. Closely similar electrophysiological features were observed in primary neurons obtained from the recently characterized PRRT2 knockout mouse. This phenotype was associated with an increased length of the axon initial segment and with markedly augmented spontaneous and evoked firing and bursting activities evaluated, at the network level, by multi-electrode array electrophysiology. Using HEK-293 cells stably expressing Nav channel subtypes, we demonstrated that the expression of PRRT2 decreases the membrane exposure and Na+ current of Nav1.2/Nav1.6, but not Nav1.1, channels. Moreover, PRRT2 directly interacted with Nav1.2/Nav1.6 channels and induced a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and a slow-down in the recovery from inactivation. In addition, by co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that the PRRT2-Nav interaction also occurs in brain tissue. The study demonstrates that the lack of PRRT2 leads to a hyperactivity of voltage-dependent Na+ channels in homozygous PRRT2 knockout human and mouse neurons and that, in addition to the reported synaptic functions, PRRT2 is an important negative modulator of Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 channels. Given the predominant paroxysmal character of PRRT2-linked diseases, the disturbance in cellular excitability by lack of negative modulation of Na+ channels appears as the key pathogenetic mechanism.
Project description:Recent data shows that fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) binds to and controls the function of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel with phenotypic outcomes on neuronal excitability. Mutations in the FGF14 gene in humans have been associated with brain disorders that are partially recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice. Thus, signaling pathways that modulate the FGF14:Nav channel interaction may be important therapeutic targets. Bioluminescence-based screening of small molecule modulators of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex identified 4,5,6,7 -: tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a potent casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor, as a strong suppressor of FGF14:Nav1.6 interaction. Inhibition of CK2 through TBB reduces the interaction of FGF14 with Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 channels. Mass spectrometry confirmed direct phosphorylation of FGF14 by CK2 at S228 and S230, and mutation to alanine at these sites modified FGF14 modulation of Nav1.6-mediated currents. In 1 d in vitro hippocampal neurons, TBB induced a reduction in FGF14 expression, a decrease in transient Na(+) current amplitude, and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav channel steady-state inactivation. In mature neurons, TBB reduces the axodendritic polarity of FGF14. In cornu ammonis area 1 hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, TBB impairs neuronal excitability by increasing action potential threshold and lowering firing frequency. Importantly, these changes in excitability are recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice, and deletion of Fgf14 occludes TBB-dependent phenotypes observed in wild-type mice. These results suggest that a CK2-FGF14 axis may regulate Nav channels and neuronal excitability.-Hsu, W.-C. J., Scala, F., Nenov, M. N., Wildburger, N. C., Elferink, H., Singh, A. K., Chesson, C. B., Buzhdygan, T., Sohail, M., Shavkunov, A. S., Panova, N. I., Nilsson, C. L., Rudra, J. S., Lichti, C. F., Laezza, F. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability.
Project description:The origin of the action potential in the cochlea has been a long-standing puzzle. Because voltage-dependent Na+ (Nav) channels are essential for action potential generation, we investigated the detailed distribution of Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 in the cochlear ganglion, cochlear nerve, and organ of Corti, including the type I and type II ganglion cells. In most type I ganglion cells, Nav1.6 was present at the first nodes flanking the myelinated bipolar cell body and at subsequent nodes of Ranvier. In the other ganglion cells, including type II, Nav1.6 clustered in the initial segments of both of the axons that flank the unmyelinated bipolar ganglion cell bodies. In the organ of Corti, Nav1.6 was localized in the short segments of the afferent axons and their sensory endings beneath each inner hair cell. Surprisingly, the outer spiral fibers and their sensory endings were well labeled beneath the outer hair cells over their entire trajectory. In contrast, Nav1.2 in the organ of Corti was localized to the unmyelinated efferent axons and their endings on the inner and outer hair cells. We present a computational model illustrating the potential role of the Nav channel distribution described here. In the deaf mutant quivering mouse, the localization of Nav1.6 was disrupted in the sensory epithelium and ganglion. Together, these results suggest that distinct Nav channels generate and regenerate action potentials at multiple sites along the cochlear ganglion cells and nerve fibers, including the afferent endings, ganglionic initial segments, and nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:Human voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are critical for initiating and propagating action potentials in excitable cells. Nine isoforms have different roles but similar topologies, with a pore-forming ?-subunit and auxiliary transmembrane ?-subunits. NaV pathologies lead to debilitating conditions including epilepsy, chronic pain, cardiac arrhythmias, and skeletal muscle paralysis. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) binds to an IQ motif in the C-terminal tail of the ?-subunit of all NaV isoforms, and contributes to calcium-dependent pore-gating in some channels. Previous structural studies of calcium-free (apo) CaM bound to the IQ motifs of NaV1.2, NaV1.5, and NaV1.6 showed that CaM binding was mediated by the C-domain of CaM (CaMC), while the N-domain (CaMN) made no detectable contacts. To determine whether this domain-specific recognition mechanism is conserved in other NaV isoforms, we used solution NMR spectroscopy to assign the backbone resonances of complexes of apo CaM bound to peptides of IQ motifs of NaV1.1, NaV1.4, and NaV1.7. Analysis of chemical shift differences showed that peptide binding only perturbed resonances in CaMC; resonances of CaMN were identical to free CaM. Thus, CaMC residues contribute to the interface with the IQ motif, while CaMN is available to interact elsewhere on the channel.
Project description:Variants implicated in childhood epilepsy have been identified in all four voltage-gated sodium channels that initiate action potentials in the central nervous system. Previous research has focused on the functional effects of particular variants within the most studied of these channels (NaV1.1, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6); however, there have been few comparative studies across channels to infer the impact of mutations in patients with epilepsy. Here we compare patterns of variation in patient and public databases to test the hypothesis that regions of known functional significance within voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have an increased burden of deleterious variants. We assessed mutational burden in different regions of the Nav channels by (1) performing Fisher exact tests on odds ratios to infer excess variants in domains, segments, and loops of each channel in patient databases versus public "control" databases, and (2) comparing the cumulative distribution of variant sites along DNA sequences of each gene in patient and public databases (i.e., independent of protein structure). Patient variant density was concordant among channels in regions known to play a role in channel function, with statistically significant higher patient variant density in S4-S6 and DIII-DIV and an excess of public variants in SI-S3, DI-DII, DII-DIII. On the other hand, channel-specific patterns of patient burden were found in the NaV1.6 inactivation gate and NaV1.1 S5-S6 linkers, while NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 S4-S5 linkers and S5 segments shared patient variant patterns that contrasted with those in NaV1.1. These different patterns may reflect different roles played by the NaV1.6 inactivation gate in action potential propagation, and by NaV1.1 S5-S6 linkers in loss of function and haploinsufficiency. Interestingly, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 both lack amino acid substitutions over significantly long stretches in both the patient and public databases suggesting that new mutations in these regions may cause embryonic lethality or a non-epileptic disease phenotype.
Project description:Fast-spiking (FS) neurons can fire action potentials (APs) up to 1,000 Hz and play key roles in vital functions such as sound location, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we report that the concerted actions of Kv3 voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ (Nav) channels are sufficient and necessary for inducing and maintaining FS. Voltage-clamp analysis revealed a robust correlation between the Kv3/Nav current ratio and FS. Expressing Kv3 channels alone could convert ?30%-60% slow-spiking (SS) neurons to FS in culture. In contrast, co-expression of either Nav1.2 or Nav1.6 together with Kv3.1 or Kv3.3, but not alone or with Kv1.2, converted SS to FS with 100% efficiency. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing-based genome-wide analysis revealed that the Kv3/Nav ratio and Kv3 expression levels strongly correlated with the maximal AP frequencies. Therefore, FS is established by the properly balanced activities of Kv3 and Nav channels and could be further fine-tuned by channel biophysical features and localization patterns.
Project description:Epilepsy is a disease characterized by abnormal brain activity and a predisposition to generate epileptic seizures, leading to neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, social, and economic impacts for the patient. There are several known causes for epilepsy; one of them is the malfunction of ion channels, resulting from mutations. Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) play an essential role in the generation and propagation of action potential, and malfunction caused by mutations can induce irregular neuronal activity. That said, several genetic variations in NaV channels have been described and associated with epilepsy. These mutations can affect channel kinetics, modifying channel activation, inactivation, recovery from inactivation, and/or the current window. Among the NaV subtypes related to epilepsy, NaV1.1 is doubtless the most relevant, with more than 1500 mutations described. Truncation and missense mutations are the most observed alterations. In addition, several studies have already related mutated NaV channels with the electrophysiological functioning of the channel, aiming to correlate with the epilepsy phenotype. The present review provides an overview of studies on epilepsy-associated mutated human NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3, NaV1.6, and NaV1.7.
Project description:Ca(2+) regulates voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels, and perturbed Ca(2+) regulation of NaV function is associated with epilepsy syndromes, autism and cardiac arrhythmias. Understanding the disease mechanisms, however, has been hindered by a lack of structural information and competing models for how Ca(2+) affects NaV channel function. Here we report the crystal structures of two ternary complexes of a human NaV cytosolic C-terminal domain (CTD), a fibroblast growth factor homologous factor and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM). These structures rule out direct binding of Ca(2+) to the NaV CTD and uncover new contacts between CaM and the NaV CTD. Probing these new contacts with biochemical and functional experiments allows us to propose a mechanism by which Ca(2+) could regulate NaV channels. Further, our model provides hints towards understanding the molecular basis of the neurologic disorders and cardiac arrhythmias caused by NaV channel mutations.
Project description:In excitatory neurons, SCN2A (NaV1.2) and SCN8A (NaV1.6) sodium channels are enriched at the axon initial segment. NaV1.6 is implicated in several mouse models of absence epilepsy, including a missense mutation identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen (Scn8a(V929F)). Here, we confirmed the prior suggestion that Scn8a(V929F) exhibits a striking genetic background-dependent difference in phenotypic severity, observing that spike-wave discharge (SWD) incidence and severity are significantly diminished when Scn8a(V929F) is fully placed onto the C57BL/6J strain compared with C3H. Examination of sequence differences in NaV subunits between these two inbred strains suggested NaV1.2(V752F) as a potential source of this modifier effect. Recognising that the spatial co-localisation of the NaV channels at the axon initial segment (AIS) provides a plausible mechanism for functional interaction, we tested this idea by undertaking biophysical characterisation of the variant NaV channels and by computer modelling. NaV1.2(V752F) functional analysis revealed an overall gain-of-function and for NaV1.6(V929F) revealed an overall loss-of-function. A biophysically realistic computer model was used to test the idea that interaction between these variant channels at the AIS contributes to the strain background effect. Surprisingly this modelling showed that neuronal excitability is dominated by the properties of NaV1.2(V752F) due to "functional silencing" of NaV1.6(V929F) suggesting that these variants do not directly interact. Consequent genetic mapping of the major strain modifier to Chr 7, and not Chr 2 where Scn2a maps, supported this biophysical prediction. While a NaV1.6(V929F) loss of function clearly underlies absence seizures in this mouse model, the strain background effect is apparently not due to an otherwise tempting Scn2a variant, highlighting the value of combining physiology and genetics to inform and direct each other when interrogating genetic complex traits such as absence epilepsy.