Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis for Liver Cancers and Its Usefulness as a Liquid Biopsy.
ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) carrying tumor-specific sequence alterations has been found in the cell-free fraction of blood. Liver cancer tumor specimens are difficult to obtain, and noninvasive methods are required to assess cancer progression and characterize underlying genomic features.We analyzed 46 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy or liver transplantation and for whom whole-genome sequencing data was available. We designed personalized assays targeting somatic rearrangements of each tumor to quantify serum ctDNA. Exome sequencing was performed using cell-free DNA paired primary tumor tissue DNA from a patient with recurrent liver cancer after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).We successfully detected ctDNA from 100 ?L of serum samples in 7 of the 46 patients before surgery, increasing with disease progression. The cumulative incidence of recurrence and extrahepatic metastasis in the ctDNA-positive group were statistically significantly worse than in the ctDNA-negative group (P = .0102 and .0386, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified ctDNA (OR 6.10; 95% CI, 1.11-33.33, P = .038) as an independent predictor of microscopic vascular invasion of the portal vein (VP). We identified 45 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in cell-free DNA after TACE and 71 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in primary tumor tissue by exome sequencing. We identified 25 common mutations in both samples, and 83% of mutations identified in the primary tumor could be detected in the cell-free DNA.The presence of ctDNA reflects tumor progression, and detection of ctDNA can predict VP and recurrence, especially extrahepatic metastasis within 2 years. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of ctDNA detection and sequencing analysis of cell-free DNA for personalized treatment of liver cancer.
Project description:Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plasma-derived cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) constitutes a potential surrogate for tumor DNA obtained from tissue biopsies. We posit that massively parallel sequencing (MPS) analysis of ctDNA may help define the repertoire of mutations in breast cancer and monitor tumor somatic alterations during the course of targeted therapy. PATIENT AND METHODS:A 66-year-old patient presented with synchronous estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative, highly proliferative, grade 2, mixed invasive ductal-lobular carcinoma with bone and liver metastases at diagnosis. DNA extracted from archival tumor material, plasma and peripheral blood leukocytes was subjected to targeted MPS using a platform comprising 300 cancer genes known to harbor actionable mutations. Multiple plasma samples were collected during the fourth line of treatment with an AKT inhibitor. RESULTS:Average read depths of 287x were obtained from the archival primary tumor, 139x from the liver metastasis and between 200x and 900x from ctDNA samples. Sixteen somatic non-synonymous mutations were detected in the liver metastasis, of which 9 (CDKN2A, AKT1, TP53, JAK3, TSC1, NF1, CDH1, MML3 and CTNNB1) were also detected in >5% of the alleles found in the primary tumor sample. Not all mutations identified in the metastasis were reliably identified in the primary tumor (e.g. FLT4). Analysis of ctDNA, nevertheless, captured all mutations present in the primary tumor and/or liver metastasis. In the longitudinal monitoring of the patient, the mutant allele fractions identified in ctDNA samples varied over time and mirrored the pharmacodynamic response to the targeted therapy as assessed by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS:This proof-of-principle study is one of the first to demonstrate that high-depth targeted MPS of plasma-derived ctDNA constitutes a potential tool for de novo mutation identification and monitoring of somatic genetic alterations during the course of targeted therapy, and may be employed to overcome the challenges posed by intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. REGISTERED CLINICAL TRIAL:www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01090960.
Project description:Cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to enable non-invasive diagnostic tests for personalized medicine in providing similar molecular information as that derived from invasive tumor biopsies. The histology-independent phase II SHIVA trial matches patients with targeted therapeutics based on previous screening of multiple somatic mutations using metastatic biopsies. To evaluate the utility of ctDNA in this trial, as an ancillary study we performed de novo detection of somatic mutations using plasma DNA compared to metastasis biopsies in 34 patients covering 18 different tumor types, scanning 46 genes and more than 6800 COSMIC mutations with a multiplexed next-generation sequencing panel. In 27 patients, 28 of 29 mutations identified in metastasis biopsies (97%) were detected in matched ctDNA. Among these 27 patients, one additional mutation was found in ctDNA only. In the seven other patients, mutation detection from metastasis biopsy failed due to inadequate biopsy material, but was successful in all plasma DNA samples providing three more potential actionable mutations. These results suggest that ctDNA analysis is a potential alternative and/or replacement to analyses using costly, harmful and lengthy tissue biopsies of metastasis, irrespective of cancer type and metastatic site, for multiplexed mutation detection in selecting personalized therapies based on the patient's tumor genetic content.
Project description:PURPOSE:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an attractive source for liquid biopsy to understand molecular phenotypes of a tumor non-invasively, which is also expected to be both a diagnostic and prognostic marker. PIK3CA and KRAS are among the most frequently mutated genes in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In addition, their hotspot mutations have already been identified and are ready for a highly sensitive analysis. Our aim is to clarify the significance of PIK3CA and KRAS mutations in the plasma of EOC patients as tumor-informed ctDNA. Materials and Methods:We screened 306 patients with ovarian tumors for somatic PIK3CA or KRAS mutations. A total of 85 EOC patients had somatic PIK3CA and/or KRAS mutations, and the corresponding mutations were subsequently analyzed using a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in their plasma. RESULTS:The detection rates for ctDNA were 27% in EOC patients. Advanced stage and positive peritoneal cytology were associated with higher frequency of ctDNA detection. Preoperative ctDNA detection was found to be an indicator of outcomes, and multivariate analysis revealed that ctDNA remained an independent risk factor for recurrence (p=0.010). Moreover, we assessed the mutation frequency in matched plasma before surgery and at recurrence from 17 patients, and found six patients had higher mutation rates in cell-free DNA at recurrence compared to that at primary diagnosis. CONCLUSION:The presence of ctDNA at diagnosis was an indicator for recurrence, which suggests potential tumor spread even when tumors were localized at the time of diagnosis.
Project description:Background:Real-time knowledge of the somatic genome can influence management of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). While routine metastatic tissue biopsy is challenging in mCRPC, plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive tool to sample the tumor genome. However, no systematic comparisons of matched "liquid" and "solid" biopsies have been performed that would enable ctDNA profiling to replace the need for direct tissue sampling. Methods:We performed targeted sequencing across 72 clinically relevant genes in 45 plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples collected at time of metastatic tissue biopsy. We compared ctDNA alterations with exome sequencing data generated from matched tissue and quantified the concordance of mutations and copy number alterations using the Fisher exact test and Pearson correlations. Results:Seventy-five point six percent of cfDNA samples had a ctDNA proportion greater than 2% of total cfDNA. In these patients, all somatic mutations identified in matched metastatic tissue biopsies were concurrently present in ctDNA. Furthermore, the hierarchy of variant allele fractions for shared mutations was remarkably similar between ctDNA and tissue. Copy number profiles between matched liquid and solid biopsy were highly correlated, and individual copy number calls in clinically actionable genes were 88.9% concordant. Detected alterations included AR amplifications in 22 (64.7%) samples, SPOP mutations in three (8.8%) samples, and inactivating alterations in tumor suppressors TP53 , PTEN , RB1 , APC , CDKN1B , BRCA2 , and PIK3R1 . In several patients, ctDNA sequencing revealed robust changes not present in paired solid biopsy, including clinically relevant alterations in the AR, WNT, and PI3K pathways. Conclusions:Our study shows that, in the majority of patients, a ctDNA assay is sufficient to identify all driver DNA alterations present in matched metastatic tissue and supports development of DNA biomarkers to guide mCRPC patient management based on ctDNA alone.
Project description:We attempted to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), taking advantage of molecular barcode next-generation sequencing (MB-NGS), which can be more easily customized to detect a variety of mutations with a high sensitivity than PCR-based methods. Sequencing with a gene panel consisting of the 13 most frequently mutated genes in breast tumors from stage I or II patients revealed 95 somatic mutations in the 12 genes in 62% (62/100) of tumors. Then, plasma DNA from each patient (n = 62) before surgery was analyzed via MB-NGS customized to each somatic mutation, resulting in the detection of ctDNA in 16.1% (10/62) of patients. ctDNA was significantly associated with biologically aggressive phenotypes, including large tumor size (P = .004), positive lymph node (P = .009), high histological grade (P < .001), negative ER (P = .018), negative PR (P = .017), and positive HER2 (P = .046). Furthermore, distant disease-free survival was significantly worse in patients with ctDNA (n = 10) than those without ctDNA (n = 52) (P < .001). Our results demonstrate that MB-NGS personalized to each mutation can detect ctDNA with a high sensitivity in early breast cancer patients at diagnosis, and it seems to have a potential to serve as a clinically useful tumor marker for predicting their prognosis.
Project description:PURPOSE:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing provides a minimally invasive method for tumor molecular stratification. Commercial ctDNA sequencing is increasingly used in the clinic, but its accuracy in metastatic prostate cancer is untested. We compared the commercial Guardant360 ctDNA test against an academic sequencing approach for profiling metastatic prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Plasma cell-free DNA was collected between September 2016 and April 2018 from 24 patients with clinically progressive metastatic prostate cancer representing a range of clinical scenarios. Each sample was analyzed using Guardant360 and a research panel encompassing 73 prostate cancer genes. Concordance of somatic mutation and copy number calls was evaluated between the two approaches. RESULTS:Targeted sequencing independently confirmed 94% of somatic mutations identified by Guardant360 at an allele fraction greater than 1%. AR amplifications and mutations were detected with high concordance in 14 patients, with only three discordant subclonal mutations at an allele fraction lower than 0.5%. Many somatic mutations identified by Guardant360 at an allele fraction lower than 1% seemed to represent subclonal passenger events or non-prostate-derived clones. Most of the non-AR gene amplifications reported by Guardant360 represented single copy gains. The research approach detected several clinically relevant DNA repair gene alterations not reported by Guardant360, including four germline truncating BRCA2/ATM mutations, two somatic ATM stop gain mutations, one BRCA2 biallelic deletion, 11 BRCA2 stop gain reversal mutations in a patient treated with olaparib, and a hypermutator phenotype in a patient sample with 42 mutations per megabase. CONCLUSION:Guardant360 accurately identifies somatic ctDNA mutations in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, but low allele frequency mutations should be interpreted with caution. Test utility in metastatic prostate cancer is currently limited by the lack of reporting on actionable deletions, rearrangements, and germline mutations.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from peripheral blood has recently been shown to be an alternative source to detect gene mutations in primary tumors; however, most previous studies have focused on advanced stage cancers, and few have evaluated ctDNA detection in early-stage lung cancer. In the present study, blood and tumor samples were collected prospectively from 58 early-stage non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (stages IA, IB, and IIA) and a targeted sequencing approach was used to detect somatic driver mutations in matched tumor DNA (tDNA) and plasma ctDNA. We identified frequent driver mutations in plasma ctDNA and tDNA in EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53, and less frequent mutations in other genes, with an overall study concordance of 50.4% and sensitivity and specificity of 53.8% and 47.3%, respectively. Cell-free (cfDNA) concentrations were found to be significantly associated with some clinical features, including tumor stage and subtype. Importantly, the presence of cfDNA had a higher positive predictive value than that of currently used protein tumor biomarkers. This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying plasma ctDNA mutations in the earliest stage lung cancer patients via targeted sequencing, demonstrating a potential utility of targeted sequencing of ctDNA in the clinical management of NSCLC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, partly due to the high recurrence rates for patients with PDAC. Current postoperative surveillance methods, including monitoring of clinical symptoms, tumor markers, and CT imaging, lack sensitivity and specificity for minimal residual disease (MRD). We investigated whether the detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could identify MRD and predict relapse in postoperative patients with PDAC. In this study, we performed panel-captured sequencing to detect somatic mutations. Matched tissue samples were obtained to verify mutation. A total of 27 patients and 65 plasma samples were included. Among the somatic mutations, KRAS and TP53 were the most recurrent genes in both tissue and plasma samples. The detectable rate of ctDNA increased with the stage of PDAC. The maximal variant allele fraction (VAF) of ctDNA had a positive correlation with tumor largest diameter (p = 0.0101). Patients with ctDNA-positive status postoperatively had a markedly reduced disease-free survival (DFS) compared to those with ctDNA-negative status (HR, 5.20; p = 0.019). Positive vascular invasion significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.036), and positive postoperative ctDNA status was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 3.60; 95% CI, 1.15-11.28; p = 0.028). Postoperative ctDNA detection provides strong evidence of MRD and identifies patients with a high risk of relapse. ctDNA detection is a promising approach for personalized patient management during postoperative follow-up.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Direct comparisons between Guardant360 (G360) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and FoundationOne (F1) tumor biopsy genomic profiling in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are limited. We aim to assess the concordance across overlapping genes tested in both F1 and G360 in patients with mCRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 75 patients with mCRC who underwent G360 and F1 testing. We evaluated the concordance among gene mutations tested by both G360 and F1 among three categories of patients: untreated, treated without, and treated with EGFR inhibitors, while considering the clonal and/or subclonal nature of each genomic alteration. RESULTS:There was a high rate of concordance in APC, TP53, KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in the treatment-naive and non-anti-EGFR-treated cohorts. There was increased discordance in the anti-EGFR treated patients in three drivers of anti-EGFR resistance: KRAS, NRAS, and EGFR somatic mutations. Based on percentage of ctDNA, discordant somatic mutations were mostly subclonal instead of clonal and may have limited clinical significance. Most discordant amplifications noted on G360 showed the magnitude below the top decile, occurred in all three cohorts of patients, and were of unknown clinical significance. Serial ctDNA in anti-EGFR treated patients showed the emergence of multiple new alterations that affected the EGFR pathway: EGFR and RAS mutations and MET, RAS, and BRAF amplifications. CONCLUSION:G360 Next-Generation Sequencing platform may be used as an alternative to F1 to detect targetable somatic alterations in non-anti-EGFR treated mCRC, but larger prospective studies are needed to further validate our findings. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Genomic analysis of tissue biopsy is currently the optimal method for identifying DNA genomic alterations to help physicians target specific genes but has many disadvantages that may be mitigated by a circulating free tumor DNA (ctDNA) assay. This study showed a high concordance rate in certain gene mutations in patients who were treatment naive and treated with non-anti-EGFR therapy prior to ctDNA testing. This suggests that ctDNA genomic analysis may potentially be used as an alternative to tumor biopsy to identify appropriate patients for treatment selection in mCRC, but larger prospective studies are needed to further validate concordance among tissue and ctDNA tumor profiling.