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Emerging pathways driving early synaptic pathology in Alzheimer's disease.


ABSTRACT: The current state of the AD research field is highly dynamic is some respects, while seemingly stagnant in others. Regarding the former, our current lack of understanding of initiating disease mechanisms, the absence of effective treatment options, and the looming escalation of AD patients is energizing new research directions including a much-needed re-focusing on early pathogenic mechanisms, validating novel targets, and investigating relevant biomarkers, among other exciting new efforts to curb disease progression and foremost, preserve memory function. With regard to the latter, the recent disappointing series of failed Phase III clinical trials targeting A? and APP processing, in concert with poor association between brain A? levels and cognitive function, have led many to call for a re-evaluation of the primacy of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. In this review, we integrate new insights into one of the earliest described signaling abnormalities in AD pathogenesis, namely intracellular Ca2+ signaling disruptions, and focus on its role in driving synaptic deficits - which is the feature that does correlate with AD-associated memory loss. Excess Ca2+release from intracellular stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been well-described in cellular and animal models of AD, as well as human patients, and here we expand upon recent developments in ER-localized release channels such as the IP3R and RyR, and the recent emphasis on RyR2. Consistent with ER Ca2+ mishandling in AD are recent findings implicating aspects of SOCE, such as STIM2 function, and TRPC3 and TRPC6 levels. Other Ca2+-regulated organelles important in signaling and protein handling are brought into the discussion, with new perspectives on lysosomal regulation. These early signaling abnormalities are discussed in the context of synaptic pathophysiology and disruptions in synaptic plasticity with a particular emphasis on short-term plasticity deficits. Overall, we aim to update and expand the list of early neuronal signaling abnormalities implicated in AD pathogenesis, identify specific channels and organelles involved, and link these to proximal synaptic impairments driving the memory loss in AD. This is all within the broader goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets to preserve cognitive function in AD.

SUBMITTER: Briggs CA 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5303639 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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