Structure-Guided Design of Novel, Potent, and Selective Macrocyclic Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: A series of macrocyclic analogues were designed and synthesized based on the cocrystal structure of small molecule plasma kallikrein (pKal) inhibitor, 2, with the pKal protease domain. This led to the discovery of a potent macrocyclic pKal inhibitor 29, with an IC50 of 2 nM for one olefinic isomer and 42.3 nM for the other olefinic isomer.
Project description:Plasma kallikrein (pKal) proteolytically cleaves high molecular weight kininogen to generate the potent vasodilator and the pro-inflammatory peptide, bradykinin. pKal activity is tightly regulated in healthy individuals by the serpin C1-inhibitor, but individuals with hereditary angioedema (HAE) are deficient in C1-inhibitor and consequently exhibit excessive bradykinin generation that in turn causes debilitating and potentially fatal swelling attacks. To develop a potential therapeutic agent for HAE and other pKal-mediated disorders, we used phage display to discover a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (DX-2930) against pKal. In vitro experiments demonstrated that DX-2930 potently inhibits active pKal (Ki = 0.120 ± 0.005 nM) but does not target either the zymogen (prekallikrein) or any other serine protease tested. These findings are supported by a 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of pKal complexed to a DX-2930 Fab construct, which establishes that the pKal active site is fully occluded by the antibody. DX-2930 injected subcutaneously into cynomolgus monkeys exhibited a long half-life (t½ ? 12.5 days) and blocked high molecular weight kininogen proteolysis in activated plasma in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, subcutaneous DX-2930 reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A potent and long acting inhibitor of pKal activity could be an effective treatment option for pKal-mediated diseases, such as HAE.
Project description:The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) consists of serine proteases, prekallikrein (pKal) and factor XII (FXII), and a cofactor, high-MW kininogen (HK). Upon activation, activated pKal and FXII cleave HK to release bradykinin. Activation of this system has been noted in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and its pathogenic role has been characterized in animal arthritic models. In this study, we generated 2 knockout mouse strains that lacked pKal and HK and determined the role of KKS in autoantibody-induced arthritis. In a K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis (STIA) model, mice that lacked HK, pKal, or bradykinin receptors displayed protective phenotypes in joint swelling, histologic changes in inflammation, and cytokine production; however, FXII-deficient mice developed normal arthritis. Inhibition of Kal ameliorated arthritis severity and incidence at early stage STIA and reduced the levels of major cytokines in joints. In addition to releasing bradykinin from HK, Kal directly activated monocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulated their C5aR and FcRIII expression, and released C5a. Immune complex increased pKal activity, which led to HK cleavage. The absence of HK is associated with a decrease in joint vasopermeability. Thus, we identify a critical role for Kal in autoantibody-induced arthritis with pleiotropic effects, which suggests that it is a new target for the inhibition of arthritis.-Yang, A., Zhou, J., Wang, B., Dai, J., Colman, R. W., Song, W., Wu, Y. A critical role for plasma kallikrein in the pathogenesis of autoantibody-induced arthritis.
Project description:This study characterizes the kallikrein-kinin system in vitreous from individuals with diabetic macular edema (DME) and examines mechanisms contributing to retinal thickening and retinal vascular permeability (RVP). Plasma prekallikrein (PPK) and plasma kallikrein (PKal) were increased twofold and 11.0-fold (both P < 0.0001), respectively, in vitreous from subjects with DME compared with those with a macular hole (MH). While the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was also increased in DME vitreous, PKal and VEGF concentrations do not correlate (r = 0.266, P = 0.112). Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified 167 vitreous proteins, including 30 that were increased in DME (fourfold or more, P < 0.001 vs. MH). The majority of proteins associated with DME displayed a higher correlation with PPK than with VEGF concentrations. DME vitreous containing relatively high levels of PKal and low VEGF induced RVP when injected into the vitreous of diabetic rats, a response blocked by bradykinin receptor antagonism but not by bevacizumab. Bradykinin-induced retinal thickening in mice was not affected by blockade of VEGF receptor 2. Diabetes-induced RVP was decreased by up to 78% (P < 0.001) in Klkb1 (PPK)-deficient mice compared with wild-type controls. B2- and B1 receptor-induced RVP in diabetic mice was blocked by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and inducible NOS deficiency, respectively. These findings implicate the PKal pathway as a VEGF-independent mediator of DME.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds are central to the development of new drugs, but preparing them can be challenging because of the energy barrier that must be surmounted in order to bring together and fuse the two ends of an acyclic precursor such as an alkene (also known as an olefin). To this end, the catalytic process known as ring-closing metathesis (RCM) has allowed access to countless biologically active macrocyclic organic molecules, even for large-scale production. Stereoselectivity is often critical in such cases: the potency of a macrocyclic compound can depend on the stereochemistry of its alkene; alternatively, one isomer of the compound can be subjected to stereoselective modification (such as dihydroxylation). Kinetically controlled Z-selective RCM reactions have been reported, but the only available metathesis approach for accessing macrocyclic E-olefins entails selective removal of the Z-component of a stereoisomeric mixture by ethenolysis, sacrificing substantial quantities of material if E/Z ratios are near unity. Use of ethylene can also cause adventitious olefin isomerization-a particularly serious problem when the E-alkene is energetically less favoured. Here, we show that dienes containing an E-alkenyl-B(pinacolato) group, widely used in catalytic cross-coupling, possess the requisite electronic and steric attributes to allow them to be converted stereoselectively to E-macrocyclic alkenes. The reaction is promoted by a molybdenum monoaryloxide pyrrolide complex and affords products at a yield of up to 73 per cent and an E/Z ratio greater than 98/2. We highlight the utility of the approach by preparing recifeiolide (a 12-membered-ring antibiotic) and pacritinib (an 18-membered-ring enzyme inhibitor), the Z-isomer of which is less potent than the E-isomer. Notably, the 18-membered-ring moiety of pacritinib-a potent anti-cancer agent that is in advanced clinical trials for treating lymphoma and myelofibrosis-was prepared by RCM carried out at a substrate concentration 20 times greater than when a ruthenium carbene was used.
Project description:Nicotinamide <i>N</i>-methyltransferase (NNMT), which catalyzes the methylation of nicotinamide, is a cytosolic enzyme that has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. However, despite the considerable interest in this target, reports of NNMT inhibitors have still been limited to date. In this work, utilizing <i>in vitro</i> translated macrocyclic peptide libraries, we identified peptide <b>1</b> as a novel class of NNMT inhibitors. Further exploration based on the X-ray cocrystal structures of the peptides with NNMT provided a dramatic improvement in inhibitory activity (peptide <b>23</b>: IC<sub>50</sub> = 0.15 nM). Furthermore, by balance of the peptides' lipophilicity and biological activity, inhibitory activity against NNMT in cell-based assay was successfully achieved (peptide <b>26</b>: cell-based IC<sub>50</sub> = 770 nM). These findings illuminate the potential of cyclic peptides as a relatively new drug discovery modality even for intracellular targets.
Project description:Human noroviruses are the primary cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The problem is further compounded by the current lack of norovirus-specific antivirals or vaccines. Noroviruses have a single-stranded, positive sense 7 to 8 kb RNA genome which encodes a polyprotein precursor that is processed by a virus-encoded 3C-like cysteine protease (NV 3CLpro) to generate at least six mature nonstructural proteins. Processing of the polyprotein is essential for virus replication, consequently, NV 3CLpro has emerged as an attractive target for the discovery of norovirus therapeutics and prophylactics. We have recently described the structure-based design of macrocyclic transition state inhibitors of NV 3CLpro. In order to gain insight and understanding into the interaction of macrocyclic inhibitors with the enzyme, as well as probe the effect of ring size on pharmacological activity and cellular permeability, additional macrocyclic inhibitors were synthesized and high resolution cocrystal structures determined. The results of our studies tentatively suggest that the macrocyclic scaffold may hamper optimal binding to the active site by impeding concerted cross-talk between the S2 and S4 subsites.
Project description:Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing. However, wound closure and epidermal re-epithelialization are significantly less impaired in uPA;tPA double-deficient mice than in Plg-deficient mice. Skin wounds in uPA;tPA-deficient mice treated with the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor galardin (N-[(2R)-2-(hydroxamido-carbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-L-tryptophan methylamide) eventually heal, whereas skin wounds in galardin-treated Plg-deficient mice do not heal. Furthermore, plasmin is biochemically detectable in wound extracts from uPA;tPA double-deficient mice. In vivo administration of a plasma kallikrein (pKal)-selective form of the serine protease inhibitor ecotin exacerbates the healing impairment of uPA;tPA double-deficient wounds to a degree indistinguishable from that observed in Plg-deficient mice, and completely blocks the activity of pKal, but not uPA and tPA in wound extracts. These findings demonstrate that an additional plasminogen activator provides sufficient plasmin activity to sustain the healing process albeit at decreased speed in the absence of uPA, tPA and galardin-sensitive MMPs and suggest that pKal plays a role in plasmin generation.
Project description:The characteristics of a new kallikrein-binding protein in human serum and its activities were studied. Both the kallikrein-binding protein and alpha 1-antitrypsin form 92 kDa SDS-stable and heat-stable complexes with human tissue kallikrein. In non-SDS/PAGE, the mobility of these complexes differ. Complex-formation between kallikrein and the binding protein is inhibited by heparin, whereas that between kallikrein and alpha 1-antitrypsin is heparin-resistant. In normal or alpha 1-antitrypsin-deficient-serum, the amount of 92 kDa SDS-stable complex formed upon addition of kallikrein is not related to serum alpha 1-antitrypsin levels. The rate of complex-formation between kallikrein and the binding protein is 12 times higher than that between kallikrein and alpha 1-antitrypsin. Purified alpha 1-antitrypsin, which exhibits normal elastase binding, has a kallikrein-binding activity less than 5% of that of serum. Binding of tissue kallikrein in serum is not inhibited by increasing elastase concentrations, and elastase binding in serum is not inhibited by excess tissue kallikrein. A specific monoclonal antibody to human alpha 1-antitrypsin does not bind to either 92 kDa endogenous or exogenous kallikrein complexes isolated from human serum. The studies demonstrate a new tissue kallikrein-binding protein, distinct from alpha 1-antitrypsin, is present in human serum.
Project description:We describe the total synthesis of tutuilamide A, a potent porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) inhibitor and a representative member of the 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp) cyclodepsipeptide family, isolated from marine cyanobacteria. The Ahp unit serves as a pharmacophore and the adjacent 2-amino-2-butenoic acid (Abu) is a main driver of the selectivity among serine proteases. We adapted our previous convergent strategy to generate the macrocycle, common with lyngbyastatin 7 and related elastase inhibitors, and then appended the tutuilamide A-specific side chain bearing a vinyl chloride. Tutuilamide A and lyngbyastatin 7 were evaluated side by side for the inhibition of the disease-relevant human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Tutuilamide A and lyngbyastatin 7 were approximately equipotent against HNE, while tutuilamide A was previously shown to be more active against PPE compared with lyngbyastatin 7, further demonstrating that the side chain provides opportunities to not only modulate potency but also selectivity among proteases of the same function from different organisms. Profiling of tutuilamide A against mainly human serine proteases revealed high selectivity for HNE (IC<sub>50</sub> 0.73 nM) and pleiotropic activity against kallikrein 7 (KLK7, IC<sub>50</sub> 5.0 nM), without affecting other kallikreins, similarly to lyngbyastatin 7 (IC<sub>50</sub> 0.85 nM for HNE and 3.1 nM for KLK7). A comprehensive molecular docking study for elastases and KLK7 afforded deeper insight into the intricate differences between inhibitor interactions with HNE and PPE, accounting for the differential activities for both compounds. The synthesis and molecular studies serve as a proof-of-concept that the macrocyclic scaffold can be diversified to fine-tune the activity of serine protease inhibitors.
Project description:The submandibular gland of the rat contains several enzymes belonging to the kallikrein family. These include tissue kallikrein, antigen gamma (T-kininogenase), esterase B and tonin. In the present study, a new member of this family, which we have named KLP-S3, was identified and purified from the submandibular gland. KLP-S3 was classified as a kallikrein-like enzyme on the basis of its immunological similarity to other kallikrein-like enzymes and its showing 70% and 73% identity in partial amino acid sequence with tissue kallikrein and tonin respectively. Furthermore, the 44 sequenced amino acid residues showed complete correspondence to the mRNA S3 of the kallikrein gene family, which was the rationale for the name kallikrein-like protein (KLP) S3. KLP-S3 consisted of three isoenzymes with pI 6.75, 6.90 and 6.95, which significantly differed from those of other kallikrein-like enzymes. In conjunction with its immunological relationship to kallikrein, this parameter (pI) was considered robust enough to identify the enzyme during purification, since a specific physiological substrate for KLP-S3 has yet to be identified. In SDS/PAGE the three isoenzymes ran as one band with a molecular mass of 25,800 Da, which after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol was split into two chains with molecular masses of 16,500 and 13,300 Da. In common with other kallikrein-like enzymes, KLP-S3 was inhibited by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, and was thus classified as a serine protease. It was also inhibited by soya-bean trypsin inhibitor but not by aprotinin. It showed weak reactivity against the chromogenic substrates S2288, S2266, S2366 and S2302 (D-Ile-Pro-Arg 4-nitroanilide, D-Val-Leu-Arg 4-nitroanilide, Glu-Pro-Arg 4-nitroanilide and D-Pro-Phe-Arg 4-nitroanilide respectively) and did not cleave rat T-kininogen or dog high-molecular-mass/low-molecular-mass kininogen. Its specific angiotensin II-generating activity (angiotensin I as substrate) was 0.04% of that of rat tonin. KLP-S3 (1-100 nM) induced a statistically significant angiotensin-independent contraction of isolated rat aorta rings. The maximum contraction was 15% of the response to the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (1 microM). The concentration of KLP-S3 in the rat submandibular gland was by single radial immunodiffusion estimated to be 47 +/- 3 micrograms/mg of protein.