Polynucleotide Phosphorylase, RNase E/G, and YbeY Are Involved in the Maturation of 4.5S RNA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum has been applied for the industrial production of various metabolites, such as amino acids. To understand the biosynthesis of the membrane protein in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP is found in all three domains of life and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. SRP RNA is initially transcribed as precursor molecules; however, relatively little is known about its maturation. In C. glutamicum, SRP consists of the Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA lacking an Alu domain. In this study, we found that 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and two endo-type RNases, RNase E/G and YbeY, are involved in the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA in C. glutamicum The mature form of 4.5S RNA was inefficiently formed in ?rneG ?pnp mutant cells, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway for the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA. Primer extension analysis also revealed that the 5' mature end of 4.5S RNA corresponds to that of the transcriptional start site. Immunoprecipitated Ffh protein contained immature 4.5S RNA in ?pnp, ?rneG, and ?ybeY mutants, suggesting that 4.5S RNA precursors can interact with Ffh. These results imply that the maturation of 4.5S RNA can be performed in the 4.5S RNA-Ffh complex.IMPORTANCE Overproduction of a membrane protein, such as a transporter, is useful for engineering of strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse of amino acid production. To understand membrane protein biogenesis in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP contains the Ffh protein and SRP RNA and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. Although SRP RNA is highly conserved among the three domains of life, relatively little is known about its maturation. We show that PNPase, RNase E/G, and YbeY are involved in the 3' maturation of the SRP RNA (4.5S RNA) in this bacterium. This indicates that 3' end processing in this organism is different from that in other bacteria, such as Escherichia coli.
Project description:The prokaryotic signal recognition particle (SRP) targeting system is a complex of two proteins, FtsY and Ffh, and a 4.5S RNA that targets a subset of proteins to the cytoplasmic membrane cotranslationally. We previously showed that Neisseria gonorrhoeae PilA is the gonococcal FtsY homolog. In this work, we isolated the other two components of the gonococcal SRP, Ffh and 4.5S RNA, and characterized the interactions among the three SRP components by using gel retardation and nitrocellulose filter-binding assays and enzymatic analyses of the two proteins. In the current model of prokaryotic SRP function, based on studies of the Escherichia coli and mammalian systems, Ffh binds to 4.5S RNA and the Ffh-4.5S RNA complex binds to the signal sequence of nascent peptides and then docks with FtsY at the membrane. GTP is hydrolyzed by both proteins synergistically, and the nascent peptide is transferred to the translocon. We present evidence that the in vitro properties of the gonococcal SRP differ from those of previously described systems. GTP hydrolysis by PilA, but not that by Ffh, was stimulated by 4.5S RNA, suggesting a direct interaction between PilA and 4.5S RNA that has not been reported in other systems. This interaction was confirmed by gel retardation analyses in which PilA and Ffh, both alone and together, bound to 4.5S RNA. An additional novel finding was that P(pilE) DNA, previously shown by us to bind PilA in vitro, also stimulates PilA GTP hydrolysis. On the basis of these data, we hypothesize that DNA may play a role in targeting proteins via the SRP.
Project description:Correct targeting of membrane proteins is essential for membrane integrity, cell physiology, and viability. Cotranslational targeting depends on the universally conserved signal recognition particle (SRP), which is a ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of the protein component Ffh and the 4.5S RNA in Escherichia coli About 25?years ago it was reported that Ffh is an unstable protein, but the underlying mechanism has never been explored. Here, we show that Lon is the primary protease responsible for adjusting the cellular Ffh level. When overproduced, Ffh is particularly prone to degradation during transition from exponential to stationary growth and the cellular Ffh amount is lowest in stationary phase. The Ffh protein consists of two domains, the NG domain, responsible for GTP hydrolysis and docking to the membrane receptor FtsY, and the RNA-binding M domain. We find that the NG domain alone is stable, whereas the isolated M domain is degraded. Consistent with the importance of Lon in this process, the M domain confers synthetic lethality to the lon mutant. The Ffh homolog from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which forms a protein-protein complex rather than a protein-RNA complex, is stable, suggesting that the RNA-binding ability residing in the M domain of E. coli Ffh is important for proteolysis. Our results support a model in which excess Ffh not bound to 4.5S RNA is subjected to proteolysis until an appropriate Ffh concentration is reached. The differential proteolysis adjusts Ffh levels to the cellular demand and maintains cotranslational protein transport and membrane integrity.IMPORTANCE Since one-third of all bacterial proteins reside outside the cytoplasm, protein targeting to the appropriate address is an essential process. Cotranslational targeting to the membrane relies on the signal recognition particle (SRP), which is a protein-RNA complex in bacteria. We report that the protein component Ffh is a substrate of the Lon protease. Regulated proteolysis of Ffh provides a simple mechanism to adjust the concentration of the essential protein to the cellular demand. This is important because elevated or depleted SRP levels negatively impact protein targeting and bacterial fitness.
Project description:The signal recognition particle (SRP) from Escherichia coli, composed of Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA, mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal or signal-anchor sequence. SRP binds at the peptide exit of the large ribosomal subunit. Structural details of the interaction are not known. Here, the position of Ffh or SRP on the ribosome was probed by using site-specific UV-induced crosslinking by p-azidophenacyl bromide (AzP) attached to a number of cysteine residues engineered into surface positions of Ffh. Efficient crosslinking to vacant ribosomes took place from two positions (AzP17 and AzP25) in the N domain of Ffh, both with Ffh and SRP. Both AzP17 and AzP25 were predominantly crosslinked to ribosomal protein L23 that is located at the peptide exit of the 50S subunit. The SRP receptor, FtsY, did not change the crosslink pattern, whereas the presence of a nascent signal peptide on the ribosome resulted in a second crosslink between Ffh(AzP17) and protein L23, indicating that binding to the nascent signal peptide induced a slightly different arrangement of SRP on the ribosome. These results indicate a model of the topographical arrangement of SRP at the peptide exit of the 50S ribosomal subunit.
Project description:The UPF0054 protein family is highly conserved with homologues present in nearly every sequenced bacterium. In some bacteria, the respective gene is essential, while in others its loss results in a highly pleiotropic phenotype. Despite detailed structural studies, a cellular role for this protein family has remained unknown. We report here that deletion of the Escherichia coli homologue, YbeY, causes striking defects that affect ribosome activity, translational fidelity and ribosome assembly. Mapping of 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA termini reveals that YbeY influences the maturation of all three rRNAs, with a particularly strong effect on maturation at both the 5'- and 3'-ends of 16S rRNA as well as maturation of the 5'-termini of 23S and 5S rRNAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate strong genetic interactions between ybeY and rnc (encoding RNase III), ybeY and rnr (encoding RNase R), and ybeY and pnp (encoding PNPase), further suggesting a role for YbeY in rRNA maturation. Mutation of highly conserved amino acids in YbeY, allowed the identification of two residues (H114, R59) that were found to have a significant effect in vivo. We discuss the implications of these findings for rRNA maturation and ribosome assembly in bacteria.
Project description:KdpD is a four-spanning membrane protein that has two large cytoplasmic domains at the amino- and at the carboxyterminus, respectively. During its biogenesis KdpD binds to the signal recognition particle (SRP) of Escherichia coli that consists of a 48-kDa protein Ffh and a 4.5S RNA. The protein is targeted to the inner membrane surface and is released after contacting the SRP receptor protein FtsY. The information within the KdpD protein that confers SRP interaction was found in the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of KdpD, particularly at residues 22-48. Within this sequence a Walker A motif is present at residues 30-38. To determine the actual sequence specificity to SRP, a collection of mutants was constructed. When the KdpD peptides (residues 22-48) were fused to sfGFP the targeting to the membrane was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Further, nascent chains of KdpD bound to ribosomes were purified and their binding to SRP was analysed by microscale thermophoresis. We found that the amino acid residues R22, K24 and K26 are important for SRP interaction, whereas the residues G30, G34 and G36, essential for a functional Walker A motif, can be replaced with alanines without affecting the affinity to SRP-FtsY and membrane targeting.
Project description:The signal-recognition particle (SRP) of one of the most acidophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal cells, Acidianus ambivalens, and its putative receptor component, FtsY (prokaryotic SRP receptor), were investigated in detail. A. ambivalens Ffh (fifty-four-homologous protein) was shown to be a soluble protein with strong affinity to membranes. In its membrane-residing form, Ffh was extracted from plasma membranes with chaotropic agents like urea, but not with agents diminishing electrostatic interactions. Using unilamellar tetraether phospholipid vesicles, both Ffh and FtsY associate independently from each other in the absence of other factors, suggesting an equilibrium of soluble and membrane-bound protein forms under in vivo conditions. The Ffh protein precipitated from cytosolic cell supernatants with anti-Ffh antibodies, together with an 7 S-alike SRP-RNA, suggesting a stable core ribonucleoprotein composed of both components under native conditions. The SRP RNA of A. ambivalens depicted a size of about 309 nucleotides like the SRP RNA of the related organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. A stable heterodimeric complex composed of Ffh and FtsY was absent in cytosolic supernatants, indicating a transiently formed complex during archaeal SRP targeting. The FtsY protein precipitated in cytosolic supernatants with anti-FtsY antisera as a homomeric protein lacking accessory protein components. However, under in vitro conditions, recombinantly generated Ffh and FtsY associate in a nucleotide-independent manner, supporting a structural receptor model with two interacting apoproteins.
Project description:Two GTPases in the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor (SR) control the delivery of newly synthesized proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum or plasma membrane. During the protein targeting reaction, the 4.5S SRP RNA accelerates the association between the two GTPases by 400-fold. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrate here that formation of a stable SRP x SR complex involves two distinct steps: a fast initial association between SRP and SR to form a GTP-independent early complex and then a GTP-dependent conformational rearrangement to form the stable final complex. We also found that the 4.5S SRP RNA significantly stabilizes the early GTP-independent intermediate. Furthermore, mutational analyses show that there is a strong correlation between the ability of the mutant SRP RNAs to stabilize the early intermediate and their ability to accelerate SRP x SR complex formation. We propose that the SRP RNA, by stabilizing the early intermediate, can give this transient intermediate a longer life time and therefore a higher probability to rearrange to the stable final complex. This provides a coherent model that explains how the 4.5S RNA exerts its catalytic role in SRP x SR complex assembly.
Project description:The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to ribosomes synthesizing inner membrane proteins and, by interaction with the SRP receptor, FtsY, targets them to the translocon at the membrane. Here we probe the conformation of SRP and SRP protein, Ffh, at different stages of targeting by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorophores placed at various positions within SRP. Distances derived from FRET indicate that SRP binding to nontranslating ribosomes triggers a global conformational change of SRP that facilitates binding of the SRP receptor, FtsY. Binding of SRP to a signal-anchor sequence exposed on a ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) causes a further change of the SRP conformation, involving the flexible part of the Ffh(M) domain, which increases the affinity for FtsY of ribosome-bound SRP up to the affinity exhibited by the isolated NG domain of Ffh. This indicates that in the RNC-SRP complex the Ffh(NG) domain is fully exposed for binding FtsY to form the targeting complex. Binding of FtsY to the RNC-SRP complex results in a limited conformational change of SRP, which may initiate subsequent targeting steps.
Project description:The universally conserved signal recognition particle (SRP) system mediates the targeting of membrane proteins to the translocon in a multistep process controlled by GTP hydrolysis. Here we present the 2.6 Å crystal structure of the GTPase domains of the E. coli SRP protein (Ffh) and its receptor (FtsY) in complex with the tetraloop and the distal region of SRP-RNA, trapped in the activated state in presence of GDP:AlF4. The structure reveals the atomic details of FtsY recruitment and, together with biochemical experiments, pinpoints G83 as the key RNA residue that stimulates GTP hydrolysis. Insertion of G83 into the FtsY active site orients a single glutamate residue provided by Ffh (E277), triggering GTP hydrolysis and complex disassembly at the end of the targeting cycle. The complete conservation of the key residues of the SRP-RNA and the SRP protein implies that the suggested chemical mechanism of GTPase activation is applicable across all kingdoms.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic oral pathogen whose virulence is determined largely by its membrane composition. The signal recognition particle (SRP) protein-targeting pathway plays a pivotal role in membrane biogenesis. S. mutans SRP pathway mutants demonstrate growth defects, cannot contend with environmental stress, and exhibit multiple changes in membrane composition. This study sought to define a role for ylxM, which in S. mutans and numerous other bacteria resides directly upstream of the ffh gene, encoding a major functional element of the bacterial SRP. YlxM was observed as a produced protein in S. mutans. Its predicted helix-turn-helix motif suggested that it has a role as a transcriptional regulator of components within the SRP pathway; however, no evidence of transcriptional regulation was found. Instead, capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), affinity chromatography, and bio-layer interferometry (BLI) demonstrated that S. mutans YlxM interacts with the SRP components Ffh and small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) but not with the SRP receptor FtsY. In the absence of FtsY, YlxM increased the GTP hydrolysis activity of Ffh alone and in complex with scRNA. However, in the presence of FtsY, YlxM caused an overall diminution of net GTPase activity. Thus, YlxM appears to modulate GTP hydrolysis, a process necessary for proper recycling of SRP pathway components. The presence of YlxM conferred a significant competitive growth advantage under nonstress and acid stress conditions when wild-type and ylxM mutant strains were cultured together. Our results identify YlxM as a component of the S. mutans SRP and suggest a regulatory function affecting GTPase activity.