Fermentative Production of Cysteine by Pantoea ananatis.
ABSTRACT: Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB. These processes have been extensively studied using Escherichia coli for overproducing cysteine by fermentation. In this study, we genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to identify key factors required for cysteine production. According to this and our previous studies, we identified a major cysteine desulfhydrase gene, ccdA (formerly PAJ_0331), involved in cysteine degradation, and the cysteine efflux pump genes cefA and cefB (formerly PAJ_3026 and PAJ_p0018, respectively), which may be responsible for downregulating the intracellular cysteine level. Our findings revealed that ccdA deletion and cefA and cefB overexpression are crucial factors for establishing fermentative cysteine production in P. ananatis and for obtaining a higher cysteine yield when combined with genes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cysteine production in P. ananatis, which has fundamental implications for establishing overproduction in this microbe.IMPORTANCE The efficient production of cysteine is a major challenge in the amino acid fermentation industry. In this study, we identified cysteine efflux pumps and degradation pathways as essential elements and genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to establish the fermentative production of cysteine. This study provides crucial insights into the design and construction of cysteine-producing strains, which may play central roles in realizing commercial basis production.
Project description:Cysteine donates sulfur to macromolecules and occurs naturally in many proteins. Because low concentrations of cysteine are cytotoxic, its intracellular concentration is stringently controlled. In bacteria, cysteine biosynthesis is regulated by feedback inhibition of the activities of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) and is also regulated at the transcriptional level by inducing the cysteine regulon using the master regulator CysB. Here, we describe two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for biotechnological, medical, and industrial purposes. One locus, designated ccdA(formerly PAJ_0331), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine desulfhydrase (CD) that degrades cysteine, and its expression is controlled by the transcriptional regulator encoded byccdR(formerly PAJ_0332 orybaO), located just upstream of ccdA The other locus, designated cefA (formerly PAJ_3026), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine efflux pump that is controlled by the transcriptional regulator cefR(formerly PAJ_3027), located just upstream of cefA To our knowledge, this is the first example where the expression of CD and an efflux pump is regulated in response to cysteine and is directly involved in imparting resistance to excess levels of cysteine. We propose that ccdA and cefA function as safety valves that maintain homeostasis when the intra- or extracellular cysteine concentration fluctuates. Our findings contribute important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatisBecause of its toxicity, the bacterial intracellular cysteine level is stringently regulated at biosynthesis. This work describes the identification and characterization of two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate, through degradation and efflux, the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for industrial purposes. We propose that this novel mechanism for sensing and regulating cysteine levels is a safety valve enabling adaptation to sudden changes in intra- or extracellular cysteine levels in bacteria. Our findings provide important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatis and also a deep understanding of sulfur/cysteine metabolism and regulation in this plant pathogen and related bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pantoea ananatis, a member of the Enterobacteriacea family, is a new and promising subject for biotechnological research. Over recent years, impressive progress in its application to L-glutamate production has been achieved. Nevertheless, genetic and biotechnological studies of Pantoea ananatis have been impeded because of the absence of genetic tools for rapid construction of direct mutations in this bacterium. The lambda Red-recombineering technique previously developed in E. coli and used for gene inactivation in several other bacteria is a high-performance tool for rapid construction of precise genome modifications. RESULTS: In this study, the expression of lambda Red genes in P. ananatis was found to be highly toxic. A screening was performed to select mutants of P. ananatis that were resistant to the toxic affects of lambda Red. A mutant strain, SC17(0) was identified that grew well under conditions of simultaneous expression of lambda gam, bet, and exo genes. Using this strain, procedures for fast introduction of multiple rearrangements to the Pantoea ananatis genome based on the lambda Red-dependent integration of the PCR-generated DNA fragments with as short as 40 bp flanking homologies have been demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The lambda Red-recombineering technology was successfully used for rapid generation of chromosomal modifications in the specially selected P. ananatis recipient strain. The procedure of electro-transformation with chromosomal DNA has been developed for transfer of the marked mutation between different P. ananatis strains. Combination of these techniques with lambda Int/Xis-dependent excision of selective markers significantly accelerates basic research and construction of producing strains.
Project description:Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections.
Project description:Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulose into valuable products is often hindered by the presence of furfural, a dehydration product of pentoses in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. For a cost-effective lignocellulose microbial conversion, robust biocatalysts are needed that can tolerate toxic inhibitors while maintaining optimal metabolic activities. A comprehensive plasmid-based library encoding native multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps, porins, and select exporters from <i>Escherichia coli</i> was screened for furfural tolerance in an ethanologenic <i>E. coli</i> strain. Small multidrug resistance (SMR) pumps, such as SugE and MdtJI, as well as a lactate/glycolate:H<sup>+</sup> symporter, LldP, conferred furfural tolerance in liquid culture tests. Expression of the SMR pump potentially increased furfural efflux and cellular viability upon furfural assault, suggesting novel activities for SMR pumps as furfural efflux proteins. Furthermore, induced expression of <i>mdtJI</i> enhanced ethanol fermentative production of LY180 in the presence of furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, further demonstrating the applications of SMR pumps. This work describes an effective approach to identify useful efflux systems with desired activities for nonnative toxic chemicals and provides a platform to further enhance furfural efflux by protein engineering and mutagenesis.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Lignocellulosic biomass, especially agricultural residues, represents an important potential feedstock for microbial production of renewable fuels and chemicals. During the deconstruction of hemicellulose by thermochemical processes, side products that inhibit cell growth and production, such as furan aldehydes, are generated, limiting cost-effective lignocellulose conversion. Here, we developed a new approach to increase cellular tolerance by expressing multidrug resistance (MDR) pumps with putative efflux activities for furan aldehydes. The developed plasmid library and screening methods may facilitate new discoveries of MDR pumps for diverse toxic chemicals important for microbial conversion.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops, such as maize and rice, can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research performed on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review, we summarize the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P. ananatis and how this bacterium is able to adapt and survive in such a wide variety of habitats. The diversity and adaptability of P. ananatis can largely be attributed to the plasticity of its genome and the integration of mobile genetic elements on both the chromosome and plasmid. Furthermore, we discuss the recent interest in this species in various biotechnological applications. TAXONOMY:Domain Bacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species ananatis. DISEASE SYMPTOMS:Pantoea ananatis causes disease on a wide range of plants, and symptoms can range from dieback and stunted growth in Eucalyptus seedlings to chlorosis and bulb rotting in onions. DISEASE CONTROL:Currently, the only methods of control of P. ananatis on most plant hosts are the use of resistant clones and cultivars or the eradication of infected plant material. The use of lytic bacteriophages on certain host plants, such as rice, has also achieved a measure of success.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Efflux systems are involved in multidrug resistance in most Gram-negative non-fermentative bacteria. We have chosen Burkholderia thailandensis to dissect the development of multidrug resistance phenotypes under antibiotic pressure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used doxycycline selection to obtain several resistant B. thailandensis variants. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of a large panel of structurally unrelated antibiotics were determined ± the efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine-arginine ß-naphthylamide (PAßN). Membrane proteins were identified by proteomic method and the expressions of major efflux pumps in the doxycycline selected variants were compared to those of the parental strains by a quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Doxycycline selected variants showed a multidrug resistance in two major levels corresponding to the overproduction of two efflux pumps depending on its concentration: AmrAB-OprA and BpeEF-OprC. The study of two mutants, each lacking one of these pumps, indicated that a third pump, BpeAB-OprB, could substitute for the defective pump. Surprisingly, we observed antagonistic effects between PAßN and aminoglycosides or some ß-lactams. PAßN induced the overexpression of AmrAB-OprA and BpeAB-OprB pump genes, generating this unexpected effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results may account for the weak activity of PAßN in some Gram-negative species. We clearly demonstrated two antagonistic effects of this molecule on bacterial cells: the blocking of antibiotic efflux and an increase in efflux pump gene expression. Thus, doxycycline is a very efficient RND efflux pump inducer and PAßN may promote the production of some efflux pumps. These results should be taken into account when considering antibiotic treatments and in future studies on efflux pump inhibitors.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is the causative agent of sheath and grain rot in rice. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P. ananatis strain PA13, originally isolated from a diseased rice grain.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 is a newly identified member of the Enterobacteriaceae family with promising biotechnological applications. This bacterium is able to grow at an acidic pH and is resistant to saturating concentrations of L-glutamic acid, making this organism a suitable host for the production of L-glutamate. In the current study, the complete genomic sequence of P. ananatis AJ13355 was determined. The genome was found to consist of a single circular chromosome consisting of 4,555,536 bp [DDBJ: AP012032] and a circular plasmid, pEA320, of 321,744 bp [DDBJ: AP012033]. After automated annotation, 4,071 protein-coding sequences were identified in the P. ananatis AJ13355 genome. For 4,025 of these genes, functions were assigned based on homologies to known proteins. A high level of nucleotide sequence identity (99%) was revealed between the genome of P. ananatis AJ13355 and the previously published genome of P. ananatis LMG 20103. Short colinear regions, which are identical to DNA sequences in the Escherichia coli MG1655 chromosome, were found to be widely dispersed along the P. ananatis AJ13355 genome. Conjugal gene transfer from E. coli to P. ananatis, mediated by homologous recombination between short identical sequences, was also experimentally demonstrated. The determination of the genome sequence has paved the way for the directed metabolic engineering of P. ananatis to produce biotechnologically relevant compounds.
Project description:Fire Blight is a destructive disease of apple and pear caused by the enteric bacterial pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. E. amylovora initiates infection by colonizing the stigmata of apple and pear trees, and entering the plants through natural openings. Epiphytic populations of the related enteric bacterium, Pantoea, reduce the incidence of disease through competition and antibiotic production. In this study, we identify an antibiotic from Pantoea ananatis BRT175, which is effective against E. amylovora and select species of Pantoea. We used transposon mutagenesis to create a mutant library, screened approximately 5,000 mutants for loss of antibiotic production, and recovered 29 mutants. Sequencing of the transposon insertion sites of these mutants revealed multiple independent disruptions of an 8.2 kb cluster consisting of seven genes, which appear to be coregulated. An analysis of the distribution of this cluster revealed that it was not present in any other of our 115 Pantoea isolates, or in any of the fully sequenced Pantoea genomes, and is most closely related to antibiotic biosynthetic clusters found in three different species of Pseudomonas. This identification of this biosynthetic cluster highlights the diversity of natural products produced by Pantoea.
Project description:To successfully infect plant hosts, the collective regulation of virulence factors in a bacterial pathogen is crucial. Hfq is an RNA chaperone protein that facilitates the small RNA (sRNA) regulation of global gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, the functional role of Hfq in a broad host range phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis was determined. Inactivation of the hfq gene in P. ananatis LMG 2665T resulted in the loss of pathogenicity and motility. In addition, there was a significant reduction of quorum sensing signal molecule acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) production and biofilm formation. Differential sRNA expression analysis between the hfq mutant and wild-type strains of P. ananatis revealed 276 sRNAs affected in their abundance by the loss of hfq at low (OD600 = 0.2) and high cell (OD600 = 0.6) densities. Further analysis identified 25 Hfq-dependent sRNAs, all showing a predicted Rho-independent terminator of transcription and mapping within intergenic regions of the P. ananatis genome. These included known sRNAs such as ArcZ, FnrS, GlmZ, RprA, RyeB, RyhB, RyhB2, Spot42, and SsrA, and 16 novel P. ananatis sRNAs. The current study demonstrated that Hfq is an important component of the collective regulation of virulence factors and sets a foundation for understanding Hfq-sRNA mediated regulation in the phytopathogen P. ananatis.