Identification of androgen-responsive lncRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of mortality among males. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are subclass of noncoding RNAs that may act as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this study, we firstly conducted analysis of global lncRNA expression patterns by using our own cohort (GSE73397) and two public available gene expression datasets: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and GSE55909. Next, we performed microarray to observe genome-wide lncRNAs' expressions under dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulation in LNCaP cells (GSE72866), and overlapped the result with ChIPBase data to predict androgen-responsive lncRNAs with ARE. Combined the two results, a total of 44 androgen-responsive lncRNAs with ARE were found to be over-expressed in PCa samples. Ten lncRNAs were selected for further validation by examining their expressions in LNCaP cells under DHT stimulation, and in PCa samples and cell lines. Among them, RP1-4514.2, LINC01138, SUZ12P1 and KLKP1 were validated as directly AR-targeted lncRNAs by ChIP-PCR. Then we conducted a bioinformatic analysis to identify lncRNAs as putative prognostic and therapeutic targets by using TCGA data. Three androgen-responsive lncRNAs, LINC01138, SUZ12P1 and SNHG1 showed association with gleason score and pT-stage. The biological functions of LINC01138 and SUZ12P1 were also evaluated, both lncRNAs promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of PCa. These results provide potent information for exploring potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer, especially for castration-resistant PCa.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) is the major therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Anti-androgens to reduce or prevent androgens binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth; however, the androgen depletion therapy is only effective for a short period of time. Here we found a natural product/Chinese herbal medicine cryptotanshinone (CTS), with a structure similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can effectively inhibit the DHT-induced AR transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth. Our results indicated that 0.5 ?M CTS effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, but has little effect on AR negative PC-3 cells and non-malignant prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, our data indicated that CTS could modulate AR transactivation and suppress the DHT-mediated AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive PCa LNCaP cells and castration resistant CWR22rv1 cells. Importantly, CTS selectively inhibits AR without repressing the activities of other nuclear receptors, including ER?, GR, and PR. The mechanistic studies indicate that CTS functions as an AR inhibitor to suppress androgen/AR-mediated cell growth and PSA expression by blocking AR dimerization and the AR-coregulator complex formation. Furthermore, we showed that CTS effectively inhibits CWR22Rv1 cell growth and expressions of AR target genes in the xenograft animal model. The previously un-described mechanisms of CTS may explain how CTS inhibits the growth of PCa cells and help us to establish new therapeutic concepts for the treatment of PCa.
Project description:Despite androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling enables outgrowth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In prostate cancer (PCa) cells, ADT may enhance AR activity through induction of oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2, transcription factors that regulate antioxidant gene expression, on hormone-mediated AR transactivation using a syngeneic in vitro model of androgen dependent (LNCaP) and castration resistant (C4-2B) PCa cells. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated transactivation of the androgen response element (ARE) was significantly greater in C4-2B cells than in LNCaP cells. DHT-induced AR transactivation was coupled with higher nuclear translocation of p65-Nrf1 in C4-2B cells, as compared to LNCaP cells. Conversely, DHT stimulation suppressed total Nrf2 levels in C4-2B cells but elevated total Nrf2 levels in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, siRNA mediated silencing of Nrf1 attenuated AR transactivation while p65-Nrf1 overexpression enhanced AR transactivation. Subsequent studies showed that Nrf1 physically interacts with AR and enhances AR's DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the p65-Nrf1 isoform is a potential AR coactivator. In contrast, Nrf2 suppressed AR-mediated transactivation by stimulating the nuclear accumulation of the p120-Nrf1 which suppressed AR transactivation. Quantitative RT-PCR studies further validated the inductive effects of p65-Nrf1 isoform on the androgen regulated genes, PSA and TMPRSS2. Therefore, our findings implicate differential roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2 in regulating AR transactivation in PCa cells. Our findings also indicate that the DHT-stimulated increase in p65-Nrf1 and the simultaneous suppression of both Nrf2 and p120-Nrf1 ultimately facilitates AR transactivation in CRPC cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide, shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behaviour representing the epiphenomenon of an extreme heterogeneity. Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced forms but after few years the majority of patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form that poses considerable therapeutic challenges. METHODS:Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and reporter assays, and in vivo studies were performed to characterize androgen resistant sublines phenotype in comparison to the parental cell line LNCaP. RNA microarray, mass spectrometry, integrative transcriptomic and proteomic differential analysis coupled with GeneOntology and multivariate analyses were applied to identify deregulated genes and proteins involved in CRPC evolution. RESULTS:Treating the androgen-responsive LNCaP cell line for over a year with 10 ?M bicalutamide both in the presence and absence of 0.1 nM 5-?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) we obtained two cell sublines, designated PDB and MDB respectively, presenting several analogies with CRPC. Molecular and functional analyses of PDB and MDB, compared to the parental cell line, showed that both resistant cell lines were PSA low/negative with comparable levels of nuclear androgen receptor devoid of activity due to altered phosphorylation; cell growth and survival were dependent on AKT and p38MAPK activation and PARP-1 overexpression; their malignant phenotype increased both in vitro and in vivo. Performing bioinformatic analyses we highlighted biological processes related to environmental and stress adaptation supporting cell survival and growth. We identified 15 proteins that could direct androgen-resistance acquisition. Eleven out of these 15 proteins were closely related to biological processes involved in PCa progression. CONCLUSIONS:Our models suggest that environmental factors and epigenetic modulation can activate processes of phenotypic adaptation driving drug-resistance. The identified key proteins of these adaptive phenotypes could be eligible targets for innovative therapies as well as molecules of prognostic and predictive value.
Project description:Mechanisms by which non-coding RNAs contribute to the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (PCa) (HSPC) to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) remain largely unknown. We previously showed that microRNA-221/222 is up-regulated in CRPC and plays a critical role in modulating androgen receptor function during CRPC development. With further investigation, we characterized a putative promoter region located 23.3?kb upstream of the miR-221/222 gene, and this promoter is differentially activated in CRPC LNCaP-Abl cells, leading to the up-regulation of miR-221/222. Upon promoter activation, a set of polyadenylated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MIR222HGs was transcribed from this promoter region. Over-expression of these MIR222HGs increased androgen-independent cell growth and repressed the expression of androgen receptor-regulated dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced KLK3, TMPRSS2, and FKBP5 in HSPC LNCaP cells, hallmarks of the CRPC phenotype. Clinically, increased expression of MIR222HG is associated with PCa progression to CRPC. In primary tumors, expression levels of MIR222HG and miR-221/222 inversely correlate with Gleason score and androgen receptor (AR) pathway activity. Interestingly, MIR222HG is Argonaute 2-bound and its expression is Dicer 1-dependent, suggesting its functional association with the RNA-induced silencing complex. Further studies led to the hypothesis that MIR222HG may potentially affect miR-mediated expression silencing, subsequently leading to AR reprogramming. Our study highlights an essential role of a non-coding RNA in CRPC development and that differential activation of a single promoter can up-regulate two different types of non-coding RNAs, miR-221/222 and lncRNA MIR222HG, in CRPC. Additionally, this study reveals a novel function of lncRNAs as a modulator of Argonaute-mediated RNA-induced silencing complex.
Project description:Dysfunctions of androgen/TGF-? signaling play important roles in prostate tumorigenesis. Prostate Transmembrane Protein Androgen Induced 1 (PMEPA1) inhibits androgen and TGF-? signaling via a negative feedback loop. The loss of PMEPA1 confers resistance to androgen signaling inhibitors and promotes bone metastasis. Conflicting reports on the expression and biological functions of PMEPA1 in prostate and other cancers propelled us to investigate isoform specific functions in prostate cancer (PCa). One hundred and twenty laser capture micro-dissection matched normal prostate and prostate tumor tissues were analyzed for correlations between quantitative expression of PMEPA1 isoforms and clinical outcomes with Q-RT-PCR, and further validated with a The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq dataset of 499 PCa. Cell proliferation was assessed with cell counting, plating efficiency and soft agar assay in androgen responsive LNCaP and TGF-? responsive PC3 cells. TGF-? signaling was measured by SMAD dual-luciferase reporter assay. Higher PMEPA1-a mRNA levels indicated biochemical recurrence (p = 0.0183) and lower PMEPA1-b expression associated with metastasis (p = 0.0173). Further, lower PMEPA1-b and a higher ratio of PMEPA1-a vs. -b were correlated to higher Gleason scores and lower progression free survival rate (p < 0.01). TGF-?-responsive PMEPA1-a promoted PCa cell growth, and androgen-responsive PMEPA1-b inhibited cancer cell proliferation. PMEPA1 isoforms -a and -b were shown to be promising candidate biomarkers indicating PCa aggressiveness including earlier biochemical relapse and lower disease specific life expectancy via interrupting androgen/TGF-? signaling.
Project description:Dioscin possesses antioxidant effects and has anticancer ability in many solid tumors including prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, its effect and mechanism of anti-PCa action remain unclear. The tyrosine protein phosphatase SHP1, which contains an oxidation-sensitive domain, has been confirmed as a target for multicancer treatment. Further studies are needed to determine whether dioscin inhibits PCa through SHP1. We performed in vitro studies using androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (LNCaP -C81) cells to investigate the anticancer effects and possible mechanisms of dioscin after administering interleukin-6 (IL-6) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Our results show that dioscin inhibited cell growth and invasion by increasing SHP1 phosphorylation [p-SHP1 (Y536)] and inhibiting the subsequent P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Further in vivo studies confirmed that dioscin promoted caspase-3 and Bad-related cell apoptosis in these two cell lines. Our research suggests that the anticancer effects of dioscin on PCa may occur through SHP1. Dioscin may be useful to treat androgen-sensitive and independent PCa in the future.
Project description:AR signaling is essential for the growth and survival of prostate cancer (PCa), including most of the lethal castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). We previously reported that TGF-? signaling in prostate stroma promotes prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth. By using a PCa/stroma co-culture model, here we show that stromal TGF-? signaling induces comprehensive morphology changes of PCa LNCaP cells. Furthermore, it induces AR activation in LNCaP cells in the absence of significant levels of androgen, as evidenced by induction of several AR target genes including PSA, TMPRSS2, and KLK4. SD-208, a TGF-? receptor 1 specific inhibitor, blocks this TGF-? induced biology. Importantly, stromal TGF-? signaling together with DHT induce robust activation of AR. MDV3100 effectively blocks DHT-induced, but not stromal TGF-? signaling induced AR activation in LNCaP cells, indicating that stromal TGF-? signaling induces both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR activation in PCa. TGF-? induces the expression of several growth factors and cytokines in prostate stromal cells, including IL-6, and BMP-6. Interestingly, BMP-6 and IL-6 together induces robust AR activation in these co-cultures, and neutralizing antibodies against BMP-6 and IL-6 attenuate this action. Altogether, our study strongly suggests tumor stromal microenvironment induced AR activation as a direct mechanism of CRPC.
Project description:Kaempferol is a well-known natural flavonol reported to be a potential treatment for multiple cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that cell growth of androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells could be inhibited 33% by 5??M kaempferol, around 60% by 10??M kaempferol, and almost 100% by 15??M kaempferol. Also, kaempferol showed relatively limited effect on PC-3 cells and nonmalignant RWPE-1 cells. In the presence of DHT, the IC50 for kaempferol was 28.8 ± 1.5??M in LNCaP cells, 58.3 ± 3.5??M in PC-3 cells, and 69.1 ± 1.2??M in RWPE-1 cells, respectively. Kaempferol promotes apoptosis of LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Then, luciferase assay data showed that kaempferol could inhibit the activation of androgen receptors induced by DHT significantly. The downstream targets of androgen receptors, such as PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1, were found decreased in the presence of kaempferol in qPCR data. It was then confirmed that the protein level of PSA was decreased. Kaempferol inhibits AR protein expression and nuclear accumulation. Kaempferol suppressed vasculogenic mimicry of PC-3 cells in an in vitro study. In conclusion, kaempferol is a promising therapeutic candidate for treatment of prostate cancer, where the androgen signaling pathway as well as vasculogenic mimicry are involved.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in both androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known about AR target genes that mediate the receptor's roles in disease progression.Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Display, we discovered 19 novel loci occupied by the AR in castrate resistant C4-2B PCa cells. Only four of the 19 AR-occupied regions were within 10-kb 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. Three were located up to 4-kb 3' of the nearest gene, eight were intragenic and four were in gene deserts. Whereas the AR occupied the same loci in C4-2B (castrate resistant) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) PCa cells, differences between the two cell lines were observed in the response of nearby genes to androgens. Among the genes strongly stimulated by DHT in C4-2B cells--D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), Protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), Glutathione S- transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), and Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1)--most were less strongly or hardly stimulated in LNCaP cells. Another AR target gene, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), was AR-stimulated in a ligand-independent manner, since it was repressed by AR siRNA knockdown, but not stimulated by DHT. We also present evidence for in vivo AR-mediated regulation of several genes identified by ChIP Display. For example, PRKCD and PYCR1, which may contribute to PCa cell growth and survival, are expressed in PCa biopsies from primary tumors before and after ablation and in metastatic lesions in a manner consistent with AR-mediated stimulation.AR genomic occupancy is similar between LNCaP and C4-2B cells and is not biased towards 5' gene flanking sequences. The AR transcriptionally regulates less than half the genes nearby AR-occupied regions, usually but not always, in a ligand-dependent manner. Most are stimulated and a few are repressed. In general, response is stronger in C4-2B compared to LNCaP cells. Some of the genes near AR-occupied regions appear to be regulated by the AR in vivo as evidenced by their expression levels in prostate cancer tumors of various stages. Several AR target genes discovered in the present study, for example PRKCD and PYCR1, may open avenues in PCa research and aid the development of new approaches for disease management.
Project description:Proliferation and maintenance of both normal and prostate cancer (PCa) cells is highly regulated by steroid hormones, particularly androgens, and the extracellular environment. Herein, we identify the secretion of CD9 positive extracellular vesicles (EV) by LNCaP and DUCaP PCa cells in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and use nano-LC-MS/MS to identify the proteins present in these EV. Subsequent bioinformatic and pathway analyses of the mass spectrometry data identified pathologically relevant pathways that may be altered by EV contents. Western blot and CD9 EV TR-FIA assay confirmed a specific increase in the amount of CD9 positive EV in DHT-treated LNCaP and DUCaP cells and treatment of cells with EV enriched with CD9 after DHT exposure can induce proliferation in androgen-deprived conditions. siRNA knockdown of endogenous CD9 in LNCaPs reduced cellular proliferation and expression of AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) however knockdown of AR did not alter CD9 expression, also implicating CD9 as an upstream regulator of AR. Moreover CD9 positive EV were also found to be significantly higher in plasma from prostate cancer patients in comparison with benign prostatic hyperplasia patients. We conclude that CD9 positive EV are involved in mediating paracrine signalling and contributing toward prostate cancer progression.