Better pathologic complete response and relapse-free survival after carboplatin plus paclitaxel compared with epirubicin plus paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer: a randomized phase 2 trial.
ABSTRACT: No standard chemotherapy is used as neoadjuvant therapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study has compared carboplatin plus paclitaxel with commonly used epirubicin plus paclitaxel as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in TNBC.91 patients with a median age of 47 years (PC 47 patients, EP 44 patients) were enrolled. 65% of the patients were premenopausal. While the objective response rate was similar in the PC and EP arm (89.4% vs. 79.5%, P = 0.195), the pCR rate in the PC arm was significantly higher (38.6% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.014). The median follow-up time was 55.0 months. 5-year RFS were 77.6% and 56.2%, significantly higher in the PC arm, P = 0.043. No significant difference in OS was observed between the two arms (P = 0.350). Adverse events were similar, except for more thrombocytopenia in the PC arm (P = 0.001).Patients with stage II/III TNBC were randomized to receive either paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, day1) plus carboplatin (Area Under the Curve = 5, day2) (PC) or epirubicin (75mg/m2, day1) plus paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, day2) (EP) as NAC every three weeks for 4-6 cycles. The primary endpoint was rate of pathologic complete response (pCR).The secondary endpoints included relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS) and safety.This study suggested that the addition of carboplatin to paclitaxel was superior to the regimen of epirubicin plus paclitaxel as NAC for TNBC in terms of improving pCR rate and RFS. Further phase 3 study has already started.
Project description:Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis.Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemotherapy regimens were included. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence to assess pooled odds ratios (ORs) and draw the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curves.Thirteen eligible RCTs were included in this network meta-analysis, including 8 chemotherapy regimens (paclitaxel?+?carboplatin [PC], pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD]?+?carboplatin, carboplatin, gemcitabine?+?carboplatin, paclitaxel, PC?+?epirubicin, PC?+?topotecan, docetaxel?+?carboplatin). Gemcitabine?+?carboplatin regimen exerted higher incidence of anemia when compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel regimens. The incidence of febrile neutropenia of gemcitabine?+?carboplatin regimen was higher than that of PC, PLD?+?carboplatin, carboplatin, and PC?+?topotecan regimens. Topotecan PC?+?epirubicin regimen had a higher toxicity, comparing with PC, PLD?+?carboplatin, and PC?+?topotecan regimens. As for thrombocytopenia, gemcitabine?+?carboplatin chemotherapy regimen produced an obviously higher toxicity than PC and carboplatin. As for nausea, PLD?+?carboplatin chemotherapy regimen had a significantly higher toxicity than that of carboplatin chemotherapy regimen. Moreover, when compared with PC and carboplatin chemotherapy regimens, the toxicity of PC?+?epirubicin was greatly higher to patients with AOC.The nonhematologic toxicity of PLD?+?carboplatin regimen was higher than other regimens, which was clinically significant for the treatment of AOC.
Project description:This study compared the short-term efficacies of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) through pair-wise and network meta-analyses (NMA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in a comprehensive online literature search met our inclusion criteria. Direct and indirect evidence was combined to compare odds ratios (OR) and surfaces under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) across the different treatment regimens. Twelve eligible RCTs were finally included, involving eight regimens (Paclitaxel + Carboplatin [PC], Gemcitabine + Carboplatin [GC], Carboplatin, Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin + Carboplatin [PLD + Carboplatin], Paclitaxel, Paclitaxel + Carboplatin + Topotecan [PC + Topotecan], Paclitaxel + Carboplatin + Epirubicin [PC + Epirubicin] and Docetaxel + Carboplatin [DC]). The NMA results revealed that in terms of overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR), PC (ORR: OR=2.59, 95%CI=1.20-6.22; DCR: OR=2.58, 95%CI=1.05-6.82) and GC (ORR: OR=2.08, 95%CI=1.08-4.37; DCR: OR=2.43, 95%CI=1.07-5.80) were more effective against AOC than Carboplatin alone. Similarly, PC (OR=0.21, 95%CI=0.05-0.69), GC (OR=0.31, 95%CI=0.09-0.90) and PLD + Carboplatin (OR=0.22, 95%CI=0.04-0.92) slowed disease progression better than Carboplatin alone. We also found that PC was more efficacious against AOC than Carboplatin or Paclitaxel single-agent chemotherapy. Combination chemotherapy is thus recommended for AOC, and should guide subsequent drug development and treatment strategies.
Project description:Objective:The objective of this open-label, randomized study was to compare dose-dense paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PCdd) with dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (ECdd-P) as an adjuvant chemotherapy for early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods:We included Chinese patients with high recurrence risk TNBC who underwent primary breast cancer surgery. They were randomly assigned to receive PCdd [paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 on d 1 and carboplatin, the area under the curve, (AUC)=3 on d 2] or ECdd-P (epirubicin 80 mg/m2 divided in 2 d and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 on d 1 for 4 cycles followed by paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 on d 1 for 4 cycles) every 2 weeks with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. Results:The intent-to-treat population included 143 patients (70 in the PCdd arm and 73 in the ECdd-P arm). Compared with the ECdd-P arm, the PCdd arm had significantly higher 3-year DFS [93.9% vs. 79.1%; hazard ratio (HR)=0.310; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.137-0.704; log-rank, P=0.005] and OS (98.5% vs. 92.9%; HR=0.142; 95% CI, 0.060-0.825; log-rank, P=0.028). Worse neutropenia (grade 3/4) was found in the ECdd-P than the PCdd arm (47.9% vs. 21.4%, P=0.001). Conclusions:PCdd was superior to ECdd-P as an adjuvant chemotherapy for early TNBC with respect to improving the 3-year DFS and OS. PCdd also yielded lower hematological toxicity. Thus, PCdd might be a preferred regimen for early TNBC patients with a high recurrence risk.
Project description:Importance:The value of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains controversial, as does whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) germline variants are associated with platinum treatment sensitivity. Objective:To compare 6 cycles of paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PCb) with a standard-dose regimen of 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel (CEF-T). Design, Setting, and Participants:This phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 9 cancer centers and hospitals in China. Between July 1, 2011, and April 30, 2016, women aged 18 to 70 years with operable TNBC after definitive surgery (having pathologically confirmed regional node-positive disease or node-negative disease with tumor diameter >10 mm) were screened and enrolled. Exclusion criteria included having metastatic or locally advanced disease, having non-TNBC, or receiving preoperative anticancer therapy. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020, from the intent-to-treat population as prespecified in the protocol. Interventions:Participants were randomized to receive PCb (paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 and carboplatin [area under the curve?=?2] on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for 6 cycles) or CEF-T (cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2, epirubicin 100 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles followed by docetaxel 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary end points included overall survival, distant DFS, relapse-free survival, DFS in patients with germline variants in BRCA1/2 or homologous recombination repair (HRR)-related genes, and toxicity. Results:A total of 647 patients (mean [SD] age, 51 [44-57] years) with operable TNBC were randomized to receive CEF-T (n?=?322) or PCb (n?=?325). At a median follow-up of 62 months, DFS time was longer in those assigned to PCb compared with CEF-T (5-year DFS, 86.5% vs 80.3%, hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.65; 95% CI, 0.44-0.96; P?=?.03). Similar outcomes were observed for distant DFS and relapse-free survival. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between the groups (HR?=?0.71; 95% CI, 0.42-1.22, P?=?.22). In the exploratory and hypothesis-generating subgroup analyses of PCb vs CEF-T, the HR for DFS was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.15-1.31; P?=?.14) in patients with the BRCA1/2 variant and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.15-0.99; P?=?.04) in those with the HRR variant. Safety data were consistent with the known safety profiles of relevant drugs. Conclusions and Relevance:These findings suggest that a paclitaxel-plus-carboplatin regimen is an effective alternative adjuvant chemotherapy choice for patients with operable TNBC. In the era of molecular classification, subsets of TNBC sensitive to PCb should be further investigated. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01216111.
Project description:PURPOSE:Prognostic value of pathologic complete response (pCR) and extent of pathologic response attained with anthracycline-free platinum plus taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is unknown. We report recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) according to degree of pathologic response in patients treated with carboplatin plus docetaxel NAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:One-hundred and ninety patients with stage I-III TNBC were treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin (AUC6) plus docetaxel (75 mg/m2) every 21 days × 6 cycles. pCR (no evidence of invasive tumor in breast and axilla) and Residual cancer burden (RCB) were evaluated. Patients were followed for recurrence and survival. Extent of pathologic response was associated with RFS and OS using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:Median age was 51 years, and 52% were node-positive. pCR and RCB I rates were 55% and 13%, respectively. Five percent of pCR patients, 0% of RCB I patients, and 58% of RCB II/III patients received adjuvant anthracyclines. Three-year RFS and OS were 79% and 87%, respectively. Three-year RFS was 90% in patients with pCR and 66% in those without pCR [HR = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.62; P = 0.0001]. Three-year OS was 94% in patients with pCR and 79% in those without pCR (HR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.63; P = 0.001). Patients with RCB I demonstrated 3-year RFS (93%) and OS (100%) similar to those with pCR. On multivariable analysis, higher tumor stage, node positivity, and RCB II/III were associated with worse RFS. CONCLUSIONS:Neoadjuvant carboplatin plus docetaxel yields encouraging efficacy in TNBC. Patients achieving pCR or RCB I with this regimen demonstrate excellent 3-year RFS and OS without adjuvant anthracycline.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Honeybee development consists of four stages: embryo, larva, pupa and adult. Embryogenesis, a key process of cell division and differentiation, takes 3 days in honeybees. However, the embryonic transcriptome and the dynamic regulation of embryonic transcription are still largely uncharacterized in honeybees, especially in the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana). Here, we employed high-quality RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of Asian honeybee embryos at three ages, approximately 24, 48 and 72 h (referred to as Day1, Day2 and Day3, respectively). RESULTS:Nine embryo samples, three from each age, were collected for RNA-seq. According to the staging scheme of honeybee embryos and the morphological features we observed, our Day1, Day2 and Day3 embryos likely corresponded to the late stage four, stage eight and stage ten development stages, respectively. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed that same-age samples were grouped together, and the Day2 samples had a closer relationship with the Day3 samples than the Day1 samples. Finally, a total of 18,284 genes harboring 55,646 transcripts were detected in the A. cerana embryos, of which 44.5% consisted of the core transcriptome shared by all three ages of embryos. A total of 4088 upregulated and 3046 downregulated genes were identified among the three embryo ages, of which 2010, 3177 and 1528 genes were upregulated and 2088, 2294 and 303 genes were downregulated from Day1 to Day2, from Day1 to Day3 and from Day2 to Day3, respectively. The downregulated genes were mostly involved in cellular, biosynthetic and metabolic processes, gene expression and protein localization, and macromolecule modification; the upregulated genes mainly participated in cell development and differentiation, tissue, organ and system development, and morphogenesis. Interestingly, several biological processes related to the response to and detection of light stimuli were enriched in the first-day A. cerana embryogenesis but not in the Apis mellifera embryogenesis, which was valuable for further investigations. CONCLUSIONS:Our transcriptomic data substantially expand the number of known transcribed elements in the A. cerana genome and provide a high-quality view of the transcriptome dynamics of A. cerana embryonic development.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2?(HER2/neu), which renders hormone-related endocrine and targeted therapy essentially futile.We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of antitumor regimens in the treatment of TNBC patients.We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, through January 2017 using the following keywords: "triple negative breast cancer," "TNBC," and "random*" without language restrictions. The major outcome in the present analysis was the overall response rate (ORR), and the secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A network meta-analysis and multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression were used to compare antitumor regimens.We included 35 articles assessing a total of 8476 TNBC patients in our systematic review. The regimen of Bevacizumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel (78.2%) was the most likely to improve the ORR in TNBC patients, followed by EndoTAG-1 and Paclitaxel (69.7%), Carboplatin and Paclitaxel (65.0%), and Bevacizumab and Paclitaxel (61.8%). In the patients without metastasis, the regimen of Bevacizumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel (74.9%) remained the most likely to improve the ORR. We could not analyze the results for patients with metastasis or outcomes of PFS and OS because no >4 regimens formed a network. In the regression analysis, Bevacizumab (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-2.05; P?<?.001) and Carboplatin (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.62-2.64; P?<?.001) correlated with superior ORR outcome, and Iniparib (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.11-2.07; P?=?.009) correlated with superior OS outcome.The regimen including Bevacizumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel was the most likely to improve the ORR in TNBC patients and in advanced metastatic TNBC patients. The administration of Bevacizumab and Carboplatin provided greater benefit toward improved patient ORR.
Project description:Importance:Capecitabine is not considered a standard agent in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. The results of this study suggest that addition of adjuvant capecitabine to a regimen that contains docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide improves survival outcomes of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Objective:To investigate the effect of capecitabine on long-term survival outcomes of patients with early breast cancer, particularly in subgroups defined by cancer estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) content, and HER2 content (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Design, Setting, and Participants:This is an exploratory analysis of the multicenter FinXX randomized clinical trial that accrued 1500 women in Finland and Sweden between January 27, 2004, and May 29, 2007. About half received 3 cycles of docetaxel followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (T+CEF), while the other half received 3 cycles of docetaxel plus capecitabine followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and capecitabine (TX+CEX). Data analysis took place between January 27, 2004, and December 31, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures:Recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results:Following random allocation, 747 women received T+CEF, and 753 women received TX+CEX. Five patients were excluded from the intention-to-treat population (3 had overt distant metastases at the time of randomization; 2 withdrew consent). The median age of the remaining 1495 patients was 53 years at the time of study entry; 157 (11%) had axillary node-negative disease; 1142 (76%) had ER-positive cancer; and 282 (19%) had HER2-positive cancer. The median follow-up time after random allocation was 10.3 years. There was no significant difference in RFS or overall survival between the groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.08; P = .23; and HR, 0.84, 95% CI, 0.66-1.07; P = .15; respectively). Breast cancer-specific survival tended to favor the capecitabine group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.04; P = .10). When RFS and survival of the patients were compared within the subgroups defined by cancer steroid hormone receptor status (ER and/or PR positive vs ER and PR negative) and HER2 status (positive vs negative), TX+CEX was more effective than T+CEF in the subset of patients with TNBC (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.92; P = .02; and HR, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.31-0.96; P = .03; respectively). Conclusions and Relevance:Capecitabine administration with docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide did not prolong RFS or survival compared with a regimen that contained only standard agents. Patients with TNBC had favorable survival outcomes when treated with the capecitabine-containing regimen in an exploratory subgroup analysis. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00114816.
Project description:To investigate the safety, activity, and potential biomarkers of response to olaparib and carboplatin combination in sporadic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Metastatic or recurrent TNBC patients with no germline BRCA mutation or with BRCAPro scores <10% and a negative family history were eligible. A 3+3 dose escalation tested olaparib capsules (400mg bid, days1-7) with carboplatin AUC3-5 on day1 or 2 every 21 days, ? 8 cycles, with olaparib 400mg bid maintenance. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected for polymorphisms and PAR levels, and paired tumor biopsies (pre-/post-cycle 1) for proteomics and apoptosis endpoints.28 women were treated (median 5 prior regimens [0-12]). Dose-limiting toxicity was thrombocytopenia, and symptomatic hyponatremia with carboplatin AUC5. The maximum tolerated dose was olaparib 400mg bid+carboplatin AUC4. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events included neutropenia (36%), thrombocytopenia (11%), and anemia (11%). Responses included 1 complete response (CR; 69+months) and 5/27 partial responses (19%; median 4months [4-7]), for a response rate of 22%. Biomarker findings did not correlate with response. The long-term CR patient with prior negative BRCA testing was found to have deletion of BRCA1 exons1-2.The olaparib/carboplatin combination is tolerable and has modest activity in sporadic TNBC patients. Further evaluation of predictive biomarkers to identify those with BRCA wild type who had response is warranted.
Project description:There is no consensus on the therapeutic approach to ECOG 2 patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), despite the sizable percentage of these patients in clinical practice. This study focused on the efficacy, toxicity and the optimal chemotherapy regimen of CCRT in ECOG 2 patients in a phase III trial. Patients capable of all self-care with bed rest for less than 50% of daytime were classified as ECOG 2 subgroup. A subgroup analysis was performed for ECOG 2 patients recruited in the phase III trial receiving concurrent EP (etoposide + cisplatin)/PC (paclitaxel + carboplatin) chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). A total of 71 ECOG 2 patients were enrolled into the study. Forty-six (64.8%) patients were treated with IMRT technique. The median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) for ECOG 2 patients were 16.4?months and 9?months, respectively. No difference was observed in treatment compliance and toxicities between ECOG 2 patients and ECOG 0-1 patients. Within the ECOG 2 group (31 in the EP arm and 40 in the PC arm), median OS and 3-year OS were 15.7?months and 37.5% for the EP arm, and 16.8?months and 7.5% for the PC arm, respectively (p?=?0.243). The incidence of grade???3 radiation pneumonitis was higher in the PC arm (17.5% vs. 0.0%, p?=?0.014) with 5 radiation pneumonitis related deaths, while the incidence of grade 3 esophagitis was numerically higher in the EP arm (25.8% vs. 10.0%, p?=?0.078). CCRT provided ECOG 2 patients promising outcome with acceptable toxicities. EP might be superior to PC in terms of safety profile in the setting of CCRT for ECOG 2 patients. Prospective randomized studies based on IMRT technique are warranted to validate our findings. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01494558. (Registered 19 December 2011).