CPAP Treatment Partly Normalizes Sleep Spindle Features in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
ABSTRACT: Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decreases sleep spindle density and frequency. We evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on different features of sleep spindles. Methods. Twenty OSA patients underwent two night polysomnographies in a diagnostic phase and one night polysomnography after 6 months of CPAP treatment. The control group comprised 20 healthy controls. Sleep spindles were analyzed by a previously developed automated method. Unilateral and bilateral spindles were identified in central and frontopolar brain locations. Spindle density and frequency were determined for the first and last half of the NREM time. Results. The density of bilateral central spindles, which did not change in the untreated OSA patients, increased towards the morning hours during CPAP treatment and in the controls. Central spindles did not become faster with sleep in OSA patients and the central spindles remained slow in the left hemisphere even with CPAP. Conclusion. CPAP treatment normalized spindle features only partially. The changes may be associated with deficits in thalamocortical spindle generating loops. Significance. This study shows that some sleep spindle changes persist after CPAP treatment in OSA patients. The association of these changes to daytime symptoms in OSA patients needs to be further evaluated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sleep spindles, as detected on scalp electroencephalography (EEG), are considered to be markers of thalamo-cortical network integrity. Since obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known cause of brain dysfunction, the aim of this study was to investigate sleep spindle frequency distribution in OSA. Seven non-OSA subjects and 21 patients with OSA (11 mild and 10 moderate) were studied. A matching pursuit procedure was used for automatic detection of fast (?13 Hz) and slow (<13 Hz) spindles obtained from 30 min samples of NREM sleep stage 2 taken from initial, middle and final night thirds (sections I, II and III) of frontal, central and parietal scalp regions. RESULTS: Compared to non-OSA subjects, Moderate OSA patients had higher central and parietal slow spindle percentage (SSP) in all night sections studied, and higher frontal SSP in sections II and III. As the night progressed, there was a reduction in central and parietal SSP, while frontal SSP remained high. Frontal slow spindle percentage in night section III predicted OSA with good accuracy, with OSA likelihood increased by 12.1%for every SSP unit increase (OR 1.121, 95% CI 1.013-1.239, p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with diffuse, predominantly frontal thalamo-cortical dysfunction during sleep in OSA, as more posterior brain regions appear to maintain some physiological spindle frequency modulation across the night. Displaying changes in an opposite direction to what is expected from the aging process itself, spindle frequency appears to be informative in OSA even with small sample sizes, and to represent a sensitive electrophysiological marker of brain dysfunction in OSA.
Project description:Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter sleep spindles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, however the topographic changes to these functionally significant waveforms have yet to be fully elucidated. This study utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to investigate topographic changes in sleep spindles and spindle-range activity caused by temazepam during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults. After an accommodation night, sleep for all participants was recorded on two separate nights after taking either placebo or oral temazepam 15 mg. Sleep was monitored using 256-channel hdEEG. Spectral analysis and spindle waveform detection of sleep EEG data were performed for each participant night. Global and topographic data were subsequently compared between temazepam and placebo conditions. Temazepam was associated with significant increases in spectral power from 10.33 to 13.83 Hz. Within this frequency band, temazepam broadly increased sleep spindle duration, and topographically increased spindle amplitude and density in frontal and central-posterior regions, respectively. Higher frequency sleep spindles demonstrated increased spindle amplitude and a paradoxical decrease in spindle density in frontal and centroparietal regions. Further analysis demonstrated temazepam both slowed the average frequency of spindle waveforms and increased the relative proportion of spindles at peak frequencies in frontal and centroparietal regions. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines have diverse effects on sleep spindles that vary by frequency and cortical topography. Further research that explores the relationships between topographic and frequency-dependent changes in pharmacologically-induced sleep spindles and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated.
Project description:Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) describes intermittent collapse of the airway during sleep, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is often prescribed for treatment. Prior studies suggest that discontinuation of CPAP leads to a gradual, rather than immediate return of baseline severity of OSA. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of OSA recurrence during short intervals of CPAP depressurization during sleep.Nine obese (BMI = 40.4 ± 3.5) subjects with severe OSA (AHI = 88.9 ± 6.8) adherent to CPAP were studied during one night in the sleep laboratory. Nasal CPAP was delivered at therapeutic (11.1 ± 0.6 cm H20) or atmospheric pressure, in alternating fashion for 1-hour periods during the night. We compared sleep architecture and metrics of OSA during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods.8/9 subjects tolerated CPAP withdrawal. The average AHI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off periods was 3.6 ± 0.6 and 15.8 ± 3.6 respectively (p<0.05). The average 3% ODI during CPAP-on and CPAP-off was 4.7 ± 2 and 20.4 ± 4.7 respectively (p<0.05). CPAP depressurization also induced more awake (p<0.05) and stage N1 (p<0.01) sleep, and less stage REM (p<0.05) with a trend towards decreased stage N3 (p = 0.064).Acute intermittent depressurization of CPAP during sleep led to deterioration of sleep architecture but only partial re-emergence of OSA. These observations suggest carryover effects of CPAP.
Project description:Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. METHODS: Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only patients with total correction after CPAP were included. Patients underwent two sleep studies on consecutive nights: the first night a basal study, and the second with CPAP. We also analyzed the heart rate changes and their relationship with CPAP treatment, sleep stages, sex and body mass index. Twenty-minute segments of the ECG were selected from the sleep periods of REM, no-REM and awake. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were studied by comparing the R-R interval in the different conditions. We also compared samples from the basal study and CPAP nights. RESULTS: 39 patients (15 females, 24 males) were studied. The mean age was 50.67 years old, the mean AHI was 48.54, and mean body mass index was 33.41 kg/m(2) (31.83 males, 35.95 females). Our results showed that HRV (SDNN) decreased after the use of CPAP during the first night of treatment, especially in non-REM sleep. Gender and obesity did not have any influence on our results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that cardiac variability improves as an acute effect, independently of gender or weight, in the first night of CPAP use in severe OSA patients, supporting the idea of continuous use and emphasizing that noncompliance of CPAP treatment should be avoided even if it is just once.
Project description:Sleep spindles are related to sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. However, they undergo drastic maturational changes during adolescence. Here we used a longitudinal approach (across 7 years) to explore whether developmental changes in sleep spindle density can explain individual differences in sleep-dependent memory consolidation and general cognitive abilities. Ambulatory polysomnography was recorded during four nights in 34 healthy subjects (24 female) with two nights (baseline and experimental) at initial recording (age range 8-11 years) and two nights at follow-up recording (age range 14-18 years). For declarative learning, participants encoded word pairs with a subsequent recall before and after sleep. General cognitive abilities were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Higher slow (11-13 Hz) than fast (13-15 Hz) spindle density at frontal, central, and parietal sites during initial recordings, followed by a shift to higher fast than slow spindle density at central and parietal sites during follow-up recordings, suggest that mature spindle topography develops throughout adolescence. Fast spindle density increases from baseline to experimental night were positively related to sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition, we found that the development of fast spindles predicted the improvement in memory consolidation across the two longitudinal measurements, a finding that underlines a crucial role for mature fast spindles for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Furthermore, slow spindle changes across adolescence were related to general cognitive abilities, a relationship that could indicate the maturation of frontal networks relevant for efficient cognitive processing. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NXJzm8HbIw and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuMQY1OIJ0s.
Project description:Several studies proposed a link between sleep spindles and sleep dependent memory consolidation in declarative learning tasks. In addition to these state-like aspects of sleep spindles, they have also trait-like characteristics, i.e., were related to general cognitive performance, an important distinction that has often been neglected in correlative studies. Furthermore, from the multitude of different sleep spindle measures, often just one specific aspect was analyzed. Thus, we aimed at taking multidimensional aspects of sleep spindles into account when exploring their relationship to word-pair memory consolidation.Each subject underwent 2 study nights with all-night high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Sleep spindles were automatically detected in all EEG channels. Subjects were trained and tested on a word-pair learning task in the evening, and retested in the morning to assess sleep related memory consolidation (overnight retention). Trait-like aspects refer to the mean of both nights and state-like aspects were calculated as the difference between night 1 and night 2.Sleep laboratory.Twenty healthy male subjects (age: 23.3 ± 2.1 y).Overnight retention was negatively correlated with trait-like aspects of fast sleep spindle density and positively with slow spindle density on a global level. In contrast, state-like aspects were observed for integrated slow spindle activity, which was positively related to the differences in overnight retention in specific regions.Our results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional approach when investigating the relationship between sleep spindles and memory consolidation and thereby provide a more complete picture explaining divergent findings in the literature.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Based on associations between sleep spindles, cognition, and sleep-dependent memory processing, here we evaluated potential relationships between levels of CSF Aβ42, P-tau, and T-tau with sleep spindle density and other biophysical properties of sleep spindles in a sample of cognitively normal elderly individuals. METHODS:One-night in-lab nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) and morning to early afternoon CSF collection were performed to measure CSF Aβ42, P-tau and T-tau. Seven days of actigraphy were collected to assess habitual total sleep time. RESULTS:Spindle density during NREM stage 2 (N2) sleep was negatively correlated with CSF Aβ42, P-tau and T-tau. From the three, CSF T-tau was the most significantly associated with spindle density, after adjusting for age, sex and ApoE4. Spindle duration, count and fast spindle density were also negatively correlated with T-tau levels. Sleep duration and other measures of sleep quality were not correlated with spindle characteristics and did not modify the associations between sleep spindle characteristics and the CSF biomarkers of AD. CONCLUSIONS:Reduced spindles during N2 sleep may represent an early dysfunction related to tau, possibly reflecting axonal damage or altered neuronal tau secretion, rendering it a potentially novel biomarker for early neuronal dysfunction. Given their putative role in memory consolidation and neuroplasticity, sleep spindles may represent a mechanism by which tau impairs memory consolidation, as well as a possible target for therapeutic interventions in cognitive decline.
Project description:Sleep spindles are thought to induce synaptic changes and thereby contribute to memory consolidation during sleep. Patients with schizophrenia show dramatic reductions of both spindles and sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which may be causally related.To examine the relations of sleep spindle activity to sleep-dependent consolidation of motor procedural memory, 21 chronic, medicated schizophrenia outpatients and 17 healthy volunteers underwent polysomnography on two consecutive nights. On the second night, participants were trained on the finger-tapping motor sequence task (MST) at bedtime and tested the following morning. The number, density, frequency, duration, amplitude, spectral content, and coherence of stage 2 sleep spindles were compared between groups and examined in relation to overnight changes in MST performance.Patients failed to show overnight improvement on the MST and differed significantly from control participants who did improve. Patients also exhibited marked reductions in the density (reduced 38% relative to control participants), number (reduced 36%), and coherence (reduced 19%) of sleep spindles but showed no abnormalities in the morphology of individual spindles or of sleep architecture. In patients, reduced spindle number and density predicted less overnight improvement on the MST. In addition, reduced amplitude and sigma power of individual spindles correlated with greater severity of positive symptoms.The observed sleep spindle abnormalities implicate thalamocortical network dysfunction in schizophrenia. In addition, the findings suggest that abnormal spindle generation impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, contributes to positive symptoms, and is a promising novel target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
Project description:Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation.Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning. We detected SWs (0.5-4 Hz) and spindles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. We measured SW-spindle phase-amplitude coupling and its relation with overnight improvement in MST performance.Patients did not differ from controls in the timing of SW-spindle coupling. In both the groups, spindles peaked during the SW upstate. For patients alone, the later in the SW upstate that spindles peaked and the more reliable this phase relationship, the greater the overnight MST improvement. Regression models that included both spindle density and SW-spindle coordination predicted overnight improvement significantly better than either parameter alone, suggesting that both contribute to memory consolidation.Schizophrenia patients show intact spindle-SW temporal coordination, and these timing relationships, together with spindle density, predict sleep-dependent memory consolidation. These relations were seen only in patients suggesting that their memory is more dependent on optimal spindle-SW timing, possibly due to reduced spindle density. Interventions to improve memory may need to increase spindle density while preserving or enhancing the coordination of NREM oscillations.