Screening for hereditary angioedema (HAE) at 13 emergency centers in Osaka, Japan: A prospective observational study.
ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with deficiency of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The objective is to study the incidence of HAE among patients who visit the emergency department.This was a 3-year prospective observational screening study involving 13 urban tertiary emergency centers in Osaka prefecture, Japan. Patients were included if they met the following criteria: unexplained edema of the body, upper airway obstruction accompanied by edema, anaphylaxis, acute abdomen with intestinal edema (including ileus and acute pancreatitis), or asthma attack. C1-INH activity and C4 level were measured at the time of emergency department admission during the period between July 2011 and June 2014.This study comprised 66 patients with a median age of 54.0 (IQR: 37.5-68.3) years. Three patients were newly diagnosed as having HAE, and 1 patient had already been diagnosed as having HAE. C1-INH activity levels of the patients with HAE were below the detection limit (<25%), whereas those of non-HAE patients (n = 62) were 106% (IQR: 85.5%-127.0%) (normal range, 70%-130%). The median level of C4 was significantly lower in the patients with HAE compared with those without HAE (1.2 [IQR: 1-3] mg/dL vs 22 [IQR: 16.5-29.5] mg/dL, P?
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease that commonly manifests with episodes of cutaneous or submucosal angioedema and intense abdominal pain. The condition usually presents due to a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) that leads to the overproduction of bradykinin, causing an abrupt increase in vascular permeability. A less-understood and less-common form of the disease presents with normal C1-INH levels. Symptoms of angioedema may be confused initially with mast cell-mediated angioedema, such as allergic reactions, and may perplex physicians when epinephrine, antihistamine, or glucocorticoid therapies do not provide relief. Similarly, abdominal attacks may lead to unnecessary surgeries or opiate dependence. All affected individuals are at risk for a life-threatening episode of laryngeal angioedema, which continues to be a source of fatalities due to asphyxiation. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is delayed on average by almost a decade due to a misunderstanding of symptoms and general lack of awareness of the disease. Once physicians suspect HAE, however, diagnostic methods are reliable and available at most laboratories, and include testing for C4, C1-INH protein, and C1-INH functional levels. In patients with HAE, management consists of acute treatment of an attack as well as possible short- or long-term prophylaxis. Plasma-derived C1-INH, ecallantide, icatibant, and recombinant human C1-INH are new treatments that have been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of HAE attacks. The current understanding of HAE has greatly improved in recent decades, leading to growing awareness, new treatments, improved management strategies, and better outcomes for patients.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is characterized by relapsing, non-pruritic swelling in skin and submucosal tissue. Symptoms can appear in early infancy when diagnosis is more difficult. In the absence of a correct diagnosis, treatment of abdominal attacks often lead to unnecessary surgery, and laryngeal edema can cause asphyxiation. A cohort study of 52 patients from 25 unrelated families in Norway was studied. Diagnosis of C1-INH-HAE was based on international consensus criteria including low functional and/or antigenic C1-INH values and antigenic C4. As SERPING1 mutations in Norwegian patients with C1-INH-HAE are largely undescribed and could help in diagnosis, we aimed to find and describe these mutations. Mutation analysis of the SERPING1 gene was performed by Sanger sequencing of all protein coding exons and exon-intron boundaries. Samples without detected mutation were further analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect deletions and duplications. Novel mutations suspected to lead to splice defects were analyzed on the mRNA level. Fifty-two patients from 25 families were included. Forty-four (84,6%) suffered from C1-INH-HAE type I and eight (15,4%) suffered from C1-INH-HAE type II. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were found in 22/25 families (88%). Thirteen unique mutations were detected, including six previously undescribed. There were three missense mutations including one mutation affecting the reactive center loop at codon 466, three nonsense mutations, three small deletions/duplications, three gross deletions, and one splice mutation.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent swelling attacks that can be disabling and sometimes fatal. Long-term prophylaxis with twice-weekly intravenous injections of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor (pdC1-INH) has been established as an effective treatment. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of pdC1-INH has not been studied in patients with HAE.This open-label, dose-ranging, crossover study (COMPACT Phase II) was conducted in 18 patients with type I or II HAE who received two of twice-weekly 1500, 3000, or 6000 IU SC doses of highly concentrated volume-reduced CSL830 for 4 weeks each. The mean trough plasma levels of C1-INH functional activity, C1-INH and C4 antigen levels during Week 4, and overall safety and tolerability were evaluated. The primary outcome was model-derived steady-state trough C1-INH functional activity.After SC CSL830 administration, a dose-dependent increase in trough functional C1-INH activity was observed. C1-INH and C4 levels both increased. The two highest dose groups (3000 and 6000 IU) achieved constant C1-INH activity levels above 40% values, a threshold that was assumed to provide clinical protection against angioedema attacks. Compared with intravenous injection, pdC1-INH SC injection with CSL830 showed a lower peak-to-trough ratio and more consistent exposures. All doses were well tolerated. Mild-to-moderate local site reactions were noted with pain and swelling being the most common adverse event.Subcutaneous volume-reduced CSL830 was well tolerated and led to a dose-dependent increase in physiologically relevant functional C1-INH plasma levels. A clinical outcome study of SC CSL830 in patients with HAE warrants further investigation.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disease caused by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, characterized by periodic attacks of acute edema affecting subcutaneous (SC) tissues and mucous membranes. Human C1-INH concentrate given intravenously (IV) is effective and safe, but venous access may be difficult. We compared SC and IV administration of human pasteurized C1-INH concentrate with respect to pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety.This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover study. Twenty-four subjects with mild or moderate HAE were randomly assigned during an attack-free interval to receive 1000 units of human pasteurized C1-INH concentrate IV or SC. Plasma levels of C1-INH activity and antigen, C4 antigen, cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen (clHK), and C1-INH antibodies were measured.The mean relative bioavailability of functional C1-INH after SC administration was 39.7%. Maximum C1-INH activity after SC administration occurred within 48 hours and persisted longer than after IV administration. C4 antigen levels increased and clHK levels decreased after IV and SC administration, indicating the pharmacodynamic action of C1-INH. The mean half-life of functional C1-INH was 62 hours after IV administration and 120 hours after SC administration (p=0.0595). C1-INH concentrate was safe and well tolerated when administered via both routes. As expected, SC administration resulted in a higher incidence of injection site reactions, all of which were mild.With a relative bioavailability of 39.7%, SC administration of human pasteurized C1-INH yields potentially clinically relevant and sustained plasma levels of C1-INH and is safe and well tolerated.
Project description:The genetic alteration underlying the great majority of primary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor (nl-C1-INH-HAE) cases remains unknown. To search for variants associated with nl-C1-INH-HAE, we genotyped 133 unrelated nl-C1-INH-HAE patients using a custom next-generation sequencing platform targeting 55 genes possibly involved in angioedema pathogenesis. Patients already diagnosed with F12 alterations as well as those with histaminergic acquired angioedema were excluded. A variant pathogenicity curation strategy was followed, including a comparison of the results with those of genotyping 169 patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), and only filtered-in variants were studied further. Among the examined nl-C1-INH-HAE patients, carriers of neither the ANGPT1 p.Ala119Ser nor the KNG1 p.Met379Lys variant were found, whereas the PLG p.Lys330Glu was detected in four (3%) unrelated probands (one homozygote). In total, 182 different variants were curated, 21 of which represented novel mutations. Although the frequency of variants per gene was comparable between nl-C1-INH-HAE and C1-INH-HAE, variants of the KNG1 and XPNPEP1 genes were detected only in nl-C1-INH-HAE patients (six and three, respectively). Twenty-seven filtered variants in 23 different genes were detected in nl-C1-INH-HAE more than once, whereas 69/133 nl-C1-INH-HAE patients had compound heterozygotes of filtered variants located in the same or different genes. Pedigree analysis was performed where feasible. Our results indicate the role that alterations in some genes, like KNG1, may play in disease pathogenesis, the complex trait that is possibly underlying in some cases, and the existence of hitherto unrecognized disease endotypes.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor (C1-inh). The mutations cause decreased functional plasma levels of C1-inh, which triggers unpredictable recurrent edema attacks. Subjects suffering from HAE have been classified in type I patients with decreased functional and antigenic levels of C1-inh, and type II patients with decreased functional but normal antigenic C1-inh levels. However, a few reports have demonstrated that some mutations cause C1-inh polymerization in vitro, and it is speculated that C1-inh polymers may exist in patient plasma, challenging the current classification of HAE patients. To investigate the presence of C1-inh polymers in patient plasma samples, we developed an immunological method, where monoclonal antibodies produced against polymerized C1-inh were applied in native PAGE western blotting. Using this approach we analyzed genuine plasma samples from 31 Danish HAE families, and found that plasma samples from three genotypically distinct HAE type I families (classified upon C1-inh plasma concentrations) contained C1-inh polymers. Identical C1-inh polymerization phenotypes were observed in four affected family members from one of these families. Genotyping of the families revealed that the polymerogenic mutations of two families were located in proximity to the reactive center loop insertion site in C1-inh (p.Ile271Thr and p.Ser258_Pro260del),and one mutation affected helix C (p.Thr167Asn). In conclusion, we demonstrate that C1-inh polymers are present in the plasma of a subgroup of HAE type I patients.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare but life-threatening condition, manifests as acute attacks of facial, laryngeal, genital, or peripheral swelling or abdominal pain secondary to intra-abdominal edema. Resulting from mutations affecting C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), inhibitor of the first complement system component, attacks are not histamine-mediated and do not respond to antihistamines or corticosteroids. Low awareness and resemblance to other disorders often delay diagnosis; despite availability of C1-INH replacement in some countries, no approved, safe acute attack therapy exists in the United States. The biennial C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency Workshops resulted from a European initiative for better knowledge and treatment of HAE and related diseases. This supplement contains work presented at the third workshop and expanded content toward a definitive picture of angioedema in the absence of allergy. Most notably, it includes cumulative genetic investigations; multinational laboratory diagnosis recommendations; current pathogenesis hypotheses; suggested prophylaxis and acute attack treatment, including home treatment; future treatment options; and analysis of patient subpopulations, including pediatric patients and patients whose angioedema worsened during pregnancy or hormone administration. Causes and management of acquired angioedema and a new type of angioedema with normal C1-INH are also discussed. Collaborative patient and physician efforts, crucial in rare diseases, are emphasized. This supplement seeks to raise awareness and aid diagnosis of HAE, optimize treatment for all patients, and provide a platform for further research in this rare, partially understood disorder.
Project description:Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is characterized by recurrent edema of unpredictable frequency and severity. Stress, anxiety, and low mood are among the triggering factors most frequently reported. Impaired regulation and processing of emotions, also known as alexithymia, may influence outcomes. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of alexithymia and stress in children with C1-INH-HAE, to determine whether they are also present in children affected by other chronic diseases, and to investigate their relationship with C1-INH-HAE severity. Data from children with C1-INH-HAE (n?=?28) from four reference centers in Italy were compared with data from children with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n?=?23) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n?=?25). Alexithymia was assessed using the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children scale; perceived stress was assessed using the Coddington Life Event Scale for Children (CLES-C).Mean age (standard deviation [SD]) in the C1-INH-HAE, T1D, and RA groups was 11.8 (3.3), 11.7 (2.9), and 11.1 (2.6) years, respectively. Mean C1-INH-HAE severity score was 5.9 (2.1), indicating moderate disease. Alexithymia scores were similar among disease groups and suggestive of difficulties in identifying and describing emotions; CLES-C scores tended to be worse in C1-INH-HAE children. C1-INH-HAE severity was found to correlate significantly and positively with alexithymia (p?=?0.046), but not with perceived stress. Alexithymia correlated positively with perceived stress.Alexithymia is common in children with chronic diseases. In C1-INH-HAE, it may result in increased perceived stress and act as a trigger of edema attacks. Comprehensive management of C1-INH-HAE children should consider psychological factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) experience recurrent attacks of cutaneous or submucosal edema that may be frequent and severe; prophylactic treatments can be prescribed to prevent attacks. However, despite the use of long-term prophylaxis (LTP), breakthrough attacks are known to occur. We used data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) to evaluate the characteristics of breakthrough attacks and the effectiveness of icatibant as a treatment option. METHODS:Data on LTP use, attacks, and treatments were recorded. Attack characteristics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes (time to treatment, time to resolution, and duration of attack) were compared for attacks that occurred with versus without LTP. RESULTS:Data on 3228 icatibant-treated attacks from 448 patients with C1-INH-HAE were analyzed; 30.1% of attacks occurred while patients were using LTP. Attack rate, attack severity, and the distribution of attack sites were similar across all types of LTP used, and were comparable to the results found in patients who did not receive LTP. Attacks were successfully treated with icatibant; 82.5% of all breakthrough attacks were treated with a single icatibant injection without C1-INH rescue medication. Treatment outcomes were comparable for breakthrough attacks across all LTP types, and for attacks without LTP. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who use LTP should be aware that breakthrough attacks can occur, and such attacks can be severe. Thus, patients with C1-INH-HAE using LTP should have emergency treatment readily available. Data from IOS show that icatibant is effective for the treatment of breakthrough attacks. Trial Registration NCT01034969.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is caused by mutations in the C1inh gene, leading to dysfunction of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). C1-INH interacts with MASP-1 and MASP-2 proteases, participating in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway of complement activation. The aim of the study was to investigate the contribution of possible changes in MBL/MASP-2 complex activity and Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections to the severity and frequency of clinical symptoms of HAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 65 patients with HAE and 113 healthy persons. The parameters measured were C1-INH, C4, MBL concentration and MBL/MASP-2 complex activity, and serological markers of H. pylori, HBV, and HCV infection. Scores for the frequency and severity of HAE symptoms were determined. RESULTS: HAE scores were significantly higher in patients whose C1-INH activity did not exceed 10% than in patients with activity of 10-52% (p=0.016). No significant differences were found in the median levels of MBL concentration and MBL/MASP-2 complex activity between patients and the control group. There was a slight association between contact with H. pylori in patients and HAE symptom score (p=0.052, not significant). Adult patients showed a 2.6-times higher frequency of anti-HBc than the general population. HBV DNA was negative in anti-HBc(+) patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the MBL complement activation pathway itself does not contribute to the frequency of angioedema attacks. Infections with H. pylori and HBV may slightly influence the disease score (not significant).