Younger black patients have a higher risk of infection mortality that is mostly non-dialysis related: A national study of cause-specific mortality among U.S. maintenance dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: While it has been well documented that in the U.S., black and Hispanic dialysis patients have overall lower risks of death than white dialysis patients, little is known whether their lower risks are observed in cause-specific deaths. Additionally, recent research reported that younger black patients have a higher risk of death, but the source is unclear. Therefore, this study examined cause-specific deaths among US dialysis patients by race/ethnicity and age.This national study included 1,255,640 incident dialysis patients between 1995 and 2010 in the United States Renal Data System. Five cause-specific mortality rates, including cardiovascular (CVD), infection, malignancy, other known causes (miscellaneous), and unknown, were compared across blacks, Hispanics, and whites overall and stratified by age groups.After multiple adjustments, Hispanic patients had the lowest risk of mortality for every major cause in almost all ages. Compared with whites, blacks had a lower risk of death from CVD, malignancy and miscellaneous causes in most age groups, but not from infection. In fact, blacks had a higher risk of infection death than whites in ages 18-30 years (HR [95% CI] 1.94 [1.69-2.23]; P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abnormalities in serum potassium are risk factors for sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias among dialysis patients. Although a previous study in hemodialysis patients has shown that race/ethnicity may impact the relationship between serum potassium and mortality, the relationship remains unclear among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients where the dynamics of serum potassium is more stable. METHODS:Among 17,664 patients who started PD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 in a large US dialysis organization, we evaluated the association of serum potassium levels with all-cause and arrhythmia-related deaths across race/ethnicity using time-dependent Cox models with adjustments for demographics. We also used restricted cubic spline functions for serum potassium levels to explore non-linear associations. RESULTS:Baseline serum potassium levels were the highest among Hispanics (4.2 ± 0.7 mEq/L) and lowest among non-Hispanic blacks (4.0 ± 0.7 mEq/L). Among 2,949 deaths during the follow-up of median 2.2 (interquartile ranges 1.3-3.2) years, 683 (23%) were arrhythmia-related deaths. Overall, both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia (i.e., serum potassium levels >5.0 and <3.5 mEq/L, respectively) were associated with higher all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality. In a stratified analysis according to race/ethnicity, the association of hypokalemia with all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality was consistent with an attenuation for arrhythmia-related mortality in non-Hispanic blacks. Hyperkalemia was associated with all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality in non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, but no association was observed in Hispanics. CONCLUSION:Among incident PD patients, hypokalemia was consistently associated with all-cause and arrhythmia-related deaths irrespective of race/ethnicity. However, while hyperkalemia was associated with both death outcomes in non-Hispanic blacks and whites, it was not associated with either death outcome in Hispanic patients. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether different strategies should be followed for the management of serum potassium levels according to race/ethnicity.
Project description:Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ?20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Data on racial disparities in home dialysis utilization and outcomes are lacking in Canada, where health care is universally available. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We studied patients starting maintenance dialysis between 1996 and 2012 in the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, stratified by race: white, Asian, black, Aboriginal, Indian subcontinent, and other. The association between race and treatment with home dialysis was examined using generalized linear models. Secondary outcomes assessed racial differences in all-cause mortality and technique failure using a Fine and Gray competing risk model. RESULTS:66,600 patients initiated chronic dialysis between 1996 and 2012. Compared with whites (n=46,092), treatment with home dialysis was lower among Aboriginals (n=3866; adjusted relative risk, RR, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.66 to 0.76) and higher in Asians (n=4157; adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.35) and others (n=2170; adjusted RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.20) but similar in blacks (n=2143) and subcontinent Indians (n=2809). Black (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.48) and Aboriginal (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33) patients treated with peritoneal dialysis had a significantly higher adjusted risk of technique failure compared with whites, whereas Asians had a lower risk (adjusted HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99). In patients on peritoneal dialysis, the risk of death was significantly lower in Asians (adjusted HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.92), blacks (adjusted HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.85), and others (adjusted HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.92) but higher in Aboriginals (adjusted HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32) compared with whites. Among patients on home hemodialysis, no significant racial differences in patient and technique survival were observed, which may be limited by the low number of events among each subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:With the exception of Aboriginals, all racial minority groups in Canada were as likely to be treated with home dialysis compared with whites. However, significant racial differences exist in outcomes.
Project description:CKD is associated with higher risk of death, but details regarding differences in cause-specific death in CKD are unclear. We examined the leading causes of death among a non-dialysis-dependent CKD population using an electronic medical record-based CKD registry in a large healthcare system and the Ohio Department of Health mortality files. We included 33,478 white and 5042 black patients with CKD who resided in Ohio between January 2005 and September 2009 and had two measurements of eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) obtained 90 days apart. Causes of death (before ESRD) were classified into cardiovascular, malignancy, and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases and non-disease-related causes. During a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 6661 of 38,520 patients (17%) with CKD died. Cardiovascular diseases (34.7%) and malignant neoplasms (31.8%) were the leading causes of death, with malignancy-related deaths more common among those with earlier stages of kidney disease. After adjusting for covariates, each 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decline in eGFR was associated with higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.12) and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) but not to malignancy. In the adjusted models, blacks had overall-mortality hazard ratios similar to those of whites but higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular deaths. Further studies to confirm these findings and explain the mechanisms for differences are warranted. In addition to lowering cardiovascular burden in CKD, efforts to target known risk factors for cancer at the population level are needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Racial and ethnic minorities on dialysis survive longer than whites, and are less likely to discontinue dialysis. Both differences have been attributed by some clinicians to better health among minorities on dialysis.<h4>Methods</h4>To test if racial and ethnic differences in dialysis discontinuation reflected better health, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of survival and dialysis discontinuation among patients on maintenance dialysis in the US Renal Data System after hospitalization for either stroke (<i>n</i>=60,734), lung cancer (<i>n</i>=4100), dementia (<i>n</i>=40,084), or failure to thrive (<i>n</i>=42,950) between 2003 and 2014. We examined the frequency of discontinuation of dialysis and used simulations to estimate survival in minorities relative to whites if minorities had the same pattern of dialysis discontinuation as whites.<h4>Results</h4>Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians had substantially lower frequencies of dialysis discontinuation than whites in each hospitalization cohort. Observed risks of mortality were also lower for blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. In simulations that assigned discontinuation patterns similar to those found among whites across racial and ethnic groups, differences in survival were markedly attenuated and hazard ratios approached 1.0. Survival and dialysis discontinuation frequencies among American Indians and Alaska Natives were close to those of whites.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Racial and ethnic differences in dialysis discontinuation were present among patients hospitalized with similar health events. Among these patients, survival differences between racial and ethnic minorities and whites were largely attributable to differences in the frequency of discontinuation of dialysis.
Project description:Home dialysis, which comprises peritoneal dialysis (PD) or home hemodialysis (home HD), offers patients with ESRD greater flexibility and independence. Although ESRD disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities, data on disparities in use and outcomes with home dialysis are sparse. We analyzed data of patients who initiated maintenance dialysis between 2007 and 2011 and were admitted to any of 2217 dialysis facilities in 43 states operated by a single large dialysis organization, with follow-up through December 31, 2011 (n =: 162,050, of which 17,791 underwent PD and 2536 underwent home HD for ?91 days). Every racial/ethnic minority group was significantly less likely to be treated with home dialysis than whites. Among individuals treated with in-center HD or PD, racial/ethnic minorities had a lower risk for death than whites; among individuals undergoing home HD, only blacks had a significantly lower death risk than whites. Blacks undergoing PD or home HD had a higher risk for transfer to in-center HD than their white counterparts, whereas Asians or others undergoing PD had a lower risk than whites undergoing PD. Blacks irrespective of dialysis modality, Hispanics undergoing PD or in-center HD, and Asians and other racial groups undergoing in-center HD were significantly less likely than white counterparts to receive a kidney transplant. In conclusion, there are racial/ethnic disparities in use of and outcomes with home dialysis in the United States. Disparities in kidney transplantation evident for blacks and Hispanics undergoing home dialysis are similar to those with in-center HD. Future studies should identify modifiable causes for these disparities.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Few studies have linked high levels of plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) with poor clinical outcomes in patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD), while the association between intact FGF23 and mortality in this group of patients remains inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma levels of intact FGF23 and mortality in dialysis patients. METHODS:A prospective multicenter study involving patients undergoing dialysis at three dialysis centers in Johannesburg was undertaken between 1st October 2014 and 31st December 2017. RESULTS:The study comprised 165 chronic dialysis patients (111 blacks, 54 whites) with a mean age of 46.6 ±14.2 years. During a three year follow up period, there were 46 deaths (1.03 per 100 person-years). The median plasma FGF 23 level was 382 pg/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 145-2977). In adjusted multivariable analyses, there was a non-statistically significant increase in the risk of mortality with higher quartiles of FGF 23 levels: the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the second, third and fourth quantiles were HR 3.20 (95% CI, 0.99-10.35; P = 0.052), HR 2.43(95% CI,0.65-9.09; P = 0.19), and HR 2.09 (95% CI, 0.66-7.32; P = 0.25),respectively. Corrected serum calcium 2.38-2.5 mmol/l [HR 2.98 (95% CI, 1.07-8.29; P = 0.04] and > 2.50 mmol/l [HR 5.50 (95% CI, 1.84-16.48; P = 0.002] were independently associated with increased risk of death. Likewise, patients with intact parathyroid hormone > 600 pg/ml had a 3.46-fold higher risk of death (HR 3.46, 95% CI, 1.22-9.82 P = 0.019). These findings persisted in time -dependent analyses. CONCLUSION:Higher levels of intact FGF 23 appear not to be independently associated with all-cause mortality in our dialysis patients, while hypercalcaemia and severe hyperparathyroidism were found to be independent predictors of mortality in this cohort of patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:We investigated whether the recent growth in home dialysis use was proportional among all racial/ethnic groups and also whether there were changes in racial/ethnic differences in home dialysis outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:This observational cohort study of US Renal Data System patients initiating dialysis from 2005 to 2013 used logistic regression to estimate racial/ethnic differences in home dialysis initiation over time, and used competing risk models to assess temporal changes in racial/ethnic differences in home dialysis outcomes, specifically: (1) transfer to in-center hemodialysis (HD), (2) mortality, and (3) transplantation. RESULTS:Of the 523,526 patients initiating dialysis from 2005 to 2013, 55% were white, 28% black, 13% Hispanic, and 4% Asian. In the earliest era (2005-2007), 8.0% of white patients initiated dialysis with home modalities, as did a similar proportion of Asians (9.2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.86 to 1.05), whereas lower proportions of black [5.2%; aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.76] and Hispanic (5.7%; aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) patients did so. Over time, home dialysis use increased in all groups and racial/ethnic differences decreased (2011-2013: 10.6% of whites, 8.3% of blacks [aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.85], 9.6% of Hispanics [aOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.00], 14.2% of Asians [aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.12]). Compared with white patients, the risk of transferring to in-center HD was higher in blacks, similar in Hispanics, and lower in Asians; these differences remained stable over time. The mortality rate was lower for minority patients than for white patients; this difference increased over time. Transplantation rates were lower for blacks and similar for Hispanics and Asians; over time, the difference in transplantation rates between blacks and Hispanics versus whites increased. CONCLUSIONS:From 2005 to 2013, as home dialysis use increased, racial/ethnic differences in initiating home dialysis narrowed, without worsening rates of death or transfer to in-center HD in minority patients, as compared with white patients.
Project description:To compare body-mass index (BMI)-related mortality risk in U.S. Blacks vs. Whites as the relationship appears to differ across race/ethnicity groups.Cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 11,934 Blacks and 59,741 Whites aged 35-75 in the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2002 with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer were pooled. Mortality follow-up was available through 2006. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We used adjusted Cox regression analysis to adjust for potential confounders.Over 9 years of follow-up, there were 4303 deaths (1205 among never smokers). Age-adjusted mortality rates were higher in Blacks compared to Whites at BMI < 25 kg/m2 and showed no increase at higher levels of BMI. In men, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause death rose in a similar fashion across upper BMI quintiles in Blacks and Whites; in women, however, BMI was positively associated with mortality risk in Whites, but inversely associated in Blacks (P interaction = 0.01). Racial disparities were amplified in subsidiary analyses that introduced a 12-month lag for mortality or focused on CVD mortality.The relationship of elevated BMI to mortality appeared weaker in US Blacks than in Whites, especially among women.
Project description:Population-level nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) death rate data are sparse. We described death rates for adults with NAFLD in the United States using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple-cause mortality data (2007-2016). Decedents who had NAFLD were identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes K75.81, K76.0, K74.0, K74.6, and K76.9. Among NAFLD decedents, cause-specific deaths (e.g., cardiovascular disease [CVD], cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], non-liver cancer, diabetes mellitus [DM]) were identified by underlying cause of death ICD-10 codes. Trends were evaluated by average annual percentage change (AAPC) in age-standardized death rate (ASDR) per 100,000 persons. Among the 25,129,960 decedents aged ≥20 years, 353,234 (1.4%) decedents had NAFLD (212,322 men; 260,765 non-Hispanic whites, 32,868 non-Hispanic blacks, 46,530 Hispanics, 5,025 non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Natives [AIANs], 7,023 non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islanders [APIs]), with a mean age at death of 64.47 ± 13.17 years. During the study period, the ASDR for NAFLD increased by 15% (12.94 to 14.90; AAPC, 1.98%; P < 0.001]), while women (AAPC, 2.99% vs. 1.16% men; P = 0.003), non-Hispanic whites (AAPC, 2.48%), non-Hispanic AIANs (AAPC, 2.31%), and Hispanics (AAPC, 0.74%) experienced the highest annual increases. Stable trends were noted for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic APIs. Among subgroups, Mexican (AAPC, 1.75%) and Asian Indians (AAPC, 6.94%) experienced annual increases. The top six underlying causes of death (155,894 cirrhosis, 38,444 CVD, 19,466 non-liver cancer, 10,867 HCC, 8,113 DM, and 5,683 lung disease) accounted for 67.5% of NAFLD-related deaths. For cause-specific deaths, ASDR increased for HCC (AAPC, 3.82%), DM (AAPC, 2.23%), non-liver cancer (AAPC, 2.14%), CVD (AAPC, 1.59%), and cirrhosis (AAPC, 0.96%). Conclusion: NAFLD-related deaths in U.S. adults are increasing. Cirrhosis is the top cause-specific death, followed by CVD. Women, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic AIANs (subgroups Mexicans and Asian Indians) experienced the highest increases in deaths. Policies addressing the societal burden of NAFLD are needed.