Participant-Informant Relationships Affect Quality of Life Ratings in Incipient and Clinical Alzheimer Disease.
ABSTRACT: Clinical trials in incipient and clinical Alzheimer disease (AD) often include informant-reported outcomes. Whereas informant reports in AD dementia may be modulated by the nature of participant-informant relationships, whether informant type affects reporting at earlier disease stages is less certain. We sought to determine the effects of participant-informant relationships on informant assessments of quality of life (QOL), functional abilities, and behavioral symptoms in individuals with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild-to-moderate AD dementia.Cross-sectional.Easton Center for Alzheimer Disease Research at the University of California, Los Angeles.A total of 399 individuals who met criteria for NC (N?=?100), MCI [amnestic (N?=?125) and nonamnestic (N?=?61)], and AD (N?=?113). Participants were subdivided into groups based on informant-participant relationships (spouse versus other).We examined informant effects on the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) scale, the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI).After adjustments for demographic and cognitive factors, spouse informants reported higher participant QOL in the amnestic MCI and AD groups than did other informants. No informant effects were seen on QOL-AD ratings in the nonamnestic MCI or NC groups or on the FAQ or NPI in the MCI and AD groups.Participant-informant relationships may modulate informant responses on subjective measures such as the QOL-AD in both incipient and clinical AD. Clinical trials that use informant measures may need to address these effects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Relative to dementia, little is known about informant bias in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We investigated the influence of informant demographic and relational characteristics on reports of everyday functioning using the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). METHOD:Four thousand two hundred eighty-four MCI participants and their informants from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set were included. Informants were stratified according to cohabitation, relationship, visit frequency, race/ethnicity, education, and sex. Informant-rated Mean FAQ score was compared across these groups using univariate general linear model analyses and post hoc tests. Interactions were tested between informant variables. The predictive contribution of informant variables to FAQ score was explored using hierarchical linear regression. Analyses covaried for participant cognition using a cognitive composite score, and for participant age, sex, and depression. RESULTS:After controlling for participant cognition, depression, age, and sex, informant-rated FAQ scores varied significantly across all informant variables (p's < .005, ?p2's ? .033) except sex and visit frequency. FAQ scores were higher (more impaired) among informants who cohabitate with the participant, among paid caregivers, spouses, and adult children, and among informants with higher levels of education. Scores were lowest (less impaired) among Black/African American informants as compared to all other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS:Demographic and relational characteristics of informants influence the perception and reporting of instrumental activities of daily living in adults with MCI. As everyday functioning is crucial for differential diagnosis and treatment outcome measurement, it is important to be aware of sources of informant report discrepancies.
Project description:The identification of the type and sequence of cognitive decline in preclinical mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prior to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for understanding AD pathogenesis and implementing therapeutic interventions.To model the longitudinal courses of different neuropsychological functions in MCI due to AD.We investigated the prodromal phase of MCI over a 12-year period in 27 initially healthy participants with subsequent MCI preceding AD (NC-MCI) and 60 demographically matched healthy individuals (NC-NC). The longitudinal courses of cognitive performance (verbal and visual episodic memory, semantic memory, executive functioning, constructional praxis, psychomotor speed, language, and informant-based reports) were analyzed with linear mixed effects models.The sequence with which different cognitive functions declined in the NC-MCI relative to the NC-NC group began with verbal memory and savings performance approximately eight years, and verbal episodic learning, visual memory, and semantic memory (animal fluency) circa four years prior to the MCI diagnosis. Executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and informant-based reports of the NC-MCI group declined approximately two years preceding the MCI diagnosis.Measurable neuropsychological deterioration occurs up to approximately eight years preceding MCI due to AD.
Project description:The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) are frequently used indices of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to compare FDG-PET and clinical measurements in a large sample of elderly subjects with memory disturbance. We examined relationships between glucose metabolism in FDG-PET regions of interest (FDG-ROIs), and ADAS-cog and FAQ scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Low glucose metabolism at baseline predicted subsequent ADAS-cog and FAQ decline. In addition, longitudinal glucose metabolism decline was associated with concurrent ADAS-cog and FAQ decline. Finally, a power analysis revealed that FDG-ROI values have greater statistical power than ADAS-cog to detect attenuation of cognitive decline in AD and MCI patients. Glucose metabolism is a sensitive measure of change in cognition and functional ability in AD and MCI, and has value in predicting future cognitive decline.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Cognitive-driven activity of daily living (ADL) impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasingly discussed as prodromal marker for dementia. Diagnostic properties of assessments for this specific ADL impairment are sparsely investigated in PD. The ability of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) for differentiating between PD patients with normal cognition and with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), according to informant and self-reports, was examined. Global cognitive function in groups with and without mild ADL impairment was compared according to different cut-offs.<h4>Methods</h4>Multicenter data of 589 patients of an international cohort (CENTRE-PD) were analyzed. Analyses were run separately for informant-rated and self-rated FAQ. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to define the optimal FAQ cut-off for PD-MCI (≥ 1), and groups were additionally split according to reported FAQ cut-offs for PD-MCI in the literature (≥ 3, ≥ 5). Binary logistic regressions examined the effect of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score in PD patients with and without mild ADL impairment.<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred and twenty-five (38.2%) patients were classified as PD-MCI. For all three cut-off values, sensitivity was moderate to low (< 0.55), but specificity was moderately high (> 0.54) with a tendency of higher values for self-reported deficits. For the self-report, the cut-off ≥ 3 showed a significant effect of the MoCA (B = - 0.31, p = 0.003), where FAQ ≥ 3 patients had worse cognition. No effect for group differences based on informant ratings was detected.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data argue that self-reported ADL impairments assessed by the FAQ show a relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in PD.
Project description:Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) demonstrate decline in everyday function. In this study, we investigated whether whole brain atrophy and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are associated with the rate of functional decline in MCI.Participants were 164 healthy controls, 258 MCI patients, and 103 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. They underwent brain MRI scans, APOE genotyping, and completed up to six biannual Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Random effects regressions were used to examine trajectories of decline in FAQ across diagnostic groups, and to test the effects of ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) and APOE genotype on FAQ decline among MCI patients.Rate of decline in FAQ among MCI patients was intermediate between that of controls and mild AD patients. Patients with MCI who converted to mild AD declined faster than those who remained stable. Among MCI patients, increased VBR and possession of any APOE varepsilon4 allele were associated with faster rate of decline in FAQ. In addition, there was a significant VBR by APOE varepsilon4 interaction such that patients who were APOE varepsilon4 positive and had increased atrophy experienced the fastest decline in FAQ.Functional decline occurs in MCI, particularly among patients who progress to mild AD. Brain atrophy and APOE varepsilon4 positivity are associated with such declines, and patients who have elevated brain atrophy and are APOE varepsilon4 positive are at greatest risk of functional degradation. These findings highlight the value of genetic and volumetric MRI information as predictors of functional decline, and thus disease progression, in MCI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite convenience, accessibility, and strong correlation to severity of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) has not been used as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD.<h4>Methods</h4>Using a newly validated visual rating system, mean MTA scores of three bilateral medial temporal lobe structures were compared for subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 117), nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 46), amnestic MCI (n = 45), and probable AD (n = 53). Correlations between MTA scores and neuropsychological test scores at baseline, and predictors of change in diagnosis at 1-year follow-up were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>With NCI as the reference group, a mean MTA cut score of 1.33 yielded an optimal sensitivity/specificity of 85%/82% for probable AD subjects and 80%/82% for amnestic MCI subjects. MTA and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes scores at baseline were independent and additive predictors of diagnosis at baseline, and of transition from NCI to MCI or from MCI to dementia at 1-year follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) scores 1) distinguish probable Alzheimer disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from nonamnestic MCI and no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects, 2) help predict diagnosis at baseline, and 3) predict transition from NCI to MCI and from MCI to probable AD. MTA scores should be used as a criterion in the clinical diagnosis of AD.
Project description:Background:Quality of life (QoL) was worse in Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) or dementia (PDD) than PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC). The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the potential heterogeneous determinants of QoL in PD patients with different cognitive statuses. Methods:We recruited 600 PD patients, including 185 PD-NC patients, 336 PD-MCI patients and 79 PDD patients, in this cross-sectional study. All patients completed the QoL assessment by the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), as well as clinical evaluations and neuropsychological tests. The determinants of the QoL were analyzed by multiple stepwise regression analysis. Results:QoL was more impaired across the three groups (PD-NC < PD-MCI < PDD). The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) score, Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDS) score and daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED) were independent variables of PDQ-39 in PD-NC patients. The GDS score, disease duration, UPDRS-III score, Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) and sex were independent variables of PDQ-39 in PD-MCI patients. The GDS score and disease duration were independent variables of PDQ-39 in PDD patients. Conclusion:The determinants of QoL in PD-NC, PD-MCI and PDD patients were heterogeneous. Motor function was considered to be the most crucial determinant for QoL in PD-NC, while depression was indicated to be the most vital determinant for PD-MCI and PDD. For QoL improvement, clinicians might need to focus more on motor function in PD-NC patients and on depression in PD-MCI and PDD patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>To investigate the prevalence and trajectories of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in relation to cognitive functioning in a cohort of β-amyloid-positive (A+) individuals across the Alzheimer disease (AD) clinical spectrum.<h4>Methods</h4>In this single-center observational study, we included all individuals who visited the Alzheimer Center Amsterdam and had a clinical diagnosis of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or probable AD dementia and were A+. We measured NPS with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), examining total scores and the presence of specific NPI domains. Cognition was assessed across 5 cognitive domains and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We examined trajectories including model-based trends for NPS and cognitive functioning over time. We used linear mixed models to relate baseline NPI scores to cognitive functioning at baseline (whole-sample) and longitudinal time points (subsample n = 520, mean 1.8 [SD 0.7] years follow-up).<h4>Results</h4>We included 1,524 A+ individuals from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort with A+ SCD (n = 113), A+ MCI (n = 321), or A+ AD dementia (n = 1,090). NPS were prevalent across all clinical AD stages (≥1 NPS 81.4% in SCD, 81.2% in MCI, 88.7% in dementia; ≥1 clinically relevant NPS 54.0% in SCD, 50.5% in MCI, 66.0% in dementia). Cognitive functioning showed a uniform gradual decline; while in contrast, large intraindividual heterogeneity of NPS was observed over time across all AD groups. At baseline, we found associations between NPS and cognition in dementia that were most pronounced for NPI total scores and MMSE (range β = -0.18 to -0.11, false discovery rate [FDR]-adjusted <i>p</i> < 0.05), while there were no cross-sectional relationships in SCD and MCI (range β = -0.32 to 0.36, all FDR-adjusted <i>p</i> > 0.05). There were no associations between baseline NPS and cognitive functioning over time in any clinical stage (range β = -0.13 to 0.44, all FDR-adjusted <i>p</i> > 0.05).<h4>Discussion</h4>NPS and cognitive symptoms are both prevalent across the AD clinical spectrum, but show a different evolution during the course of the disease.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequently observed, irreversible brain function disorder among elderly individuals. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been introduced as an alternative approach to assessing brain functional abnormalities in AD patients. However, alterations in the brain rs-fMRI signal complexities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients remain unclear. Here, we described the novel application of permutation entropy (PE) to investigate the abnormal complexity of rs-fMRI signals in MCI and AD patients. The rs-fMRI signals of 30 normal controls (NCs), 33 early MCI (EMCI), 32 late MCI (LMCI), and 29 AD patients were obtained from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. After preprocessing, whole-brain entropy maps of the four groups were extracted and subjected to Gaussian smoothing. We performed a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the brain entropy maps of the four groups. The results after adjusting for age and sex differences together revealed that the patients with AD exhibited lower complexity than did the MCI and NC controls. We found five clusters that exhibited significant differences and were distributed primarily in the occipital, frontal, and temporal lobes. The average PE of the five clusters exhibited a decreasing trend from MCI to AD. The AD group exhibited the least complexity. Additionally, the average PE of the five clusters was significantly positively correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and significantly negatively correlated with Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) scores and global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores in the patient groups. Significant correlations were also found between the PE and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the patient groups. These results indicated that declines in PE might be related to changes in regional functional homogeneity in AD. These findings suggested that complexity analyses using PE in rs-fMRI signals can provide important information about the fMRI characteristics of cognitive impairments in MCI and AD.
Project description:Objective:This study examined how awareness of diagnostic label impacted self-reported quality of life (QOL) in persons with varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Method:Older adults (n = 259) with normal cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), or mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) completed tests of cognition and self-report questionnaires that assessed diagnosis awareness and multiple domains of QOL: cognitive problems, activities of daily living, physical functioning, mental wellbeing, and perceptions of one's daily life. We compared measures of QOL by cognitive performance, diagnosis awareness, and diagnostic group. Results:Persons with MCI or AD who were aware of their diagnosis reported lower average satisfaction with daily life (QOL-AD), basic functioning (BADL Scale), and physical wellbeing (SF-12 PCS), and more difficulties in daily life (DEM-QOL) than those who were unaware (all p ? .007). Controlling for gender, those expecting their condition to worsen over time reported greater depression (GDS), higher stress (PSS), lower quality of daily life (QOL-AD, DEM-QOL), and more cognitive difficulties (CDS) compared to others (all p < .05). Discussion:Persons aware of their diagnostic label-either MCI or AD-and its prognosis report lower QOL than those unaware of these facts about themselves. These relationships are independent of the severity of cognitive impairment.