Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai'i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2T = DSM 28029T = LMG 27952T); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WAT = DSM 28027T = LMG 27949T); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1T = DSM 28028T = LMG 27950T); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1T = DSM 28030T = LMG 28140T). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38T = DSM 28031T = LMG 28138T).
Project description:Here we give names to three new species of Paraburkholderia that can remain in symbiosis indefinitely in the spores of a soil dwelling eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. The new species P. agricolaris sp. nov., P. hayleyella sp. nov., and P. bonniea sp. nov. are widespread across the eastern USA and were isolated as internal symbionts of wild-collected D. discoideum. We describe these sp. nov. using several approaches. Evidence that they are each a distinct new species comes from their phylogenetic position, average nucleotide identity, genome-genome distance, carbon usage, reduced length, cooler optimal growth temperature, metabolic tests, and their previously described ability to invade D. discoideum amoebae and form a symbiotic relationship. All three of these new species facilitate the prolonged carriage of food bacteria by D. discoideum, though they themselves are not food. Further studies of the interactions of these three new species with D. discoideum should be fruitful for understanding the ecology and evolution of symbioses.
Project description:Corallococcus spp. are common soil-dwelling organisms which kill and consume prey microbes through the secretion of antimicrobial substances. Two species of Corallococcus have been described previously (Corallococcus coralloides and Corallococcus exiguus). A polyphasic approach, including biochemical analysis of fatty acid methyl esters, substrate utilization, and sugar assimilation assays, was taken to characterize eight Corallococcus species strains and the two type strains. The genomes of all strains, including that of C. exiguus DSM 14696T (newly reported here), shared an average nucleotide identity below 95% and digital DNA-DNA hybridization scores of less than 70%, indicating that they belong to distinct species. In addition, we characterized the prey range and antibiotic resistance profile of each strain, illustrating the diversity of antimicrobial activity and, thus, the potential for drug discovery within the Corallococcus genus. Each strain gave a distinct profile of properties, which together with their genomic differences supports the proposal of the eight candidate strains as novel species. The eight candidates are as follows: Corallococcus exercitus sp. nov. (AB043AT = DSM 108849T = NBRC 113887T), Corallococcus interemptor sp. nov. (AB047AT = DSM 108843T = NBRC 113888T), Corallococcus aberystwythensis sp. nov. (AB050AT = DSM 108846T = NBRC 114019T), Corallococcus praedator sp. nov. (CA031BT = DSM 108841T = NBRC 113889T), Corallococcus sicarius sp. nov. (CA040BT = DSM 108850T = NBRC 113890T), Corallococcus carmarthensis sp. nov. (CA043DT = DSM 108842T = NBRC 113891T), Corallococcus llansteffanensis sp. nov. (CA051BT = DSM 108844T = NBRC 114100T), and Corallococcus terminator sp. nov. (CA054AT = DSM 108848T = NBRC 113892T).IMPORTANCE Corallococcus is a genus of predators with broad prey ranges, whose genomes contain large numbers of gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The physiology and evolutionary heritage of eight Corallococcus species strains were characterized using a range of analyses and assays. Multiple metrics confirmed that each strain belonged to a novel species within the Corallococcus genus. The strains exhibited distinct patterns of drug resistance and predatory activity, which mirrored their possession of diverse sets of biosynthetic genes. The breadth of antimicrobial activities observed within the Corallococcus genus highlights their potential for drug discovery and suggests a previous underestimation of both their taxonomic diversity and biotechnological potential. Taxonomic assignment of environmental isolates to novel species allows us to begin to characterize the diversity and evolution of members of this bacterial genus with potential biotechnological importance, guiding future bioprospecting efforts for novel biologically active metabolites and antimicrobials.
Project description:We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) (?=?DSM 26257(T)?=?CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) (?=?DSM 26254(T)?=?CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) (?=?DSM 26255(T)?=?CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) (?=?DSM 26256(T)?=?CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) (?=?DSM 26263(T)?=?CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) (?=?DSM 26265(T)?=?CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) (?=?DSM 26262(T)?=?CCUG 63631(T)).
Project description:Strains MWH-EgelM1-30-B4T and MWH-Feld-100T were isolated from the water columns of two freshwater systems. Both strains represent delicate bacteria not easy to work with in laboratory experiments. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA genes suggested that both strains were affiliated with the genus Polynucleobacter. Both strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of >99?% with eight free-living Polynucleobacter type strains, all affiliated with the cryptic species complex PnecC. The full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains differ only in two and three positions, respectively, from the sequence of the closest related Polynucleobacter type strain. Genome sequencing of both strains revealed relatively small genome sizes of 2.0 Mbp and G+C?contents of 45?mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequences of 319 shared protein-encoding genes consistently placed the two strains in taxon PnecC but did not suggest an affiliation with one of the previously described species. Pairwise analyses of whole genome average nucleotide identities (gANI) with representatives of all previously described Polynucleobacter species resulted in both cases throughout in values <80?%. Pairwise comparison of the genomes of the two new strains resulted in gANI values of 83.3?%. All gANI analyses clearly suggested that strains MWH-EgelM1-30-B4T and MWH-Feld-100T represent two novel Polynucleobacter species. We propose for these novel species the names Polynucleobacter hirudinilacicola sp. nov. and Polynucleobacter campilacus sp. nov. and strains MWH-EgelM1-30-B4T (=DSM 23911T=LMG 30144T) and MWH-Feld-100T (=DSM 24007T=LMG 29705T) as the type strains, respectively.
Project description:Thirty-three Yersinia strains previously characterized by the French Yersinia National Reference Laboratory (YNRL) and isolated from humans and animals were suspected to belong to six novel species by a recently described core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme. These strains and five additional strains from the YNRL were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including a phylogenetic analysis based on 500 core genes, determination of average nucleotide identity (ANI), determination of DNA G+C content and identification of phenotypic features. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the 38 studied strains formed six well-demarcated clades. ANI values between these clades and their closest relatives were <94.7?%?and ANI values within each putative novel species were >97.5?%. Distinctive biochemical characteristics were identified in five out of the six novel species. All of these data demonstrated that the 38 strains belong to six novel species of the genus Yersinia: Yersinia artesiana sp. nov., type strain IP42281T (=CIP 111845T=DSM 110725T); Yersinia proxima sp. nov., type strain IP37424T (=CIP 111847T=DSM 110727T); Yersinia alsatica sp. nov., type strain IP38850T (=CIP 111848T=DSM 110726T); Yersinia vastinensis sp. nov., type strain IP38594T (=CIP 111844T=DSM 110738T); Yersinia thracica sp. nov., type strain IP34646T (=CIP 111842T=DSM 110736T); and Yersinia occitanica sp. nov., type strain IP35638T (=CIP 111843T=DSM 110739T).
Project description:Members of the genus Neisseria have been isolated from or detected in a wide range of animals, from non-human primates and felids to a rodent, the guinea pig. By means of selective culture, biochemical testing, Gram staining and PCR screening for the Neisseria-specific internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA operon, we isolated four strains of the genus Neisseria from the oral cavity of the wild house mouse, Mus musculus subsp. domesticus. The isolates are highly related and form a separate clade in the genus, as judged by tree analyses using either multi-locus sequence typing of ribosomal genes or core genes. One isolate, provisionally named Neisseria musculi sp. nov. (type strain AP2031T=DSM 101846T=CCUG 68283T=LMG 29261T), was studied further. Strain AP2031T/N. musculi grew well in vitro. It was naturally competent, taking up DNA in a DNA uptake sequence and pilT-dependent manner, and was amenable to genetic manipulation. These and other genomic attributes of N. musculi sp. nov. make it an ideal candidate for use in developing a mouse model for studying Neisseria-host interactions.
Project description:A polyphasic analysis was undertaken of seven independent isolates of gram-negative cocci collected from pathological clinical samples from New York, Louisiana, Florida and Illinois and healthy subgingival plaque from a patient in Virginia, USA. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among these isolates was 99.7-100?%, and the closest species with a validly published name was Neisseria lactamica (96.9?% similarity to the type strain). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that these isolates are of the same species and are distinct from their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, N. lactamica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel species belongs in the genus Neisseria. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH) and C18?:?1?7c. The cellular fatty acid profile, together with other phenotypic characters, further supports the inclusion of the novel species in the genus Neisseria. The name Neisseria oralis sp. nov. (type strain 6332(T) ?=?DSM 25276(T) ?=?LMG 26725(T)) is proposed.
Project description:Unidentified lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates which had mainly been detected in spoiled, marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler meat products during two previous studies, were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties and the capability to produce biogenic amines. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. Unexpectedly for a meat-spoilage-associated LAB, the strains utilized glucose very weakly. According to the API 50 CHL test, arabinose and xylose were the only carbohydrates strongly fermented. None of the six strains tested for production of histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine were able to produce these main meat-associated biogenic amines in vitro. The polyphasic taxonomy approach showed that these strains represent a new Lactobacillus species. The six isolates sequenced for the 16S rRNA encoding genes shared the highest similarity (95.0 to 96.3%) with the sequence of the Lactobacillus durianis type strain. In the phylogenetic tree, these isolates formed a distinct cluster within the Lactobacillus reuteri group, which also includes L. durianis. Numerical analyses of HindIII-EcoRI ribotypes placed all isolates together in a cluster with seven subclusters well separated from the L. reuteri group reference strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization levels between Lactobacillus sp. nov. isolates varied from 67 to 96%, and low hybridization levels (3 to 15%) were obtained with the L. durianis type strain confirming that these isolates belong to the same species different from L. durianis. The name Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LMG 22743T (also known as DSM 15707T or AMKR18T) as the type strain.
Project description:The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus. Genomospecies 1 and 2 contain the type strains E. anophelis and E. miricola, respectively. Genomospecies 3 and 4 are herein proposed as novel species named as Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov. (type strain, G0146T = DSM 2975T = CCUG 69503T = CIP 111191T) and Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov. (type strain, G4122T = DSM 2974T = CCUG 69496T = CIP 111192T), respectively. Finally, the new species Elizabethkingia occulta sp. nov. (type strain G4070T = DSM 2976T = CCUG 69505T = CIP 111193T), is proposed.
Project description:A novel Gram-positive, catalase negative, rod-shaped strain, FI11369T, was isolated from gari, a traditional West African fermented food derived from cassava. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest type strains were Lactobacillus xiangfangensis LMG 26013T (99.4?% similarity), Lactobacillus plajomi NBRC 107333T (99.1?%), Lactobacillus paraplantarum DSM 10667T (99.1?%), Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 20314T (99.0?%), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T (99.0?%), Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans NBRC 107235T (98.9?%), Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis DSM 16365T (98.9?%) and Lactobacillus daowaiensis NCIMB 15183T (98.8?%). The genome of strain FI11369T was sequenced and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was compared with its closest relatives. ANI analysis showed that the closest relative, L. xiangfangensis DSM 27103T, had only a 82.4?% similarity. The main fatty acids of FI11369T were saturated C16?:?0 (18.2?%), unsaturated C18?:?1 ??9c (43.8?%) and cyclopropane C19?:?0 cyclo (?10c and/or ?6; 22.5?%). Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, a novel Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus garii sp. nov., with the type strain FI11369T (=NCIMB 15148=DSM 108249), is proposed.