Metal-Dependent Function of a Mammalian Acireductone Dioxygenase.
ABSTRACT: The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca are the only known pair of naturally occurring metalloenzymes with distinct chemical and physical properties determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe(2+) or Ni(2+)) in the active site. We now show that this dual chemistry can also occur in mammals. ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD) was studied to relate the metal ion identity and three-dimensional structure to enzyme function. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, which is the penultimate step in methionine salvage. The nickel-bound form of ARD catalyzes an off-pathway reaction resulting in formate, carbon monoxide (CO), and 3-(thiomethyl) propionate. Recombinant MmARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. The Fe(2+)-bound protein, which shows about 10-fold higher activity than that of others, catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas the Ni(2+), Co(2+), or Mn(2+) forms exhibit off-pathway chemistry, as has been seen with ARD from Klebsiella. Thermal stability of the isozymes is strongly affected by the metal ion identity, with Ni(2+)-bound MmARD being the most stable, followed by Co(2+) and Fe(2+), and Mn(2+)-bound ARD being the least stable. Ni(2+)- and Co(2+)-bound MmARD were crystallized, and the structures of the two proteins found to be similar. Enzyme-ligand complexes provide insight into substrate binding, metal coordination, and the catalytic mechanism.
Project description:The metalloenzyme acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) shows metal-dependent physical and enzymatic activities depending upon the metal bound in the active site. The Fe(II)-bound enzyme catalyzes the penultimate step of the methionine salvage pathway, converting 1,2-dihydroxy-5-(methylthio)pent-1-en-3-one (acireductone) into formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, 2-keto-4-thiomethyl-2-oxobutanoate, using O<sub>2</sub> as the oxidant. If Ni(II) is bound, an off-pathway shunt occurs, producing 3-methylthiopropionate, formate, and carbon monoxide from the same acireductone substrate. The solution structure of the Fe(II)-bound human enzyme, HsARD, is described and compared with the structures of Ni-bound forms of the closely related mouse enzyme, MmARD. Potential rationales for the different reactivities of the two isoforms are discussed. The human enzyme has been found to regulate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase I (MMP-I), which is involved in tumor metastasis, by binding the cytoplasmic transmembrane tail peptide of MMP-I. Nuclear magnetic resonance titration of HsARD with the MMP-I tail peptide permits identification of the peptide binding site on HsARD, a cleft anterior to the metal binding site adjacent to a dynamic proline-rich loop.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca is the only known naturally occurring metalloenzyme that catalyzes different reactions in vivo based solely on the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) bound in the active site. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, whereas the nickel-containing isozyme uses the same substrates to catalyze an off-pathway shunt to form methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate. This dual chemistry was recently demonstrated in vitro by ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD), providing the first example of a mammalian ARD exhibiting metal-dependent catalysis. We now show that human ARD (HsARD) is also capable of metal-dependent dual chemistry. Recombinant HsARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. As with MmARD, the Fe2+-bound HsARD shows the highest activity and catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas Ni2+, Co2+ or Mn2+ forms catalyze off-pathway chemistry. The thermal stability of the HsARD isozymes is a function of the metal ion identity, with Ni2+-bound HsARD being the most stable followed by Co2+ and Fe2+, and Mn2+-bound HsARD being the least stable. As with the bacterial ARD, solution NMR data suggest that HsARD isozymes can have significant structural differences depending upon the metal ion bound.
Project description:The two acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) isozymes from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella ATCC 8724 present an unusual case in which two enzymes with different structures and distinct activities toward their common substrates (1,2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene and dioxygen) are derived from the same polypeptide chain. Structural and functional differences between the two isozymes are determined by the type of M2+ metal ion bound in the active site. The Ni2+-bound NiARD catalyzes an off-pathway shunt from the methionine salvage pathway leading to the production of formate, methylthiopropionate, and carbon monoxide, while the Fe2+-bound FeARD' catalyzes the on-pathway formation of methionine precursor 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate and formate. Four potential protein-based metal ligands were identified by sequence homology and structural considerations. Based on the results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and isothermal calorimetry measurements, it is concluded that the same four residues, His96, His98, Glu102 and His140, provide the protein-based ligands for the metal in both the Ni- and Fe-containing forms of the enzyme, and subtle differences in the local backbone conformations trigger the observed structural and functional differences between the FeARD' and NiARD isozymes. Furthermore, both forms of the enzyme bind their respective metals with pseudo-octahedral geometry, and both may lose a histidine ligand upon binding of substrate under anaerobic conditions. However, mutations at two conserved nonligand acidic residues, Glu95 and Glu100, result in low metal contents for the mutant proteins as isolated, suggesting that some of the conserved charged residues may aid in transfer of metal from in vivo sources or prevent the loss of metal to stronger chelators. The Glu100 mutant reconstitutes readily but has low activity. Mutation of Asp101 results in an active enzyme that incorporates metal in vivo but shows evidence of mixed forms.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) is an intriguing enzyme from the methionine salvage pathway that is capable of catalysing two different oxidation reactions with the same substrate depending on the type of the metal ion in the active site. To date, the structural information regarding the ARD-acireductone complex is limited and possible reaction mechanisms are still under debate. The results of joint experimental and computational studies undertaken to advance knowledge about ARD are reported. The crystal structure of an ARD from Homo sapiens was determined with selenomethionine. EPR spectroscopy suggested that binding acireductone triggers one protein residue to dissociate from Fe<sup>2+</sup> , which allows NO (and presumably O<sub>2</sub> ) to bind directly to the metal. Mössbauer spectroscopic data (interpreted with the aid of DFT calculations) was consistent with bidentate binding of acireductone to Fe<sup>2+</sup> and concomitant dissociation of His88 from the metal. Major features of Fe vibrational spectra obtained for the native enzyme and upon addition of acireductone were reproduced by QM/MM calculations for the proposed models. A computational (QM/MM) study of the reaction mechanisms suggests that Fe<sup>2+</sup> promotes O-O bond homolysis, which elicits cleavage of the C1-C2 bond of the substrate. Higher M<sup>3+</sup> /M<sup>2+</sup> redox potentials of other divalent metals do not support this pathway, and instead the reaction proceeds similarly to the key reaction step in the quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase mechanism.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway (MSP) is a unique enzyme that exhibits dual chemistry determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition-metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) in the active site. The Fe2+-containing isozyme catalyzes the on-pathway reaction using substrates 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopent-1-ene (acireductone) and dioxygen to generate formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, whereas the Ni2+-containing isozyme catalyzes an off-pathway shunt with the same substrates, generating methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide, and formate. The dual chemistry of ARD was originally discovered in the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, but it has recently been shown that mammalian ARD enzymes (mouse and human) are also capable of catalyzing metal-dependent dual chemistry in vitro. This is particularly interesting, since carbon monoxide, one of the products of off-pathway reaction, has been identified as an antiapoptotic molecule in mammals. In addition, several biochemical and genetic studies have indicated an inhibitory role of human ARD in cancer. This comprehensive review describes the biochemical and structural characterization of the ARD family, the proposed experimental and theoretical approaches to establishing mechanisms for the dual chemistry, insights into the mechanism based on comparison with structurally and functionally similar enzymes, and the applications of this research to the field of artificial metalloenzymes and synthetic biology.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) catalyzes different reactions between O2 and 1,2-dihydroxy-3-oxo-5-(methylthio)pent-1-ene (acireductone) depending upon the metal bound in the active site. Ni2+ -ARD cleaves acireductone to formate, CO and methylthiopropionate. If Fe2+ is bound (ARD'), the same substrates yield methylthioketobutyrate and formate. The two forms differ in structure, and are chromatographically separable. Paramagnetism of Fe2+ renders the active site of ARD' inaccessible to standard NMR methods. The structure of ARD' has been determined using Fe2+ binding parameters determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and NMR restraints from H98S ARD, a metal-free diamagnetic protein that is isostructural with ARD'. ARD' retains the beta-sandwich fold of ARD, but a structural entropy switch increases order at one end of a two-helix system that bisects the beta-sandwich and decreases order at the other upon interconversion of ARD and ARD', causing loss of the C-terminal helix in ARD' and rearrangements of residues involved in substrate orientation in the active site.
Project description:We report the synthesis and biomimetic activity of a family of model complexes with relevance to acireductone dioxygenase (ARD), an enzyme that displays dual function based on metal identity found in the methionine salvage pathway (MSP). Three complexes with related structural motifs were synthesized and characterized derived from phenolate, and pyridine N<sub>4</sub>O Schiff-base ligands. They display pseudo-octahedral Ni(II)-N<sub>4</sub>O ligand coordination with water at the sixth site, in close alignment to the structure in the resting state of ARD. The three featured complexes exhibit carbon‑carbon bond cleavage activation of lithium acetylacetonate, which was used as a model enzyme substrate. Computationally derived mechanistic routes for the observed reactivity consistent with experimental conditions are herein proposed. The mechanism suggests the possibility of Ni(II)-substrate interactions, followed by oxygen insertion. These results constitute only the third functional model system of ARD, in an attempt to further advance biomimetic contributions to the ongoing debate of ARD's unique metal mediated, regioselective oxidative cleavage.
Project description:Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from Klebsiella ATCC 8724 is a metalloenzyme that is capable of catalyzing different reactions with the same substrates (acireductone and O2) depending upon the metal bound in the active site. A model for the solution structure of the paramagnetic Ni2+-containing ARD has been refined using residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured in two media. Additional dihedral restraints based on chemical shift (TALOS) were included in the refinement, and backbone structure in the vicinity of the active site was modeled from a crystallographic structure of the mouse homolog of ARD. The incorporation of residual dipolar couplings into the structural refinement alters the relative orientations of several structural features significantly, and improves local secondary structure determination. Comparisons between the solution structures obtained with and without RDCs are made, and structural similarities and differences between mouse and bacterial enzymes are described. Finally, the biological significance of these differences is considered.
Project description:Actinomycetes, such as Mycobacterium species, are Gram-positive bacteria that utilize the small molecule mycothiol (MSH) as their primary reducing agent. Consequently, the enzymes involved in MSH biosynthesis are targets for drug development. The metal-dependent enzyme N-acetyl-1-D-myo-inosityl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranoside deacetylase (MshB) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-1-D-myo-inosityl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranoside to form 1-D-myo-inosityl-2-amino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranoside and acetate, the fourth overall step in MSH biosynthesis. Inhibitors of metalloenzymes typically contain a group that binds to the active site metal ion; thus, a comprehensive understanding of the native cofactor(s) of metalloenzymes is critical for the development of biologically effective inhibitors. Herein, we examined the effect of metal ions on the overall activity of MshB and probed the identity of the native cofactor. We found that the activity of MshB follows the trend Fe(2+) > Co(2+) > Zn(2+) > Mn(2+) and Ni(2+). Additionally, our results show that the identity of the cofactor bound to purified MshB is highly dependent on the purification conditions used (aerobic versus anaerobic), as well as the metal ion content of the medium during protein expression. MshB prefers Fe(2+) under anaerobic conditions regardless of the metal ion content of the medium and switches between Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) under aerobic conditions as the metal content of the medium is altered. These results indicate that the cofactor bound to MshB under biological conditions is dependent on environmental conditions, suggesting that MshB may be a cambialistic metallohydrolase that contains a dynamic cofactor. Consequently, biologically effective inhibitors will likely need to dually target Fe(2+)-MshB and Zn(2+)-MshB.
Project description:Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an important cotranslational N-terminal methionine excision of nascent proteins and represents a potential target to develop antibacterial and antitubercular drugs. We cloned one of the two MetAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c from the mapB gene) and purified it to homogeneity as an apoenzyme. Its activity required a divalent metal ion, and Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) were among activators of the enzyme. Co(II) and Fe(II) had the tightest binding, while Ni(II) was the most efficient cofactor for the catalysis. MtMetAP1c was also functional in E. coli cells because a plasmid-expressed MtMetAP1c complemented the essential function of MetAP in E. coli and supported the cell growth. A set of potent MtMetAP1c inhibitors were identified, and they showed high selectivity toward the Fe(II)-form, the Mn(II)-form, or the Co(II) and Ni(II) forms of the enzyme, respectively. These metalloform selective inhibitors were used to assign the metalloform of the cellular MtMetAP1c. The fact that only the Fe(II)-form selective inhibitors inhibited the cellular MtMetAP1c activity and inhibited the MtMetAP1c-complemented cell growth suggests that Fe(II) is the native metal used by MtMetAP1c in an E. coli cellular environment. Finally, X-ray structures of MtMetAP1c in complex with three metalloform-selective inhibitors were analyzed, which showed different binding modes and different interactions with metal ions and active site residues.