High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.
ABSTRACT: Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2).Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences.Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ?1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P < 0.007) than during the control breakfast, fullness ratings did not differ (P = 0.76). Relative to the control breakfast, improved diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P < 0.027) but not for the HPHF breakfast (aim 2).Conclusions: Post-breakfast fullness ratings were not affected by the intervention breakfasts relative to the control breakfast. HP and HF breakfasts resulted in higher diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224.
Project description:Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity.The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls.A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.6 ± 0.7] consumed 350-kcal NP (13 g protein) cereal-based breakfasts, consumed 350-kcal HP egg- and beef-rich (35 g protein) breakfasts, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 d. On day 7, a 10-h testing day was completed that included appetite and satiety questionnaires, blood sampling, predinner food cue-stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, ad libitum dinner, and evening snacking.The consumption of breakfast reduced daily hunger compared with BS with no differences between meals. Breakfast increased daily fullness compared with BS, with the HP breakfast eliciting greater increases than did the NP breakfast. HP, but not NP, reduced daily ghrelin and increased daily peptide YY concentrations compared with BS. Both meals reduced predinner amygdala, hippocampal, and midfrontal corticolimbic activation compared with BS. HP led to additional reductions in hippocampal and parahippocampal activation compared with NP. HP, but not NP, reduced evening snacking of high-fat foods compared with BS.Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to improve satiety, reduce food motivation and reward, and improve diet quality in overweight or obese teenage girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01192100.
Project description:Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate subjective appetite during 8 h after intake of iso-caloric rye bread breakfasts varying in rye dietary fibre composition and content.The study was divided into two parts. The first part (n = 16) compared the satiating effect of iso-caloric bread breakfasts including different milling fractions of rye (bran, intermediate fraction (B4) and sifted flour). The second part (n = 16) investigated the dose-response effect of rye bran and intermediate rye fraction, each providing 5 or 8 g of dietary fibre per iso-caloric bread breakfast. Both study parts used a wheat bread breakfast as reference and a randomised, within-subject comparison design. Appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) was rated regularly from just before breakfast at 08:00 until 16:00. Amount, type and timing of food and drink intake were standardised during the study period.The Milling fractions study showed that each of the rye breakfasts resulted in a suppressed appetite during the time period before lunch (08:3012:00) compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. At a comparison between the rye bread breakfasts the one with rye bran induced the strongest effect on satiety. In the afternoon the effect from all three rye bread breakfasts could still be seen as a decreased hunger and desire to eat compared to the wheat reference bread breakfast.In the Dose-response study both levels of rye bran and the lower level of intermediate rye fraction resulted in an increased satiety before lunch compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. Neither the variation in composition between the milling fractions nor the different doses resulted in significant differences in any of the appetite ratings when compared with one another.The results show that rye bread can be used to decrease hunger feelings both before and after lunch when included in a breakfast meal. Rye bran induces a stronger effect on satiety than the other two rye fractions used when served in iso-caloric portions.Trial registration number NCT00876785.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The breakfast meal often results in the largest postprandial hyperglycemic excursion in people with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE:Our purpose was to investigate whether restricting carbohydrates at breakfast would be a simple and feasible strategy to reduce daily exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia. DESIGN:Adults with physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes [n = 23; mean ± SD age: 59 ± 11 y; glycated hemoglobin: 6.7% ± 0.6%; body mass index (kg/m2): 31 ± 7] completed two 24-h isocaloric intervention periods in a random order. Participants consumed one of the following breakfasts: 1) a very-low-carbohydrate high-fat breakfast (LCBF; <10% of energy from carbohydrate, 85% of energy from fat, 15% of energy from protein) or 2) a breakfast with dietary guidelines-recommended nutrient profile (GLBF; 55% of energy from carbohydrate, 30% of energy from fat, 15% of energy from protein), with the same lunch and dinner provided. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess postprandial glucose responses over 24 h, and visual analog scales were used to assess ratings of hunger and fullness. RESULTS:The LCBF significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia after breakfast (P < 0.01) and did not adversely affect glycemia after lunch or dinner. As such, overall postprandial hyperglycemia (24-h incremental area under the glucose curve) and glycemic variability (mean amplitude of glycemic excursions) were reduced with the LCBF (24-h incremental area under the glucose curve: -173 ± 361 mmol/L; P = 0.03; mean amplitude of glycemic excursions: -0.4 ± 0.8 mmol/L · 24 h; P = 0.03) compared with the GLBF. Premeal hunger was lower before dinner with the LCBF than with the GLBF (P-interaction = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:A very-low-carbohydrate high-fat breakfast lowers postbreakfast glucose excursions. The effects of this simple strategy appear to be sufficient to lower overall exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variability. Longer-term interventions are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02982330.
Project description:The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels.Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24) and porridges (study 2, n = 20). Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels) effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects.All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition.The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition such as cereal grain structure have the potential to effect feelings of hunger and satiety.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01042418.
Project description:Previously published findings from the Beef WISE Study (Beef's Role in Weight Improvement, Satisfaction, and Energy) indicated equivalent weight loss between two energy-restricted higher protein (HP) diets: A HP diet with ?4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) and a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60). Long-term adherence to dietary prescriptions is critical for weight management but may be adversely affected by changes in appetite, food cravings, and diet satisfaction that often accompany weight loss. A secondary a priori aim of the Beef WISE Study was to compare subjective ratings of appetite (hunger and fullness), food cravings, and diet satisfaction (compliance, satisfaction, and deprivation) between the diets and determine whether these factors influenced weight loss. Subjective appetite, food cravings, and diet satisfaction ratings were collected throughout the intervention, and body weight was measured at the baseline, after the weight loss intervention (week 16), and after an eight-week follow-up period (week 24). Hunger and cravings were reduced during weight loss compared to the baseline, while fullness was not different from the baseline. The reduction in cravings was greater for B vs. NB at week 16 only. Higher deprivation ratings during weight loss were reported in NB vs. B at weeks 16 and 24, but participants in both groups reported high levels of compliance and diet satisfaction with no difference between groups. Independent of group assignment, higher baseline hunger and cravings were associated with less weight loss, and greater diet compliance, diet satisfaction, and lower feelings of deprivation were associated with greater weight loss. Strategies to promote reduced feelings of hunger, cravings, and deprivation may increase adherence to dietary prescriptions and improve behavioral weight loss outcomes.
Project description:Viscosity generated by oat ?-glucan induces gastrointestinal mechanisms that influence appetite. Two oat-based ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) with similar amounts of ?-glucan but differing in their protein and sugar content were compared for their effects on appetite. Forty-seven healthy individuals, ?18 years old, enrolled in a crossover trial consumed RTEC1 or RTEC2 in random order at least a week apart. Breakfasts contained 250kcals cereal and 105kcals fat-free milk. Subjective ratings of appetite were completed at baseline, and at 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after consumption of the breakfast meals. Responses were analyzed as area under the curve (AUC) and per time-point. Significance was set at ?=0.05. Fullness (p=0.01) and stomach fullness (p=0.02) were greater with RTEC 1 compared to RTEC 2 at 240 minutes. Stomach fullness (p=0.01) was greater at 30 minutes, and desire to eat (p=0.04) was reduced at 120 minutes with RTEC2 compared to RTEC1. There was no difference in the AUC for hunger, fullness, stomach fullness, desire to eat, or prospective intake. Ready-to-eat cereals containing similar amounts of oat ?-glucan differed in the timing of significant differences in fullness or desire to eat, but appetite ratings over a four hour period did not differ.
Project description:We evaluated the effects of mixed meals differing in glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content on postprandial serum glucose and insulin response, hunger, and satiety over the course of a 12-h day.In this randomized crossover trial, 26 overweight or obese adults received four diets in random order (high GI, high carbohydrate [HGI-HC]; high GI, low carbohydrate [HGI-LC]; low GI, high carbohydrate [LGI-HC]; and low GI, low carbohydrate [LGI-LC]). All meals were prepared by a metabolic kitchen. Participants received breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the course of a 12-h day. Primary outcomes were postprandial serum glucose and insulin quantified as area under the curve. Hunger, fullness, and satiety were assessed by visual analog scale.The HGI-LC, LGI-HC, and LGI-LC diets significantly reduced glucose and insulin area under the curve compared with the HGI-HC diet (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences in ratings of hunger, fullness, or satiety between the different dietary treatments.Reducing the GI or carbohydrate content of mixed meals reduces postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and these changes can be sustained over the course of an entire day. However, there were no differences in subjective hunger and satiety ratings between the diets. These results demonstrate that maintaining a low GI or glycemic load diet is an effective method of controlling serum glucose and insulin levels.
Project description:Dietary protein at breakfast has been shown to enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake more so than carbohydrate or fat. However, relatively few studies have assessed substitution of protein for carbohydrate on indicators of appetite and glucose homeostasis simultaneously.The acute appetitive and metabolic effects of commercially-prepared sausage and egg-based breakfast meals at two different protein levels (30 g and 39 g/serving), vs. a low-protein pancake breakfast (3 g protein) and no breakfast (water), were examined in premenopausal women (N = 35; age 32.5 ± 1.6 yr; BMI 24.8 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)). Test products provided ~280 kcal/serving and similar fat (12-14 g) and fiber contents (0-1 g). Visual Analog Scale ratings for appetite (hunger, fullness, prospective consumption, desire to eat) and repeated blood sampling for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were assessed throughout each test day. Energy intake was recorded at an ad libitum lunch meal at 240 min.Results showed increased satiety ratings for both the 30 and 39 g protein meals vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (p < 0.001 for all). Postprandial glucose and insulin excursions were lower following the 30 g and 39 g protein conditions vs. the low-protein condition, with smaller responses following the 39 g vs. 30 g protein condition (p < 0.05 for all). Energy intake at lunch was significantly less (p < 0.001) following the 39 g protein meal (692 kcal) vs. the low-protein and no breakfast conditions (789 and 810 kcal, respectively). Total energy intake from the test condition + lunch was higher (p < 0.01) for the 30 and 39 g meals (982 and 983 kcal, respectively) vs. no breakfast (810 kcal), and less than the low protein breakfast (1064 kcal; p < 0.01 vs. 39 g condition only).Results suggest that convenience meals providing 30 or 39 g protein/serving produce greater appetite control, lower postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and reduced subsequent intake at lunch relative to a low-protein control, or no breakfast.NCT01713114.
Project description:Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05). In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.
Project description:Adolescents in Australia have a poor dietary intake, leading to large numbers of them being at risk for inadequate intake of micronutrients, and excessive intake of less healthful dietary components. This study examined dietary intakes at multiple eating occasions to identify opportunities for more targeted recommendations and strategies to improve dietary intakes among adolescents. Data from the first 24-h recall of 14-18 years old in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analysed (n = 772). Participant-defined eating occasions were classified as breakfast, lunch, dinner or other eating occasions combined. The mean percent contribution to the total day intake of top shortfall nutrients (calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, iron), discretionary calories, saturated fat, free sugars and sodium, as well as nutrient density, the foods consumed and the percent of consumers at each eating occasion, were calculated. Breakfast had the lowest prevalence of consumers (81%), contributed the least to total daily energy (14.6%) and almost a quarter of daily calcium and iron. Other eating occasions combined contributed 47.5% of free sugars and were top contributors of daily calcium (34.6%) and magnesium (31.7%). Discretionary foods contributed 32.4% of the energy at lunch, and the sodium content at lunch was 415 mg/1000 kJ. Key opportunities identified for adolescents were to increase breakfast consumption, given the high nutrient densities of breakfasts consumed; improve overall lunch quality, particularly the sodium content; promote the intake of milk, fruit and a variety of vegetables at both lunch and dinner; maintain healthful choices at in-between meal eating occasions while focusing on decreasing the intake of discretionary foods.