SMURF2 regulates bone homeostasis by disrupting SMAD3 interaction with vitamin D receptor in osteoblasts.
ABSTRACT: Coordination between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is required for bone health and homeostasis. Here we show that mice deficient in SMURF2 have severe osteoporosis in vivo. This low bone mass phenotype is accompanied by a pronounced increase in osteoclast numbers, although Smurf2-deficient osteoclasts have no intrinsic alterations in activity. Smurf2-deficient osteoblasts display increased expression of RANKL, the central osteoclastogenic cytokine. Mechanistically, SMURF2 regulates RANKL expression by disrupting the interaction between SMAD3 and vitamin D receptor by altering SMAD3 ubiquitination. Selective deletion of Smurf2 in the osteoblast lineage recapitulates the phenotype of germline Smurf2-deficient mice, indicating that SMURF2 regulates osteoblast-dependent osteoclast activity rather than directly affecting the osteoclast. Our results reveal SMURF2 as an important regulator of the critical communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, the bone mass phenotype in Smurf2- and Smurf1-deficient mice is opposite, indicating that SMURF2 has a non-overlapping and, in some respects, opposite function to SMURF1.
Project description:Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of Ctsk in mice decreases bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis, but also increases the bone formation rate (BFR). To understand how Ctsk deletion increases the BFR, we generated osteoclast- and osteoblast-targeted Ctsk knockout mice using floxed Ctsk alleles. Targeted ablation of Ctsk in hematopoietic cells, or specifically in osteoclasts and cells of the monocyte-osteoclast lineage, resulted in increased bone volume and BFR as well as osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. In contrast, targeted deletion of Ctsk in osteoblasts had no effect on bone resorption or BFR, demonstrating that the increased BFR is osteoclast dependent. Deletion of Ctsk in osteoclasts increased their sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression. Conditioned media from Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts, which contained elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodules in osteoblast cultures. An S1P1,3 receptor antagonist inhibited these responses. Osteoblasts derived from mice with Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts had an increased RANKL/OPG ratio, providing a positive feedback loop that increased the number of osteoclasts. Our data provide genetic evidence that deletion of CTSK in osteoclasts enhances bone formation in vivo by increasing the generation of osteoclast-derived S1P.
Project description:Skeletal health relies on architectural integrity and sufficient bone mass, which are maintained through a tightly regulated equilibrium of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Genetic studies have linked the gene coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein1 (Lrp1) to bone traits but whether these associations are based on a causal molecular relationship is unknown. Here, we show that Lrp1 in osteoblasts is a novel regulator of osteoclast activity and bone mass. Mice lacking Lrp1 specifically in the osteoblast lineage displayed normal osteoblast function but severe osteoporosis due to highly increased osteoclast numbers and bone resorption. Osteoblast Lrp1 limited receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expression in vivo and in vitro through attenuation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) signaling. In co-culture, Lrp1-deficient osteoblasts stimulated osteoclastogenesis in a PDGFR?-dependent manner and in vivo treatment with the PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited RANKL production and led to complete remission of the osteoporotic phenotype. These results identify osteoblast Lrp1 as a key regulator of osteoblast-to-osteoclast communication and bone mass through a PDGF-RANKL signaling axis in osteoblasts and open perspectives to further explore the potential of PDGF signaling inhibitors in counteracting bone loss as well as to evaluate the importance of functional LRP1 gene variants in the control of bone mass in humans.
Project description:Osteoblasts not only control bone formation but also support osteoclast differentiation. Here we show the involvement of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in the differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. KLF4 was down-regulated by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in osteoblasts. Overexpression of KLF4 in osteoblasts attenuated 1,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclast differentiation in co-culture of mouse bone marrow cells and osteoblasts through the down-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) expression. Direct binding of KLF4 to the RANKL promoter repressed 1,25(OH)2D3-induced RANKL expression by preventing vitamin D receptor from binding to the RANKL promoter region. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of KLF4 in osteoblasts attenuated osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. KLF4 interacted directly with Runx2 and inhibited the expression of its target genes. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of KLF4 in osteoblasts showed markedly increased bone mass caused by enhanced bone formation despite increased osteoclast activity. Thus, our data suggest that KLF4 controls bone homeostasis by negatively regulating both osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone loss through stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption and inhibition of osteoblastic bone formation. Compared with the well established role of TNF in osteoclastogenesis, mechanisms by which TNF inhibits osteoblast function have not been fully determined. Runx2 is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor whose steady-state protein levels are regulated by proteasomal degradation, mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Smurf1 and Smurf2. We hypothesized that TNF inhibits osteoblast function through Smurf-mediated Runx2 degradation. We treated C2C12 and 2T3 osteoblast precursor cell lines and primary osteoblasts with TNF and found that TNF, but not interleukin-1, significantly increased Smurf1 and Smurf2 expression. TNF increased the degradation of endogenous or transfected Runx2 protein, which was blocked by treating cells with a proteasomal inhibitor or by infecting cells with small interfering (si)RNA against Smurf1 or Smurf2. TNF inhibited the expression of bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta signaling reporter constructs, and the inhibition of each was blocked by Smurf1 siRNA and Smurf2 siRNA, respectively. Overexpression of Smurf1 and/or Smurf2 siRNAs prevented the inhibitory effect of TNF on Runx2 reporter. Consistent with these in vitro findings, bones from TNF transgenic mice or TNF-injected wild type mice had increased Smurf1 and decreased Runx2 protein levels. We propose that one of the mechanisms by which TNF inhibits bone formation in inflammatory bone disorders is by promoting Runx2 proteasomal degradation through up-regulation of Smurf1 and Smurf2 expression.
Project description:The remodeling process in bone yields numerous cytokines and chemokines that mediate crosstalk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and also serve to attract and support metastatic tumor cells. The metastatic tumor cells disturb the equilibrium in bone that manifests as skeletal complications. The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role in skeletogenesis. We hypothesized that the Hh pathway mediates an interaction between tumor cells and osteoblasts and influences osteoblast differentiation in response to tumor cells. We have determined that breast tumor cells have an activated Hh pathway characterized by upregulation of the ligand, IHH and transcription factor GLI1. Breast cancer cells interact with osteoblasts and cause an enhanced differentiation of pre-osteoblasts to osteoblasts that express increased levels of the osteoclastogenesis factors, RANKL and PTHrP. There is sustained expression of osteoclast-promoting factors, RANKL and PTHrP, even after the osteoblast differentiation ceases and apoptosis sets in. Moreover, tumor cells that are deficient in Hh signaling are compromised in their ability to induce osteoblast differentiation and consequently are inefficient in causing osteolysis. The stimulation of osteoblast differentiation sets the stage for osteoclast differentiation and overall promotes osteolysis. Thus, in the process of developing newer therapeutic strategies against breast cancer metastasis to bone it would worthwhile to keep in mind the role of the Hh pathway in osteoblast differentiation in an otherwise predominant osteolytic phenomenon.
Project description:Physiological bone remodeling requires that bone formation by osteoblasts be tightly coupled to bone resorption by osteoclasts. However, relatively little is understood about how this coupling is regulated. Here, we demonstrate that modulation of NF-?B signaling in osteoclasts via a novel activity of charged multivesicular body protein 5 (CHMP5) is a key determinant of systemic rates of bone turnover. A conditional deletion of CHMP5 in osteoclasts leads to increased bone resorption by osteoclasts coupled with exuberant bone formation by osteoblasts, resembling an early onset, polyostotic form of human Paget's disease of bone (PDB). These phenotypes are reversed by haploinsufficiency for Rank, as well as by antiresorptive treatments, including alendronate, zolendronate, and OPG-Fc. Accordingly, CHMP5-deficient osteoclasts display increased RANKL-induced NF-?B activation and osteoclast differentiation. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that CHMP5 cooperates with the PDB genetic risk factor valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) to stabilize the inhibitor of NF-?B? (I?B?), down-regulating ubiquitination of I?B? via the deubiquitinating enzyme USP15. Thus, CHMP5 tunes NF-?B signaling downstream of RANK in osteoclasts to dampen osteoclast differentiation, osteoblast coupling and bone turnover rates, and disruption of CHMP5 activity results in a PDB-like skeletal disorder.
Project description:Bone is constantly resorbed and formed throughout life by coordinated actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Here we show that Smurf1, a HECT domain ubiquitin ligase, has a specific physiological role in suppressing the osteogenic activity of osteoblasts. Smurf1-deficient mice are born normal but exhibit an age-dependent increase of bone mass. The cause of this increase can be traced to enhanced activities of osteoblasts, which become sensitized to bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) in the absence of Smurf1. However, loss of Smurf1 does not affect the canonical Smad-mediated intracellular TGFbeta or BMP signaling; instead, it leads to accumulation of phosphorylated MEKK2 and activation of the downstream JNK signaling cascade. We demonstrate that Smurf1 physically interacts with MEKK2 and promotes the ubiquitination and turnover of MEKK2. These results indicate that Smurf1 negatively regulates osteoblast activity and response to BMP through controlling MEKK2 degradation.
Project description:The axonal guidance proteins semaphorin (Sema)4D and Sema3A play important roles in communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. As stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast function, we asked whether A2AR regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast expression of Semas. In vivo bone formation and Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1 protein expression were studied in a murine model of wear particle-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast/osteoblast differentiation were studied in vitro as the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+/Alizarin Red+ cells after challenge with CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, 1 µM) or ZM241385 (A2AR antagonist, 1 µM), with or without Sema4D or Sema3A (10 ng/ml). Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1, and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) expression was studied by RT-PCR and Western blot. ?-Catenin activation and cytoskeleton changes were studied by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. In mice with wear particles implanted over the calvaria, CGS21680 treatment increased bone formation in vivo, reduced Sema4D, and increased Sema3A expression compared with mice with wear particle-induced osteolysis treated with vehicle alone. During osteoclast differentiation, CGS21680 abrogated RANKL-induced Sema4D mRNA expression (1.3 ± 0.3- vs. 2.5 ± 0.1-fold change, P < 0.001, n = 4). PlexinA1, but not Neuropilin-1, mRNA was enhanced by CGS21680 treatment. CGS21680 enhanced Sema3A mRNA expression during osteoblast differentiation (8.7 ± 0.2-fold increase, P < 0.001, n = 4); PlexinB1 mRNA was increased 2-fold during osteoblast differentiation and was not altered by CGS21680. Similar changes were observed at the protein level. CGS21680 decreased RANKL, increased OPG, and increased total/nuclear ?-catenin expression in osteoblasts. Sema4D increased Ras homolog gene family, member A phosphorylation and focal adhesion kinase activation in osteoclast precursors, and CGS21680 abrogated these effects. In summary, A2AR activation diminishes secretion of Sema4D by osteoclasts, inhibits Sema4D-mediated osteoclast activation, and enhances secretion of Sema3A by osteoblasts, increasing osteoblast differentiation and diminishing inflammatory osteolysis.-Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Shah, L., Cronstein, B. N. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation modulates expression of semaphorins 4D and 3A, regulators of bone homeostasis.