Gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of cardiovascular mortality: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) elevation likely contributes to cardiovascular (CV) mortality, however it has remained unknown whether a dose-response relationship exists between serum GGT and CV mortality. METHODS:We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases for prospective cohort studies published up to October 2, 2016. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed effects model. FINDINGS:Nine prospective studies, including 527,589 participants and more than 7,011 cases, were included in this meta-analysis. For the moderate, high, and highest levels of GGT, the pooled HRs of CV mortality were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.04-1.19), 1.29 (95% CI = 1.21-1.38) and 1.59 (95% CI = 1.47-1.72), respectively (all p < 0.05 as compared to the lowest levels of GGT). Additionally, the HR per incremental increase of GGT by 10 U/L was 1.10 (95% CI = 1.08-1.11). Evidence of a positive relationship with nonlinear trend for GGT elevation with CV mortality in females was found (P = 0.04 for nonlinearity). However, a linear model was better fit to illustrate the GGT-CV mortality among males (P = 0.304 for nonlinearity). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that serum GGT activity within the reference interval is positively associated with increased risk of CV mortality in a dose-response manner.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a biomarker of liver disease and oxidative stress which was associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in the general population and in patients with high risk conditions. This study aims at assessing whether oxLDL modifies the relationship between GGT, all-cause, and CV mortality in elderly individuals from the general population. DESIGN:Observational longitudinal study. SETTING:Population-based cohort of older individuals (>65 years) free of liver disease. PARTICIPANTS:One thousand and thirty-eight individuals from the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. MEASUREMENTS:Serum GGT level, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), CV comorbidities, all-cause and CV mortality. RESULTS:The median age of the study population (n = 1,038) was 74 years (inter-quartile range: 69-79), 152 individuals (15%) had past CV events. During a median follow-up of 9 years, 401 individuals died, 168 of them (42%) for CV causes. In adjusted analyses, GGT predicted all-cause mortality (HR for 20 U/L increase in serum GGT: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.21, P = .02) and CV mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33; P = .02). Furthermore, in an analysis for interaction circulating oxLDL amplified the effect of GGT on all-cause mortality (P = .003). CONCLUSION:Circulating oxLDL amplifies the effect of GGT on mortality in the elderly. The mechanism for this association remains unknown and requires further research, including studying the potential role of GGT in oxidative stress. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a causal role of GGT in the CV morbidity and mortality in older individuals and indicate that oxLDL plays a crucial role in the interpretation of the link between GGT and the risk of adverse clinical events in this population.
Project description:Although it has been suggested that the γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is an indicator of cardiometabolic disorders, there is no previous study to evaluate the implication of GGT variability on the development of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. GGT variability was measured as the coefficient variance (GGT-CV), standard deviation (GGT-SD), and variability independent of the mean (GGT-VIM). Using the population-based Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort, we followed 158,736 Korean adults over a median duration of 8.4 years. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, the risk of mortality, MI, and stroke showed a stepwise increase according to the quartiles of GGT-CV, GGT-SD or GGT-VIM. In the highest quartile of GGT-CV compared to the lowest quartile after adjusting for confounding variables including mean GGT, the hazard ratios (HRs) for incident MI, stroke, mortality, and CVD-related mortality were 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.34; p < 0.001), 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.32; p < 0.001), 1.41 (95% CI, 1.33-1.51; p < 0.001), and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.30-1.78; p < 0.001), respectively, which were similar or even higher compared with those associated with total cholesterol variability. This is the first study to demonstrate that high GGT variability is associated with increased risk of MI, stroke, all-cause mortality, and CVD-related mortality in the general population.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term intra-individual variability in fasting glucose (FG) during young adulthood is associated with incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. METHODS:We included participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, ages 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) and followed with eight examinations for up to 30 years. Long-term glucose variability was assessed using the CV (CV-FG) and the absolute difference between successive FG measurements (average real variability; ARV-FG). For participants who developed any event (diabetes, CVD or mortality), FG variability measurement was censored at the examination prior to event ascertainment. We estimated HRs for incident diabetes, CVD and mortality with adjustment for demographics, baseline FG, change in FG (censor - baseline) and time-varying education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, systolic BP, BP medications, LDL-cholesterol and cholesterol medications (and incident diabetes and diabetes medications for CVD and mortality outcomes). RESULTS:Among 3769 black and white participants, there were 317 incident diabetes cases (102,677 person-years), 159 incident CVD events (110,314 person-years) and 174 deaths (111,390 person-years). After adjustment, HRs per 1 SD higher ARV-FG were 1.64 (95% CI 1.52, 1.78) for diabetes, 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) for CVD and 1.25 (95% CI 1.11, 1.40) for mortality. The HRs per 1 SD higher CV-FG were 1.39 (95% CI 1.21, 1.58) for diabetes, 1.32 (95% CI 1.13, 1.54) for CVD and 1.08 (95% CI 0.92, 1.27) for mortality, after adjustment. The cause-specific HRs per 1 SD higher ARV-FG were 1.29 (95% CI 1.14, 1.47) for non-CVD death and 1.05 (95% CI 0.76, 1.45) for CVD death. We did not observe evidence for effect modification of any association by sex or race. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our results suggest that higher intra-individual FG variability during young adulthood before the onset of diabetes is associated with incident diabetes, CVD and mortality.
Project description:Low serum magnesium (Mg) has been independently shown to increase risk of heart failure (HF), but data on the association between serum Mg concentration and the outcome of patients with HF are conflicting. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prognostic effects of hypermagnesemia and hypomagnesemia on cardiovascular (CV) mortality and all-cause mortality (ACM) of patients with HF.Relevant studies were identified from Medline and Scopus databases. Included and excluded criteria were defined. Effects (i.e., log [risk ratio [RR]]) of hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia versus normomagnesemia were estimated using Poisson regression, and then a multivariate meta-analysis was applied for pooling RRs across studies. Heterogeneity was explored using a meta-regression and subgroup analysis.On analysis, 7 eligible prospective studies yielded a total of 5172 chronic HF patients with 913 and 1438 deaths from CV and ACM, respectively. Most participants were elderly men with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ?40%. Those patients with baseline hypermagnesemia had a significantly higher risk of CV mortality (RR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.78) or ACM (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54) than those with baseline normomagnesemia. However, baseline hypomagnesemia was not associated with the risk of CV mortality (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.79-1.57) and ACM (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87-1.41). A subgroup analysis by Mg cutoff suggested a dose-response trend for hypermagnesemia effects, that is, the pooled RRs for CV mortality were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.05-1.55) and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.00-3.68) for the cutoff of 0.89 to 1.00 and 1.05 to 1.70?mmol/L, respectively.The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that, in HF patients, hypermagnesemia with serum Mg???1.05?mmol/L was associated with an increased risk of CV mortality and ACM but this was not observed for hypomagnesemia. This finding was limited to the elderly patients with chronic HF who had reduced LV systolic function.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) contributes to premature death along with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether hepatic steatosis (HS) on ultrasound and liver enzyme activities were associated with increased liver disease mortality in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1988-1994, with up to 23 years of linked-mortality data. Survey-linked National Death Index records were analyzed among 14,527 adult participants who were negative for viral hepatitis B and C and iron overload. HS on ultrasound was categorized as normal, mild, moderate, or severe. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) elevation was defined as the highest sex-specific decile. Cumulative mortality was 36.2% from all causes, including 16.3% from CVD, 10.8% from cancer, 5.4% from diabetes, and 1.1% from liver disease. Severe HS was associated with increased liver disease mortality in both age-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-10.27; P for trend: 0.011) and multivariate-adjusted analyses (HR, 2.68; 95% CI: 1.02-7.03; P for trend: 0.072). HS was not independently associated with mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer, or diabetes. Higher liver disease mortality was found with elevated ALT (HR, 4.08; 95% CI: 1.99-8.33), AST (HR, 4.33; 95% CI: 2.18-8.59), and GGT (HR, 7.91; 95% CI: 3.06-20.46). GGT elevation was associated with increased overall mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI: 1.21-1.74). Liver enzymes were otherwise unrelated to overall or cause-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS:In the U.S. population, severe hepatic steatosis on ultrasound and liver enzyme elevation were associated with increased liver disease mortality, but were not independently associated with mortality from all causes (except for GGT), CVD, cancer, or diabetes.
Project description:Background Plasma fibrinogen is significantly associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in the general population. However, the association between plasma fibrinogen and mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is unclear. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 1603 incident PD patients from a single center in South China were followed for a median of 46.7?months. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent association of plasma fibrinogen with CV and all-cause mortality. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, a history of CV events, diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, blood platelet count, serum potassium, serum albumin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, antiplatelet agents and lipid-lowering drugs. Results The mean age was 47.4?±?15.3?years, 955 (59.6%) patients were male, 319 (19.9%) had a history of CV events, and 410 (25.6%) had diabetes. The average plasma fibrinogen level was 4.12?±?1.38?g/L. Of the 474 (29.6%) patients who died during follow-up, 235 (49.6%) died due to CV events. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for quartile 1, quartile 3, and quartile 4 versus quartile 2 were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–1.95, P?=?0.51), 1.47 (95% CI, 0.93–2.33, P?=?0.10), and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.15–2.77, P?=?0.01) for CV mortality and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.86–1.68, P?=?0.28), 1.29 (95% CI, 0.93–1.78, P?=?0.13), and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.12–2.09, P?=?0.007) for all-cause mortality, respectively. A nonlinear relationship between plasma fibrinogen and CV and all-cause mortality was observed. Conclusions An elevated plasma fibrinogen level was significantly associated with an increased risk of CV and all-cause mortality in patients undergoing PD.
Project description:Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a biomarker of liver injury. GGT has also been reported to be a marker of oxidative stress and a predictor of mortality in the general population. Hemodialysis (HD) patients suffer from oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and clinical outcomes in HD patients.A total of 1,634 HD patients were enrolled from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease, a prospective cohort in Korea. Patients were categorized into three groups by tertiles of serum GGT levels. The primary outcome was all-cause, cardiovascular, or infection-related mortality and hospitalization.During the median follow-up period of 30 months, the highest tertile of serum GGT levels had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-3.69, P<0.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.14, 95% CI, 1.07-4.26, P = 0.031) and infection-related mortality (HR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.30-7.25, P = 0.011) using tertile 1 as the reference group after adjusting for clinical variables including liver diseases. The highest tertile also had a significantly higher risk for first hospitalization (HR 1.22, 95% CI, 1.00-1.48, P = 0.048) and cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.42, 95% CI, 1.06-1.92, P = 0.028).Our data demonstrate that high serum GGT levels were an independent risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality, as well as cardiovascular hospitalization in HD patients. These findings suggest that serum GGT levels might be a useful biomarker to predict clinical outcomes in HD patients.
Project description:AIMS:To investigate cardiovascular (CV) safety and event rates for dapagliflozin versus other glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) in a real-world type 2 diabetes population after applying the main inclusion criteria and outcomes from the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study. METHODS:Patients with new initiation of dapagliflozin and/or other GLDs were identified in Swedish nationwide healthcare registries for the period 2013 to 2016. Patients were included if they met the main DECLARE-TIMI 58 inclusion criteria: age ≥40 years and established CV disease or presence of multiple-risk factors, e.g. men aged ≥55 years and women aged ≥60 years with hypertension or dyslipidaemia. Propensity scores for the likelihood of dapagliflozin initiation were calculated, then 1:3 matching was carried out. DECLARE-TIMI 58 outcomes were hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) or CV-specific mortality, and major adverse CV events (MACE; CV-specific mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke). Cox survival models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS:After matching, a total of 28 408 new-users of dapagliflozin and/or other GLDs were identified, forming the population for the present study (henceforth referred to as the DECLARE-like cohort. The mean age of this cohort was 66 years, and 34% had established CV disease. Dapagliflozin was associated with 21% lower risk of HHF or CV mortality versus other GLDs (HR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.92) and had no significant association with MACE (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.03). HHF and CV mortality risks, separately, were lower at HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.93) and HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.57-0.97), respectively. Non-significant associations were seen for myocardial infarction and stroke: HR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.11) and HR 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.30), respectively. CONCLUSION:In a real-world population similar to those included in the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study, dapagliflozin was safe with regard to CV outcomes and resulted in lower event rates of HHF and CV mortality versus other GLDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum free thiols (R-SH, sulfhydryl groups) reliably reflect systemic oxidative stress. Since serum free thiols are rapidly oxidized by reactive species, systemic oxidative stress is generally associated with reduced serum free thiol levels. Free thiols associate with favorable disease outcomes in many patient cohorts, and the current hypothesis is that oxidative stress might also play an important role in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to establish the role of serum free thiols in the general population by investigating their relationship with the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality. METHODS:Participants (n?=?5955) of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort study from the general population were included. At baseline, serum levels of free thiols were quantified and adjusted to total protein levels. Protein-adjusted serum free thiol levels were studied for their associations with clinical and biochemical parameters, as well as with the risk of CV events and all-cause mortality. RESULTS:The mean protein-adjusted serum free thiol level was 5.05?±?1.02??mol/g of protein. Protein-adjusted serum free thiols significantly predicted the risk of CV events, even after adjustment for potential confounding factors (hazard ratio [HR] per doubling 0.68 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.00], P?=?0.048). Similarly, protein-adjusted serum free thiols were significantly predictive of the risk of all-cause mortality (HR per doubling 0.66 [95% CI 0.44-1.00], P?=?0.050). Stratified analyses revealed lower HRs for subjects with a lower body mass index (BMI), without hypertension, and without diabetes. Conversely, HRs were lower in subjects with albuminuria. CONCLUSIONS:In this large population-based cohort study, serum free thiols significantly predicted the risk of CV events and all-cause mortality. Our results highlight the potential significance and clinical applicability of serum free thiols since they are amendable to therapeutic intervention.
Project description:We evaluated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database, we constructed a cohort consisting of individuals aged above 40 years who underwent a health check-up in 2009. After excluding individuals with heavy alcohol consumption, hepatobiliary and pancreatic disorders, and a previous history of PD, each quartile group of baseline serum GGT levels was monitored for the development of PD for 7 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PD were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounding variables. We additionally analyzed the possible interaction between GGT and obesity or metabolic syndrome. Among the 6,098,405 individuals who were included, PD developed in 20,895 individuals during the follow-up (0.34%, 9,512 men and 11,383 women). The top quartile of serum GGT (geometric means, 90.44 IU/L in men and 41.86 IU/L in women) was associated with a lower risk in men (adjusted HR?=?0.72 (95% CI: 0.67-0.76)) and a higher risk in women (adjusted HR?=?1.30 (95% CI: 1.23-1.37)) using the lower GGT quartiles as a reference. Obesity and metabolic syndrome increased PD risk in both sexes, and there was only a subadditive interaction between serum GGT and obesity in women.