CtDNA dynamics: a novel indicator to track resistance in metastatic breast cancer treated with anti-HER2 therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Most studies utilizing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to monitor disease interrogated only one or a few genes and failed to develop workable criteria to inform clinical practice. We evaluated the feasibility of detecting resistance to anti-HER2 therapy by serial gene-panel ctDNA sequencing. RESULTS:Primary therapeutic resistance was identified in 6 out of 14 patients with events of progressive disease. For this subset comparison of pre- and post-treatment ctDNA assay results revealed that HER2 amplification concurred with disease progression (4/6, 66.7%). Mutations in TP53 (3/6, 50.0%) and genes implicated in the PI3K/mTOR pathway (3/6, 50.0%) were also dominant markers of resistance. Together, resistance to HER2 blockade should be indicated during treatment if any of the following situations applies: 1) recurrence or persistence of HER2 amplification in the blood; 2) emergence or ?20% increase in the fraction of mutations in any of these resistance-related genes including TP53/PIK3CA/MTOR/PTEN. Compared with CT scans, dynamic ctDNA profiling utilizing pre-defined criteria was sensitive in identifying drug resistance (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 55.0%), with a concordance rate up to 82.1%. Besides, the ctDNA criteria had a discriminating role in the prognosis of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. METHODS:52 plasma samples were prospectively collected from 18 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who were treated with an oral anti-HER1/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01937689). ctDNA was assayed by gene-panel target-capture next-generation sequencing. CONCLUSIONS:Longitudinal gene-panel ctDNA sequencing could be exploited to determine resistance and guide the precise administration of anti-HER2 targeted therapy in the metastatic setting.
Project description:Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type KRAS benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. However, patients who are treated with anti-EGFR antibodies will eventually develop the resistance to those agents. HER2 amplification is one of the mechanisms conferring resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy and could therefore be a potential therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to detect HER2 amplification in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients with CRC and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy.Our data showed that 22% (4/18) of patients in the cohort exhibited HER2 amplification. One of these patients was found to be positive for HER2 amplification in matched tumor specimens collected after cetuximab therapy, at which point the patient had acquired cetuximab resistance, despite being negative for HER2 amplification prior to therapy.We analyzed plasma ctDNA using digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 18 patients with CRC, who had been treated with anti-EGFR antibody-based therapy (cetuximab) and subsequently acquired resistant cetuximab. HER2 gene copy number was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples before and after acquisition of resistance to cetuximab-based therapy.Analysis of plasma ctDNA by digital PCR could be useful for detecting HER2 amplification in patients with CRC who were resistant to anti-EGFR antibody therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One of the major challenges in managing invasive breast cancer (BC) is the lack of reliable biomarkers to track response. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from liquid biopsy, as a candidate biomarker, provides a valuable assessment of BC patients. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the utility of ctDNA to reflect the efficacy of treatment and to monitor resistance mechanisms. METHODS:Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-relevant genes was performed on 41 plasma biopsy samples of 19 HER2+ and 12 HER2- BC patients. Longitudinal ctDNA samples were analyzed in three BC patients over the treatment course for detecting acquired mutations. RESULTS:In HER2+ BC patients, ERBB2 somatic copy numbers in ctDNA samples were significantly higher in patients progressed on HER2-targeted therapy than those who were still responding to the treatment. Recurrent acquired mutations were detected in genes including ERBB2, TP53, EGFR, NF1, and SETD2, which may contribute to trastuzumab resistance. In longitudinal analyses, the observed mutation allele frequencies were tracked closely in concordance with treatment responses. A novel ERBB2 p.(Leu869Arg) mutation was acquired in one patient upon resistant to trastuzumab therapy, which was further validated as an oncogenic mutation in vitro and contributed to resistance. In HER2- BC patients with chemotherapy resistance, genetic alterations on TP53, PIK3CA, and DNA damage repair genes were frequently observed. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, ctDNA monitoring, particularly longitudinal analyses, provides valuable insights into the assessment of targeted therapy efficacy and gene alterations underlying trastuzumab resistance and chemotherapy resistance in HER2+ and HER2- BC patients, respectively.
Project description:PURPOSE:In cancer patients, tumor gene mutations contribute to drug resistance and treatment failure. In patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), these mutations increase after multiline treatment, thereby decreasing treatment efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene mutation patterns in MBC patients to predict drug resistance and disease progression. METHOD:A total of 68 MBC patients who had received multiline treatment were recruited. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) mutations were evaluated and compared among hormone receptor (HR)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subgroups. RESULTS:The baseline gene mutation pattern (at the time of recruitment) varied among HR/HER2 subtypes. BRCA1 and MED12 were frequently mutated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, PIK3CA and FAT1 mutations were frequent in HR+ patients, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 mutations were frequent in HER2+ patients. Gene mutation patterns also varied in patients who progressed within either 3?months or 3-6?months of chemotherapy treatment. For example, in HR+ patients who progressed within 3?months of treatment, the frequency of TERT mutations significantly increased. Other related mutations included FAT1 and NOTCH4. In HR+ patients who progressed within 3-6?months, PIK3CA, TP53, MLL3, ERBB2, NOTCH2, and ERS1 were the candidate mutations. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie disease progression at different times after treatment initiation. In the COX model, the ctDNA TP53?+?PIK3CA gene mutation pattern successfully predicted progression within 6?months. CONCLUSION:ctDNA gene mutation profiles differed among HR/HER2 subtypes of MBC patients. By identifying mutations associated with treatment resistance, we hope to improve therapy selection for MBC patients who received multiline treatment.
Project description:Background: The observation of tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) in plasma brought new expectations to monitor treatment response in cancer patients. Case presentation: In an exploratory case of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with metastatic sigmoid adenocarcinoma, we used a hotspot panel of cancer-associated gene mutations to identify tumor-specific mutations in the primary tumor and metastasis. RESULTS:Five mutations were detected (KRAS, p.Gly12Val; TP53, p.Arg175His; RB1, p.Ile680Thr; ALK, p.Gly1184Glu; and ERBB2, p.Lys860Lys), of which three were detected in both tissue types (primary tumor and metastasis). All five mutations were monitored in the ctDNA of six serial plasma samples. Only KRAS and TP53 mutations were detected at a high frequency in the first plasma sample. After 1 month of chemotherapy the allele frequencies of both mutations fell below the detection limit. From the third month of systemic treatment onward, the allele frequencies of both mutations were detectable in plasma, displaying a continual increase thereafter. The remaining three mutations were not detected in plasma samples. Signs of disease progression in ctDNA during the treatment period were evident while computed tomography (CT) measurements suggested stable metastatic lesions throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Liquid biopsies revealed tumor heterogeneity and predicted tumor progression, demonstrating the potential of ctDNA analysis to be a sensitive and specific tool for monitoring treatment responsivity and for early identification of treatment resistance.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has shown great promise as a minimally invasive liquid biopsy for personalized cancer diagnostics especially among metastatic patients. Here, we used a novel sensitive assay to detect clinically relevant mutations in ctDNA in blood plasma from metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, including patients with a limited oligo-brain metastatic disease. We analyzed 66 plasma samples from 56 metastatic NSCLC patients for 74 hotspot mutations in five genes commonly mutated in NSCLC using a novel MassARRAY-based lung cancer panel with a turnaround time of only 3 days. Mutations in plasma DNA could be detected in 28 out of 56 patients (50.0%), with a variant allele frequency (VAF) ranging between 0.1% and 5.0%. Mutations were detected in 50.0% of patients with oligo-brain metastatic disease, although the median VAF was lower (0.4%) compared to multi-brain metastatic patients (0.9%) and patients with extra-cranial metastatic progression (1.2%). We observed an overall concordance of 86.4% (n = 38/44) for EGFR status between plasma and tissue. The MassARRAY technology can detect clinically relevant mutations in plasma DNA from metastatic NSCLC patients including patients with limited, oligo-brain metastatic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:TP53 mutations are common in breast cancer. There is currently no large-scale cohort study to investigate the TP53 landscape in breast cancer patients from China. The predictive value of TP53 mutations for the efficacy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy in breast cancer remains controversial. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the clinical spectrum and prognostic value of TP53 mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from breast cancer patients in China. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and TP53 mutation features in ctDNA samples from 804 patients with metastatic breast cancer. TP53 mutations were detected by target region capture-based next-generation sequencing. The relationship between TP53 mutation status and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed in 444 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Moreover, the relationship between TP53 mutation status and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed in 55 HER2-positive patients treated with first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate the survival curves of the different subgroups, and the log-rank test was used to compare the curves. A Cox regression model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with the DFS and PFS. RESULTS:Among the 804 investigated patients, 431 (53.6%) patients harbored TP53 mutations. TP53 mutations were differentially distributed among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer (P < 0.05). Patients with TP53 mutations had a shorter DFS than those with wild-type TP53 (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.09-1.61, P = 0.005). TP53 mutations in exons 5-8 were associated with worse outcome (hazard ratio = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03, P = 0.009). However, TP53 mutation status was not significantly associated with PFS in HER2-positive patients who received first-line trastuzumab-based therapy (P = 0.966). Interestingly, in the taxane combination group, patients with TP53 mutations exhibited longer PFS than those without TP53 mutations (hazard ratio = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.02-0.30, P < 0.001). However, in the non-taxane combination group, patients with TP53 mutations displayed shorter PFS than those with wild-type TP53 (hazard ratio = 4.84, 95% CI = 1.60-14.66, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:TP53 mutations in exons 5-8 may be an independent prognostic marker for short DFS in patients with metastatic breast cancer. TP53 mutations had opposite effects on trastuzumab-treated patients treated with and without taxanes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancer remains an orphan of specific targeted therapy. The variable responses to anti-HER2 therapies in these patients prompt us to examine impact of HER2 variants and co-mutations on responses to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with stage IV/recurrent HER2-mutant lung cancers identified through next-generation sequencings were recruited from seven hospitals. The study comprised a cohort A to establish the patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations in lung cancer and a cohort B to assess associations between HER2 variants, co-mutations, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:The study included 118 patients (cohort A, n =?86; cohort B, n =?32). Thirty-one HER2 variants and 35 co-mutations were detected. Predominant variants were A775_G776insYVMA (49/118, 42%), G778_P780dup (11/118, 9%), and G776delinsVC (9/118, 8%). TP53 was the most common co-mutation (61/118, 52%). In cohort B, objective response rates with afatinib were 0% (0/14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-26.8%), 40% (4/10, 14.7%-72.6%), and 13% (1/8, 0.7%-53.3%) in group 1 (A775_G776insYVMA, n =?14), group 2 (G778_P780dup, G776delinsVC, n =?10), and group 3 (missense mutation, n =?8), respectively (p = .018). Median progression-free survival in group 1 (1.2 months; 95% CI, 0-2.4) was shorter than those in group 2 (7.6 months, 4.9-10.4; hazard ratio [HR], 0.009; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079; p < .001) and group 3 (3.6 months, 2.6-4.5; HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.062-0.552; p = .003). TP53 co-mutations (6.317; 95% CI, 2.180-18.302; p = .001) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activations (19.422; 95% CI, 4.098-92.039; p < .001) conferred additional resistance to afatinib. CONCLUSION:G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC derived the greatest benefits from afatinib among HER2 variants. Co-mutation patterns were additional response modifiers. Refining patient population based on patterns of HER2 variants and co-mutations may help improve the efficacy of anti-HER2 treatment in lung cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant lung cancers are a group of heterogenous diseases with up to 31 different variants and 35 concomitant genomic aberrations. Different HER2 variants exhibit divergent sensitivities to anti-HER2 treatments. Certain variants, G778_P780dup and G776delinsVC, derive sustained clinical benefits from afatinib, whereas the predominant variant, A775_G776insYVMA, is resistant to most anti-HER2 treatments. TP53 is the most common co-mutation in HER2-mutant lung cancers. Co-mutations in TP53 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway confer additional resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in lung cancer. The present data suggest that different HER2 mutations in lung cancer, like its sibling epidermal growth factor receptor, should be analyzed independently in future studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from plasma contains genetic mutations that can be representative of those found in primary tumor tissue DNA. These samples can provide insights into tumoral heterogeneity in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Although trastuzumab has been shown to be effective in first-line therapy for patients with metastatic gastric cancer with overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the mechanism of AGC resistance is incompletely understood. METHODS:In this prospective study, we used targeted capture sequencing to analyze 173 serial ctDNA samples from 39 AGC patients. We analyzed cancer cell fractions with PyClone to understand the clonal population structure in cancer, and monitored serial samples during therapy. Serial monitoring of ctDNA using the molecular tumor burden index (mTBI), identified progressive disease before imaging results (mean: 18 weeks). FINDINGS:We reconstructed the clonal structure of ctDNA during anti-HER2 treatment, and identified 32 expanding mutations potentially related to trastuzumab resistance. Multiple pathways activating in the same patients revealed heterogeneity in trastuzumab resistance mechanisms in AGC. In patients who received chemotherapy, mTBI was validated for the prediction of progressive disease, with a sensitivity of 94% (15/16). A higher mTBI (≥1%) in pretreatment ctDNA was also a risk factor for progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS:Analysis of ctDNA clones based on sequencing is a promising approach to clinical management, and may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for AGC patients. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the National International Cooperation Grant (to J.X.; Project No. 2014DFB33160).
Project description:Breast cancers over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in about 15% of patients. This transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor activates downstream signaling pathways and leads to proliferation of cancer cells. Trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, improves outcome in women with early and metastatic breast cancer. Resistance to trastuzumab involves the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway, truncation of the Her2 receptor or lack of immune response. The last decade has seen major advances in strategies to overcome resistance to trastuzumab. This includes the development of antibody-drug conjugates, dual HER2 inhibition strategies, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR pathway and development of modulators of immune checkpoints.
Project description:Purpose:Genomic alterations in blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from patients with colorectal cancers were correlated with clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods:Next-generation sequencing of ctDNA (54- to 73-gene panel) was performed in 94 patients with colorectal cancer. Results:Most patients (96%) had metastatic or recurrent disease at the time of blood draw. The median number of nonsynonymous alterations per patient was three (range, zero to 30). The most frequently aberrant genes were TP53 (52.1% of patients), KRAS (34%), and APC (28.7%). Concordance between tissue and blood next-generation sequencing ranged from 63.2% (APC) to 85.5% (BRAF). Altogether, 74 patients (79%) had one or more nonsynonymous alterations, 69 (73%) had one or more potentially actionable alterations, and 61 (65%) had an alteration actionable by a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (on or off label). Lung metastases correlated with improved survival from diagnosis in univariable analysis. ctDNA of 5% or more from blood tests as well as EGFR and ERBB2 (HER2) nonsynonymous alterations correlated with worse survival (but only ERBB2 remained significant in multivariable analysis). No two patients had identical molecular portfolios. Overall, 65% versus 31% of patients treated with matched (n = 17) versus unmatched therapy (n = 18) after ctDNA testing achieved stable disease for 6 months or more, partial response, or complete response (P = .045); progression-free survival, 6.1 versus 2.3 months (P = .08); and survival not reached versus 9.4 months (P = .146; all by multivariable analysis). Conclusion:Patients with colorectal cancer have heterogeneous ctDNA profiles, and most harbor potentially actionable ctDNA alterations. Matched therapy yielded higher rates of stable disease for 6 months or more, partial response, or complete response. ctDNA assessment may have clinical utility and merits further investigation.